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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Michael Olalekan Adeoti, Faridahwati Mohd Shamsudin and AlHamwan Mousa Mohammad

The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to examine the direct effect of the dimensions of opportunity (i.e. ethical climate and institutional policy) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to examine the direct effect of the dimensions of opportunity (i.e. ethical climate and institutional policy) and dimensions of job pressure (i.e. workload and work pressure) on workplace deviance (i.e. organisational and interpersonal deviance) and (2) to assess the mediation of neutralisation in the relationship between the dimensions of opportunity, job pressure and workplace deviance.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study drew from the fraud triangle theory (FTT; Cressey, 1950) and the theory of neutralisation (Sykes and Matza, 1957) to achieve the research objectives. Survey data from 356 full-time faculty members in Nigerian public universities were collected. Partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyse the data.

Findings

The results indicated that opportunity and job pressure significantly affected workplace deviance. As expected, neutralisation was found to mediate the negative relationship between ethical climate and interpersonal deviance and the positive relationship between workload, work pressure and interpersonal deviance. Contrary to expectation, neutralisation did not mediate the relationship between opportunity, pressure and organisational deviance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was drawn from academics in public universities and the cross-sectional nature of this study means that the findings have limited generalisations.

Practical implications

This study offers insights into the management of Nigerian public universities on the need to curb workplace deviance amongst faculty members. This study recommends that the management improve the work environment by enhancing the ethical climate and institutional policies and reviewing the existing workload that may constitute pressure to the faculty members.

Originality/value

The present study provides empirical support for the fraud triangle theory and theory of neutralisation to explain workplace deviance.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Antonia Ruiz‐Moreno, Víctor J. García‐Morales and Francisco Javier Llorens‐Montes

The goal of this paper is to examine how firms employ slack resources to enhance the relationship between organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this paper is to examine how firms employ slack resources to enhance the relationship between organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation to obtain sustainable competitive advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the different contributions to the study of the relation between dimensions of the organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and organizational slack. Building on previous research, a series of hypotheses are formulated on the influence of the dimensions of organizational climate on perceptions of support for innovation and on how organizational slack moderates these relations. In contrast to earlier studies, the paper's work is based on managers' perceptions. A sample of 202 quality managers is then used to verify empirically the hypotheses which have been proposed. Finally, the main conclusions of the research are presented.

Findings

The results of the investigation reveal first, that the relation between the dimensions of organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and performance is moderated by organizational slack. Second, that a strong connection exists between the different dimensions of organizational climate. Finally, the results of the research also show that a strong connection exists between the different dimensions of organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions of this study may be subject to several limitations that suggest further possibilities for empirical research. First, survey data based on self‐reports may be subject to social desirability bias. Second, the cross‐sectional nature of the research allows us to analyze only a specific situation in time of the organizations studied, not their overall conduct through time. Future research should place more emphasis on longitudinal studies.

Practical implications

This paper maintains that the relation between the different dimensions of organizational climate, perceptions of support for innovation and performance are determined and limited by the nature and variety of resources that the organization can bundle and apply to the maintenance and development of competitive advantages, according to the availability of organizational slack to be applied directly to organizational climate and perceptions of support for innovation.

Originality/value

The paper has provided evidence of how managers, depending on the presence or absence of slack, combine the dimensions of organizational climate differently to create the perception of support for innovation necessary to implement innovations, which in both cases means improvement in the organization's performance.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Eva Lindberg and Urban Rosenqvist

The present study seeks to present a case study over four years following an implementation process of total quality management (TQM) on an ICU (intensive care unit).

Abstract

Purpose

The present study seeks to present a case study over four years following an implementation process of total quality management (TQM) on an ICU (intensive care unit).

Design/methodology/approach

The aim was to describe consequences shown in the organisational climate, workload and staff wellbeing. A case study design was employed using a longitudinal method of data collection.

Findings

Downsizing due to diminishing resources was a parallel process probably disturbing the TQM implementation. The workload increased by 20 per cent, whereas organisational and individual variables remained stable over time. However, sick leave increased dramatically and was higher than the general level within the Swedish population. The ICU had the capacity to adapt successfully by regulating working hours to workload. It is speculated that another cause behind sickness absence exists other than the general opinion. The literature used for the discussion departs from the relation between people's understanding and acting, sensemaking, and organisational theories describing complex adaptive systems emphasizing attraction patterns. Organisational ambiguity was a main finding in an earlier study that was used for interpretation of the result in the present study. As ambiguity seems to be a major and increasing problem, it has consequences for management as well as for continuous quality development.

Originality/value

The implication of the study is the need to be able to successfully work in an ambiguous situation and use the quality system as a device in day‐to‐day work.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Chris Giebe and Thomas Rigotti

This study investigated a mechanism by which challenge stressors may affect employee well-being outcomes. This study tested a within-person longitudinal model in which the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated a mechanism by which challenge stressors may affect employee well-being outcomes. This study tested a within-person longitudinal model in which the effects of challenge demands relate to basic psychological need satisfaction/thwarting and worker well-being outcomes. In particular, basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting were hypothesized to mediate challenge demands and outcomes at the intraindividual level.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 84 employees from a weekly survey across four weeks (308 observations) were used in Bayesian multilevel path analyses to test hypotheses.

Findings

Although significant indirect effects showed that basic psychological needs mediate between demands and worker outcomes, only a few specific indirect effects (e.g. the path from time pressure via thwarting the need for autonomy to emotional exhaustion) operated as hypothesized. Interestingly, in this study, time pressure was only mediated via thwarting the need for autonomy when considering undesirable worker outcomes (i.e. increased emotional exhaustion, decreased job satisfaction). Job complexity, however, led to decreased emotional exhaustion via the need for competence satisfaction. Implications for need satisfaction and thwarting as mechanisms in the challenge–hindrance framework are discussed.

Originality/value

This study (1) extends the challenge–hindrance framework to include basic psychological needs as a mechanism, (2) expands basic psychological needs to include need thwarting and (3) may enhance our understanding of stressor categories.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Shazia Nauman, Usman Raja, Inam Ul Haq and Waqas Bilal

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered…

Abstract

Purpose

The extant research on emotional labor (EL) has focused on positive and negative outcomes observed in the workplace; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. The research has yet to consider what factors buffer the negative outcomes of EL. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between workload job demand and employee well-being with mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and moderating effects of emotional intelligence (EI) in service organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two wave data from a sample of 207 emergency medical technicians to test the hypotheses.

Findings

By integrating SA, EI and employee well-being with the conservation of resource theory, the authors found evidence of an indirect effect of workload job demand on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction via SA. The results of moderated mediation show that the negative relationship between SA and job satisfaction was low when EI was high and the positive relationship between SA and emotional exhaustion was low when EI was high.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of the present study is that all the participants were male and drawn from a single profession within the same organization. Another limitation is that the data were collected through self-reports.

Practical implications

This research has important theoretical and practical implications for service organizations wishing to buffer the harmful effects of SA on employees. This study presents key theoretical implications for the EL and well-being literatures. An important practical implication is that EI is a good resource for managing SA’s negative outcomes.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the extant research by showing that workload job demands have negative effects on employee well-being via SA resulting in reduced job satisfaction and increased emotional exhaustion. Further, the negative outcomes of SA on employee well-being can be buffered through EI by taking EI as an emotional resource. High level of EI helps employees to mitigate the harmful effects of SA.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Ralph Kattenbach and Simon Fietze

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of N=597 white-collars in the German media and IT industry is drawn via the professional network XING. Cross-sectional mediator models are used to test the hypothesis.

Findings

The processes proposed by the JD-R model find empirical support. Job demands primarily cause exhaustion while job resources increase job satisfaction. Besides, job demands reduce job satisfaction and job resources lead to less exhaustion. An exception is found for cognitive workload which rather acts like a job resource. EO mediates these effects in a favorable way. High job resources foster EO, which in turn reduces exhaustion and enhances job satisfaction. For job demands, EO shows a negative mediation reducing the health-impairment process and increasing job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should broach the issue of adverse effects related to extreme employee entrepreneurship and potential negative effects.

Practical implications

Supporting and supervising an EO may help employees to cope with modern job profiles in agile organizations.

Originality/value

The findings provide support for a favorable mediating role of an entrepreneurial personal resource within the JD-R model. This knowledge may be used to consider individual work orientations and to organize work in a “healthy” way.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 November 2018

Marjolein C.J. Caniëls and Jeroen P. de Jong

Abstract

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Andrew K. Weyman, Deborah Roy and Peter Nolan

Staff shortage in the UK National Health Service has a long history, but is widely predicted to become acute over the next decade. Falling enrolment rates in health…

Abstract

Purpose

Staff shortage in the UK National Health Service has a long history, but is widely predicted to become acute over the next decade. Falling enrolment rates in health professional training and restrictions to migrant labour recruitment have brought the, traditionally neglected, issue of staff retention into sharp relief. The purpose of this paper is to represent the first large scale systematic appraisal of the relative salience of recognised headline drivers of employee exodus from the NHS.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from an opportunity sample of 1,594 health professionals, managers and administrators employed by the NHS. Participants completed a paired ranking task (Case V method of paired comparisons, Thurston, 1927) to determine the relative importance of eight widely cited reasons for exit. The item set was derived from focus groups conducted as a component of the wider study.

Findings

Findings revealed almost universal consensus regarding the primacy of shortage of resources, job demands and time pressure. Pay was ranked lower than predicted. Flexible working arrangements do not presented as a key solution, and there is no support for claims of generational differences.

Research limitations/implications

Survivor population effects could constitute a source of sample bias, i.e. all participants were current NHS employees. It is possible that those who remain may be more resilient or hold different dispositions to leavers. Thus, comparisons by age and grade may not be comparing like with like. Tapping respondent beliefs about the actions of peers can embody some degree of inaccuracy and attribution bias. However, effects can be considered to operate as a source of common, rather than systematic, error across the demographics compared. The medical and dental sample was too small to give confidence in detected differences.

Practical implications

Findings challenge the claim that wider availability of flexible working hours will significantly reduce exit rates. Pay, being a source of dissatisfaction, does not constitute a key push variable in itself, rather its salience reflects the effort reward-imbalance produced by rises in job demands.

Social implications

Staff shortages in the NHS represent a threat to: public well-being – waiting lists and demand for care; the well-being of who continue to work in the NHS – job demands and resources; the employment prospects of staff who leave involuntarily, e.g. on grounds of incapacity and threats to health and well-being – extending to impacts on their dependents.

Originality/value

Issues of staff retention within the NHS are topical and under researched. The findings provide an up to date picture of the relative influence of headline drivers of early exit from the NHS. The study draws upon a more diverse and comprehensive sample of NHS employees that any other known previous studies of early exit. Findings are of potential international relevance to other State health systems. The authors believe this to be the largest (sample) known application of the method of paired comparisons.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Denisa Luta, Deborah M. Powell and Jeffrey R. Spence

Our study examined whether work engagement follows a predictable pattern over the course of the work week and the role of personality traits in shaping this pattern.

Abstract

Purpose

Our study examined whether work engagement follows a predictable pattern over the course of the work week and the role of personality traits in shaping this pattern.

Design/Methodology/Approach

We examined these questions with 131 employees from Canada and the United States who provided daily ratings of work engagement over the course of 10 work days.

Findings

Multilevel modeling revealed that employee engagement followed an inverted U-shaped curvilinear pattern from Monday to Friday, peaking midweek. Neuroticism moderated the change pattern of engagement across the work week, such that individuals with higher levels of neuroticism experienced lower and less stable levels of work engagement throughout the work week compared with individuals with lower levels of neuroticism. However, extroversion and conscientiousness did not moderate the change pattern of employee engagement.

Research Limitations/Implications

These results provide insight into the entrainment of work to the work week and how this entrainment is further affected by the personality trait neuroticism.

Practical Implications

Understanding the weekly pattern of work engagement will help leaders’ time work assignments, interventions, and training sessions to keep the levels of employee engagement high.

Originality/Value

Our study revealed novel predictors of within-person engagement: weekly entrainment and neuroticism.

Details

Emotions and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-202-7

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Rahman Mushfiqur, Chima Mordi, Emeka Smart Oruh, Uzoechi Nwagbara, Tonbara Mordi and Itari Mabel Turner

The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of work-life-balance (WLB) challenges for Nigerian female medical doctors. This study focusses on Nigeria, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the implications of work-life-balance (WLB) challenges for Nigerian female medical doctors. This study focusses on Nigeria, which its peculiar socio-cultural, institutional and professional realities constitute WLB as well as social sustainability (SS) challenge for female medical doctors.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on qualitative, interpretivist approach and informed by institutional theory, this study explores how Nigeria’s institutional environment and workplace realities engender WLB challenges, which consequently impact SS for female doctors. In total, 43 semi-structured interviews and focus group session involving eight participants were utilised for empirical analysis.

Findings

The study reveals that factors such as work pressure, cultural expectations, unsupportive relationships, challenging work environment, gender role challenges, lack of voice/participation, and high stress level moderate the ability of female medical doctors to manage WLB and SS. It also identifies that socio-cultural and institutional demands on women show that these challenges, while common to female physicians in other countries, are different and more intense in Nigeria because of their unique professional, socio-cultural and institutional frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of the WLB and SS requires scholarship to deepen as well as extend knowledge on contextual disparities in understanding these concepts from developing countries perspective, which is understudied.

Originality/value

This study offers fresh insights into the WLB and SS concepts from the non-western context, such as Nigeria, highlighting the previously understudied challenges of WLB and SS and their implications for female doctors.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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