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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

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Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Philip DesAutels, Pierre Berthon, Albert Caruana and Leyland F. Pitt

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the impact that country connectedness and cultural values have on the equity afforded to a country’s workforce in today’s global…

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1488

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the impact that country connectedness and cultural values have on the equity afforded to a country’s workforce in today’s global economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon a number of large international surveys of national-level metrics, e-readiness is identified as a proxy measure for country connectedness. Cultural variables are proxied by the World Values Survey’s national-level scores on “survival/self-expression” and “traditional/secular-rational” values. Workforce equity is captured via three measures: per capita Gross National Income (GNI) based on purchasing power parity (PPP), a Gini-coefficient, and the prevalence of child labor. Stepwise regression analysis is employed to investigate expected relationships.

Findings

Results suggest an interesting link between the constructs investigated. A negative and significant effect of e-readiness and a negative and significant effect of traditional/secular-rational values on workforce equity are reported. In addition, the impact of e-readiness appears to be absolutely larger while thee impact of survival/self-expression values on the workforce equity is not found to be significant.

Research limitations/implications

The research is primarily exploratory in nature thereby providing a foundation but not an end product. Next, the data used in the research is aggregate-level data providing broad generalizations about each country. Does a country have a single culture? Is the connectivity of a country a valid measure of the regions within? The authors chose to use an analysis at a single point in time. A longitudinal study could provide more insight and thus help to highlight causality. The data utilized was repurposed from third-party sources. Finally, only 37 observations are used and a broader data set could help strengthen findings further.

Social implications

The rapid march of country connectedness across the globe is eroding firms’ ability to shade their actions through the distance afforded by global supply chains. A country’s culture values has a significant impact on workforce equity but country connectedness has a stronger impact, thus companies operating in more traditional and less developed countries will face significant impacts as these countries get connected. Rather than a threat, companies may see country connectedness and workforce equity as an opportunity. Firms that treat their workers well will see vast new markets open for them as evermore of the world’s population becomes economically active.

Originality/value

Uses an innovative data capture methodology that allows the investigation of an interesting and unexplored research question.

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Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Jonny Villatoro, John Chang and Samuel Lane

The purpose of this paper is to study ethics, values and cross-cultural differences in China, Mexico or the United States. Three distinct and unique nations, the USA…

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3147

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study ethics, values and cross-cultural differences in China, Mexico or the United States. Three distinct and unique nations, the USA, Mexico and China, have different political structures, historical backgrounds and economical systems. While each of these nations can be considered an integral part to the world economy, each nation has their own distinct ethics, values and culture which serve as the backbone of the particular region. To be successful in international business, knowledgeable as an expatriate and culturally or ethically aware of key nations in the global market, individuals need to have researched information pertaining to the ethics, cultures and values of the USA, Mexico or China to blend in and succeed with the foreign cultural environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper will focus extensively on the impact values, ethics and cultural differences (based majorly and solely on the Rokeach Values Survey, Forsyth Studies and Hofsteade’s Model) have on the societies of the USA, Mexico or China. A review of the empirical studies will demonstrate the importance values, ethics and culture have on individual life or business environment for the USA, Mexico or China.

Findings

Culture can be a factor which heavily influences a region or nation’s ethics and values.

Research limitations/implications

When discussing culture, there are many factors such as values, religion, societal norms, customs, beliefs or deeply rooted faiths which can impact a nation’s overall collective culture. As a result, cross-cultural differences among a variety of nations, countries, regions or sub-regions may vary when compared with one another. Through more empirical investigation, research or study of a nation’s cultural values may there be a more profound, detailed and legitimate basis for assessing a nation’s ethical constructs.

Practical implications

Understanding the differences of ethics, values and culture of the USA, China or Mexico can impact an individual’s experience if serving as an expatriate at the particular location. Each nation has its own distinct and unique social, business and cultural environment. To successfully accomplish international business or to operate a multinational corporation in a global market, individuals need to have a prior understanding of varying cultures, ethical standards or values in a particular region.

Originality/value

This research paper will present and deliver pertinent information to individuals interested in serving as an expatriate in the USA, China or Mexico. Individuals can also read this paper to understand, comprehend or consume more general knowledge of the ethics, values and culture of the researched locations.

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Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Steve Wallace, Adrian Reid, Daniel Clinciu and Jin‐Su Kang

This study into cultural usability aims to identify whether the importance of usability attributes varied between nationalities, and whether this variance was related to…

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2065

Abstract

Purpose

This study into cultural usability aims to identify whether the importance of usability attributes varied between nationalities, and whether this variance was related to cultural dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 144 subjects from four countries were surveyed on the importance they placed on the usability attributes of cell phones. Results were compared by country, and relationships with cultural dimensions were investigated.

Findings

For each country, usability attributes were not rated equally. Across countries, no difference in the rating of effectiveness was found, while ratings of efficiency and satisfaction varied significantly. In addition, the study identified significant relationships between the importance given to efficiency and satisfaction and cultural dimensions identified by Hofstede and the World Values Survey, with values relating to task‐orientation influencing efficiency, and non‐task oriented values affecting the importance users place on satisfaction.

Practical implications

Product designers and usability practitioners need to consider these cultural differences when designing products and when evaluating, measuring, and making recommendations on product usability.

Originality/value

Previous studies in this area have shown the existence of differences in preference for usability attributes based on nationality. No studies known to the authors have connected this to cultural dimensions. Understanding of this connection supports usability practitioners in their work not just in specific countries but also in cultural regions. It also allows the more precise modeling by researchers of culture's interaction with usability.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Sun-Ki Chai, Dolgorsuren Dorj and Katerina Sherstyuk

Culture is a central concept broadly studied in social anthropology and sociology. It has been gaining increasing attention in economics, appearing in research on labor…

Abstract

Culture is a central concept broadly studied in social anthropology and sociology. It has been gaining increasing attention in economics, appearing in research on labor market discrimination, identity, gender, and social preferences. Most experimental economics research on culture studies cross-national or cross-ethnic differences in economic behavior. In contrast, we explain laboratory behavior using two cultural dimensions adopted from a prominent general cultural framework in contemporary social anthropology: group commitment and grid control. Groupness measures the extent to which individual identity is incorporated into group or collective identity; gridness measures the extent to which social and political prescriptions intrinsically influence individual behavior. Grid-group characteristics are measured for each individual using selected items from the World Values Survey. We hypothesize that these attributes allow us to systematically predict behavior in a way that discriminates among multiple forms of social preferences using a simple, parsimonious deductive model. The theoretical predictions are further tested in the economics laboratory by applying them to the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. We find that these predictions are confirmed overall for most experimental games, although the strength of empirical support varies across games. We conclude that grid-group cultural theory is a viable predictor of people’s economic behavior, then discuss potential limitations of the current approach and ways to improve it.

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Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Ziying Cao, Verl Anderson, Feng Xu and Cam Caldwell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the values of Chinese university students as future leaders and employees in a global economy. Despite the fact that China’s role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the values of Chinese university students as future leaders and employees in a global economy. Despite the fact that China’s role in the world economy has become increasingly important, little has been done to examine the nature of tomorrow’s Chinese business leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

A values survey was administered to business major students at a Tier 1 Chinese university and data were collected from 984 respondents to test five hypotheses relevant to values for Chinese youths.

Findings

This study suggests that today’s Chinese business students view traditional Chinese values through a lens influenced by western cultural and economic thinking as well as positive and negative impacts from rapid economic development.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is an empirical study based on a survey being administered to Chinese university students in two major cities in China. A limitation would be that all Chinese youth of the same age may not have the same values as this set of university students, or even those of Chinese students from a different region of China.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to identify the current cultural values of the younger Chinese of university age population.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Fredi Garcia, Diana Mendez, Chris Ellis and Casey Gautney

This article aims to investigate the differences and similarities among cross-cultural, values and ethics between the USA and Asian countries. This article analyzes the…

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7925

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to investigate the differences and similarities among cross-cultural, values and ethics between the USA and Asian countries. This article analyzes the degree of cultural distance between USA and Asian countries and the impact it has in companies. It examines the comparison between the USA and China’s value system. It also assesses how idealism and relativism impact individual ethical decision-making. In addition, this article examines the impact that globalization, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade have in the Chinese culture and other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this research paper were collected from the following models: Ethics Position Questionnaire of Forsyth, Rokeach Values Survey, Hofstede model, GLOBE model and Wilcoxon test. The main sources used for this research were the Journal of Technology Management in China and the EBSCO database.

Findings

The research found that Western cultures tend to be more individualistic, while Asian countries tend to be very collective. This study also found that the type of value system that each culture holds depends on the type of government. This research also found that researchers have discovered that American managers are more loyal to their ethical beliefs, rather than to their superior’s or company’s ethical beliefs. While eastern Asian cultures focus more on the importance of acting in the best interests of the company’s superior. The study also found that it is extremely important for foreigners to build a relationship with Chinese business professionals before they do business negotiations. In addition, the study found that globalization, FDI and trade do make a significant cultural difference in some cultural dimensions.

Originality/value

It contributes to the literature by analyzing the different measurements in value, ethics and cultural differentiation. This research wants to demonstrate the importance of cultural differences, ethics and values across different countries and cultures. It also provides factual evidence that it’s important to understand these differences to be a successful global manager. In addition, it contributes to this literature by analyzing the effect that globalization, FDI and trade have in national cultures.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2003

Terry Nichols Clark

Consumption is a new central issue, globally, driven by more visible consumption concerns of citizens. For instance, entertainment and the environment rise as political…

Abstract

Consumption is a new central issue, globally, driven by more visible consumption concerns of citizens. For instance, entertainment and the environment rise as political issues, while workplace issues decline. To link individual choice with public and urban context, we outline a theory of consumption in specific propositions. They start with individual and personal influence characteristics in shopping and political decisions, then add socio/cultural characteristics. Three cultural types adapted from Elazar are Moralistic, Individualistic, and Traditional – which shift individual patterns. For instance moralistic persons favor more environmentally sensitive consumption, even boycotting cars, TV, and paper towels, backing green groups and parties. Such protest acts via personal consumption are ignored by many past theories. Individualists instead favor more conspicuous, status-oriented consumption, à la Veblen, or the modernism of Baudelaire and Benjamin. For traditionalists, consumption reinforces the past, via family antiques and homes, ritualized and less individualized. The three types help interpret differences in consumption politics by participants in different social movements, cities, and countries.

Details

The City as an Entertainment Machine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-060-9

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