This paper aims to investigate whether there is heterogeneity in the relationship between the bank loan interest rate and its determinants using the quantile regression…
This paper aims to investigate whether there is heterogeneity in the relationship between the bank loan interest rate and its determinants using the quantile regression method and to reconcile some conflicting findings in prior literature.
First, the effects of 18 determinants were examined on the bank loan interest rate using the ordinary least squares method (OLS). Second, it was investigated whether the relationship between the loan rate and its determinants is heterogeneous across quantiles of loan rates using the quantile regression method.
Considerable heterogeneity was found in the relationship between the loan rate and its determinants. Specifically, a determinant that is beneficial for the bank loan rate, on average, as revealed by the OLS method may become unimportant or even detrimental for firms located at extremely high or low loan rate quantiles. By revealing extreme heterogeneity in the relationship between the loan rate and some of its determinants, the authors potentially explain two conflicting findings in prior literature.
The conventional OLS method masks the heterogeneity in the relationship between the bank loan interest rate and its determinants. Quantile regression can be used to supplement the OLS estimates to gain a more detailed and complete picture of the relationship between the dependent variable and explanatory variables.
Purpose – Audit quality is traditionally defined as the joint probability that an existing problem is discovered and reported by the auditor. This study examines whether…
Purpose – Audit quality is traditionally defined as the joint probability that an existing problem is discovered and reported by the auditor. This study examines whether and how audit quality is associated with related-party transactions and CEO duality. The first part (i.e., the ability to discover) is related to professional judgment, and the second part (i.e., report truthfully) is related to independence.
Methodology/Approach – Regression methods was used on archival data.
Findings – Our results reveal that for publicly held companies in environments with stronger capital market discipline, which causes greater reputation concerns and litigation risks, a CEO who is also the board chair does not hinder auditor independence. For privately held companies, however, such a CEO hinders auditor independence due to a lack of capital market discipline. The findings on related-party financing, on the other hand, are reversed. That is, in terms of information for an auditor, since the conflicts of interests are more severe in publicly held companies than in privately held companies, the relevance of related-party financing to a decision whether to issue a going-concern opinion is greater in publicly held companies.
Social implications – The empirical results of publicly held companies are useful for countries with better corporate governance, while those of privately held companies are helpful for countries with relatively weak corporate governance.
Originality/Value of paper – Because auditors performing audit services face different litigation risks and reputation concerns, the differences in our results between the two types of clients can have implications about the suitability of these types of companies in emerging markets.
The purpose of this study is to examine high-quality auditors’ conservatism in Iran market based on the classification of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) in terms of their…
The purpose of this study is to examine high-quality auditors’ conservatism in Iran market based on the classification of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) in terms of their reaction to client’s earnings management behavior and their limitations to issue the going concern opinions (GCOs) over an eight-year period from 2009 to 2016.
The study population consists of 1,376 observations and 172 companies listed on the TSE during the years 2009-2016. Following the prior studies, the authors used the modified Jones model to measure discretionary accruals as a proxy for earnings management.
The results witnessed a negative relationship between the size of the audit firm and discretionary accruals; besides, the relationship between abnormal accruals and GCO on companies audited by high-quality audit firms is higher than other companies. In other words, firms with GCO, which were audited by the Iranian large auditors, report negative abnormal accruals less than those audited by non-large auditors. In short, in spite of the special features of Iran market because of economic sanctions, this paper extends prior literature clarifying that auditors’ conservatism induces accrual reversals when auditors issue GCOs. One interpretation of this result is that the existence of such association is because of not only auditor conservatism but also financially distressed firms.
The outcomes of this paper will help to fill the knowledge gap related to this issue between developing and developed countries because this investigation exposed more than ever the vital role of the auditor as an observer on the financial statements. Without any exaggeration, this research will make investors and stakeholders aware of this fact that auditor conservatism will be effective in reducing the manipulation of financial reporting and agency problems in emerging markets, particularly those markets facing with economic sanctions like Iran.
Because of Iran’s dire economic situation during the period under consideration, this is one of the most comprehensive research among the countries of the Middle East that surveys the impact of auditor conservatism on accruals and GCO in an emerging market, namely, Iran.