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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Feiyuan Cao and Haomin Zhang

This paper aims to clarify the influences of workplace friendship, psychological safety on employees’ innovative behavior and the moderated role of transformational…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the influences of workplace friendship, psychological safety on employees’ innovative behavior and the moderated role of transformational leadership and face.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research proposes and tests a theoretic framework to explore the mechanism of workplace friendship in influencing employees’ innovative behavior. Based on a sample of 441 respondents from various Chinese companies, this paper used SPSS 22.0 and Amos 22.0 to examine the hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that workplace friendship positively related to innovative behavior and psychological safety functioned as a mediator between them. Moreover, it examines the moderating roles of transformational leadership and face. Transformational leadership and desire to gain face strengthen the relationship between psychological safety and employees’ innovative behavior but fear of losing face is negatively related to the strength of this relationship.

Originality/value

The current research is meaningful for managerial practice. Then, the theoretical framework will contribute to providing a new perspective for understanding complex friendship at studies thus explore its boundary conditions, which help to lead to desirable outcomes. Besides, the findings advance nascent theory on face under oriental culture background.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri, Wai Meng Yap and Hazel Melanie Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees. Specifically, it details the mediating effect of workplace friendship in explaining the linkages between gratitude and AWB at work.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of 272 millennial workers in this study. A survey invitation was sent out to all of the respondents through email. A 20-item job-related AWB (Van Katwyk et al., 2000) scale was used to measure AWB. Workplace friendship was measured using six-items of the workplace friendship scale (Nielsen et al., 2000) and gratitude was measured using McCullough et al.’s (2002) six-item gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6).

Findings

The study found that gratitude and workplace friendship enhanced workplace AWB among millennial workers. Workplace friendship functioned as a mediator, which delivered the effect from gratitude towards workplace AWB. Gratitude was found to positively predict workplace friendship and subsequently workplace friendship positively predicted workplace AWB.

Practical implications

Nurturing positive feelings at work through excellent psychosocial resources and healthy work friendships would improve millennial workers well-being. Henceforth, encouraging millennial employees to cultivate workplace friendships, can help the manager to enhance millennial employees’ feeling of belongingness, and thus, promote better AWB.

Originality/value

Investment on employee’s human capital and values can be valuable resources to increase millennial employees’ performance at work. Millennial workers are a unique generation that put emphasis on the subjective experience. Hence, capitalising on their subjective experience can be one of the keys to better increase their well-being and performance at work.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Ece Omuris

The purpose of this study is to explore workplace friendship in hospitality organizations and to develop an appropriate scale that combines qualitative and quantitative methods.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore workplace friendship in hospitality organizations and to develop an appropriate scale that combines qualitative and quantitative methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods design was selected to capitalize on the strength of both qualitative and quantitative approaches to reveal robust findings. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to determine the forms of workplace friendship. Second, an instrument was developed on the basis of the interviews, and 6 factors were extracted from exploratory factor analysis with 507 Samples-1. Third, confirmatory factor analysis with 507 Samples-2 was performed to identify the validity of the workplace friendship scale.

Findings

A 65-item, six-factor workplace friendship scale was developed. The six dimensions are trustworthiness, competency, having someone’s back, value-life interest similarity, caring personal relationships and socio-cultural similarity.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling approach may limit the generalizability of the study findings as the data were collected from Turkish employees in Turkey. Cultural differences in individual relations may affect individual approaches to workplace friendship. Therefore, future cross-cultural research with samples from different populations and workplaces would be useful to explore similarities and differences with the findings of this study and to better understand the intricate structure of friendship.

Originality/value

This study contributes a reliable and valid measurement scale to address workplace friendship hospitality organizations.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Yuwen Liu

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by highlighting how workplace friendships enhance the process of adjustment for expatriates and how these effects on adjustment subsequently translate into expatriates' dual commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 187 expatriates, working in managerial positions, in subsidiaries of multinational corporations, all of whom were assigned expatriates. Serial multiple indirect effects were tested.

Findings

The results indicated that the relationship between workplace friendships and interaction adjustment was supported, but the relationship between workplace friendships and work adjustment was not supported. The serial indirect effects of international adjustment and work adjustment on the relationship between interaction adjustment and expatriates' dual commitment were supported.

Originality/value

This study seeks to fill a gap in the research literature on expatriates by focusing on the issue of workplace friendships and expatriates' dual commitment. The findings help bolster the literature on relational schemas in that expatriates' workplace friendships establish scripts for expatriates' expected outlines of adjustment in work domains. This study also provides insights relevant to the literature on social interaction and adjustment, as the findings support our theory that expatriate commitment is not directly contingent on workplace friendships but rather on the mediating roles of both interaction adjustment and work adjustment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Chun‐Te Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job attributes, job position, and workplace friendship. This paper also attempts to expand the ontology of…

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2179

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job attributes, job position, and workplace friendship. This paper also attempts to expand the ontology of workplace friendship.

Design/methodology/approach

The independent variables consisted of five job attributes and a category recorded by anticipant's self‐response. The dependent variable is workplace friendship. The hierarchical polynomial regression is conducted to test the independent variables, dependent variable, and control variables. This paper adopts two‐way analysis of variance which is conducted to test the relationship between job attributes, job position, and workplace friendship to address the two research problems.

Findings

There are two research findings, first, within a particular job attribute, this paper shows that supervisors have better workplace friendship than subordinates. Second, this paper proves that with a particular job attribute, supervisors/subordinates from Taiwan have better workplace friendship than those from Mainland China.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, there are two research limitations. The first limitation is that the data are only collected from the eastern coastland of China. This means that the data may not be able to truly reflect the situation of every company in China. The second limitation is that the questionnaire is filled in by self‐reporting participants.

Practical implications

The development of workplace friendship is mainly based on the requirement of team work in an organization. The higher demand of team work corresponds to better development of workplace friendship. There are differences in workplace friendship in Taiwan and China due to different regional cultures and individual cognitions of job attributes which are eventually affected by individual and organizational elements.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this paper is that it expanded the ontology of workplace friendship. Furthermore, this paper verifies workplace friendship difference in an organization which is affected by different job positions and job attributes and also compares the nature of the relationship in Taiwan and Mainland China.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2017

Richard McBain and Ann Parkinson

We explore the role of workplace friendships as a lens for understanding the emotional element and relational context for personal engagement (Kahn, 1990). The review of…

Abstract

We explore the role of workplace friendships as a lens for understanding the emotional element and relational context for personal engagement (Kahn, 1990). The review of engagement theory differentiates personal engagement, recognizing the role of emotions play in enabling individuals’ “preferred selves.” Workplace relationships and friendship provide a conceptual discussion of individuals in social and workplace roles in engagement, drawing on friendship, emotion, attachment theories, particularly Kahn’s work. A case study drawn from recent research illustrates our discussion before concluding with ideas for the development of a future research agenda in answer to recent calls for work on the social context of engagement.

Details

Emotions and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Amber Yun-Ping Lee, Po-Chien Chang and Heng-Yu Chang

The purpose is to examine the cross-level relationship between workplace fun and informal learning with workplace friendship as a mediator and team climate as a moderator.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose is to examine the cross-level relationship between workplace fun and informal learning with workplace friendship as a mediator and team climate as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a two-wave survey procedure, data were collected from 251 employees working across 45 teams of a leading heat transfer manufacturer in Asia. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test our hypothesized cross-level moderated mediation model.

Findings

Out of the three forms of workplace fun, only two – manager support for fun and coworker socializing – supported our hypotheses. Therefore, not all types of workplace fun are equal and one of the key factors through which fun influences informal learning is by maintaining harmonious interpersonal interactions and high relationship quality in teams.

Originality/value

Based on social interdependence theory, this study uncovers the cross-level mechanism of how workplace fun affects informal learning. The findings extend existing research on workplace fun by focusing on not only individual factors but also interpersonal and contextual elements. The findings also provide practical implications for managers to understand the possible impact of workplace fun on employees' informal learning.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Fu-Sung Hsu, Yuan-an Liu and Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur

The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effects of organizational justice and workplace friendship on the relationship between workplace bullying and…

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1984

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effects of organizational justice and workplace friendship on the relationship between workplace bullying and hotel employees’ well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

The research sample included 310 entry-level employees of international tourism hotels in Taiwan. This study adopted hierarchical regression for data analysis.

Findings

The study found that workplace bullying negatively impacted on hotel employees’ well-being. Organizational justice and workplace friendship had significantly positive effects on hotel employees’ well-being. Compared with workplace friendship, organizational justice had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between workplace bullying and hotel employees’ well-being.

Originality/value

In the research fields of hospitality, past studies failed to use organizational justice and workplace friendship to moderate the relationship between workplace bullying and hotel employees’ well-being. This study confirmed that organizational justice could effectively buffer the negative effect of workplace bullying on hotel employees’ well-being.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Nick Rumens

This paper aims to explore how gay men and lesbians draw upon workplace friendship for developing and sustaining managerial careers and identities.

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1527

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how gay men and lesbians draw upon workplace friendship for developing and sustaining managerial careers and identities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a qualitative design, using data collected from semi‐structured interviews with four lesbians and eight gay men, all employed in managerial roles in the UK.

Findings

Data reveal the importance of workplace friendship as a resource for mentoring, climbing managerial career ladders, fitting into existing work cultures and developing gay and lesbian managerial identities. A significant finding is that participants preferred to befriend heterosexual colleagues, to that end complicating previous research that suggests gay and lesbian friendship preferences tend to be marked by similarity in regard to sexual identity. Work friends enable and constrain the development and visibility of gay and lesbian managerial identities and careers.

Research limitations/implications

Although the data are not generalisable, it is of concern that gay men and lesbians continue to be disadvantaged by heteronormative constructions of gender and sexuality. While gender and sexual norms can limit the visibility and embodiment of gay and lesbian managers in the workplace, the study reveals also how gay sexualities can be utilised as a resource for developing influential friendships.

Originality/value

This article provides insights into issues not previously covered or understudied in the organisation studies literature such as the agency of gay men and lesbians in constructing different types of workplace friendships as a resource for developing managerial identities and careers.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Arpana Rai and Upasna A. Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employee silence (defensive, relational, and ineffectual silence), and to test the mediating…

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6168

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employee silence (defensive, relational, and ineffectual silence), and to test the mediating role of psychological contract violation (PCV) in this relationship and the extent to which the mediation is moderated by workplace friendship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 835 full-time Indian managerial employees working in different Indian organizations.

Findings

Results revealed that workplace bullying positively correlated with silence (defensive, relational, and ineffectual silence). The hypothesized moderated mediation condition was supported as results suggest that PCV mediated the bullying-silence relationship and workplace friendship moderated this mediating pathway, i.e. indirect effects of workplace bullying on employee silence via PCV were weaker for employees with high workplace friendship.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional design, use of self-reported questionnaires, and gender-blind perspective to examine bullying are few limitations of this study.

Practical implications

This is the first study examining employee silence in response to workplace bullying and one of the few attempts to examine employees’ passive coping strategies in response to workplace mistreatment. This study is also one of the rare attempts to examine bullying-outcomes relationship in the Indian context.

Social implications

A well-formulated and effectively implemented anti-bullying policy and management support may encourage employees to combat bullying by raising their voices against it.

Originality/value

This is the first study examining employee silence in response to workplace bullying. This study is also one of the rare attempts to examine bullying-outcomes relationship in the Indian context.

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