Search results

1 – 10 of over 12000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Sabine Sonnentag and Charlotte Fritz

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With respect to acute stressors, both laboratory and field research have shown that the exposure to stressors leads to an increase in catecholamine and cortisol levels. With respect to more chronic stressors, research evidence is less consistent. Chronic mental workload was found to be related to elevated adrenaline levels. With respect to cortisol responses the interaction between workload and other variables seems to play a role. Empirical studies suggest that chronic stressors affect the responsivity to acute stressors. Research showed that after the exposure to stressors catecholamine and cortisol recovery is delayed.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Ming Zhang, Le Shan, Ming Zhang, Kai Liu, Hui Yu and Jue Yu

Air traffic resources mainly include two parts, namely, air traffic controller (ATC) and physical system resources, such as airspace. Reasonable assessment and effective…

Abstract

Purpose

Air traffic resources mainly include two parts, namely, air traffic controller (ATC) and physical system resources, such as airspace. Reasonable assessment and effective management of ATC and airspace resources are the premise and foundation of ensuring the safety and efficiency of air traffic management systems. The previous studies focussed on subjective workload control and the statistics of control communication time; they revealed the lack of kinetic universality analyses of controlling actions. Although frequency distribution patterns were generated by controlling the timing sequence, the correlation between the controlling actions and terminal airspace (TMA) sector capacity was not revealed. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Thus, given the immeasurable complexity of controlling actions and statistical features of the controlling communications, a dynamical model of ATC was built in this study to identify the frequency distribution patterns generated by controlling the timing sequence. With the Directorate of Operational and Analysis Task method, TMA sector capacity was estimated through multiple linear regression analysis.

Findings

With data from the Kunming sector, the power exponent was calculated as 2.55, and the mathematical expectation was determined to be 47.21 s. The correlation between controlling actions (workload) and sector capacity was obtained. Finally, the data were integrated in the verification of the model and its feasibility.

Originality/value

Airspace capacity is an index to measure the ability of the airspace system to deliver services to meet the air traffic demand. A scientific and accurate forecast of airspace capacity is a foundation of the effective management and rational allocation of the airspace resources. The study is of great significance for the efficient use of airspace resources, controller resources.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Christopher C. Rosen, Chu-Hsiang Chang, Emilija Djurdjevic and Erin Eatough

This chapter provides an updated review of research examining the relationship between occupational stressors and job performance. We begin by presenting an eight-category…

Abstract

This chapter provides an updated review of research examining the relationship between occupational stressors and job performance. We begin by presenting an eight-category taxonomy of workplace stressors and we then review theories that explain the relationships between workplace stressors and job performance. The subsequent literature review is divided into two sections. In the first section, we present a summary of Jex's (1998) review of research on the job stress–job performance relationship. In the second section, we provide an updated review of the literature, which includes studies that have been published since 1998. In this review, we evaluate how well the contemporary research has dealt with weaknesses and limitations previously identified in the literature, we identify and evaluate current trends, and we offer recommendations and directions for future research.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Jia‐Lang Seng

Benchmarks are the vital tools in the performance measurement and evaluation of database management systems (DBMS), including the relational database management systems…

Abstract

Benchmarks are the vital tools in the performance measurement and evaluation of database management systems (DBMS), including the relational database management systems (RDBMS) and the object‐oriented/object‐relational database management systems (OODBMS/ORDBMS). Standard synthetic benchmarks have been used to assess the performance of RDBMS software. Other benchmarks have been utilized to appraise the performance of OODBMS/ORDBMS products. In this paper, an analytical framework of workload characterization to extensively and expansively examine the rationale and design of the industry standard and synthetic standard benchmarks is presented. This analytical framework of workload analysis is made up of four main components: the schema analysis, the operation analysis, the control analysis, and the system analysis. These analysis results are compiled and new concepts and perspectives of benchmark design are collated. Each analysis aspect is described and each managerial implication is discussed in detail.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 103 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Maie Stein, Sylvie Vincent-Höper and Sabine Gregersen

This study of leaders and followers working in day-care centers aims to use a multilevel perspective on supportive leadership to examine its role in linking workload at…

Abstract

Purpose

This study of leaders and followers working in day-care centers aims to use a multilevel perspective on supportive leadership to examine its role in linking workload at the leader level and emotional exhaustion at the follower level. Integrating theoretical work on social support with conservation of resources (COR) theory, leaders' workload is proposed to be positively related to followers' feelings of emotional exhaustion through constraining the enactment of supportive leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Multisource survey data from 442 followers and their leaders from 68 teams were collected to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Multilevel analyses showed that leader workload was negatively related to followers' perception of supportive leadership, which, in turn, was positively related to followers' levels of emotional exhaustion. Leader workload was indirectly and positively related to follower emotional exhaustion via supportive leadership.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides initial support for the idea that work contextual factors at the leader level create boundaries for the extent to which leaders may provide support to their followers and draws attention to the accountability of leaders' work contextual factors for followers' well-being.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that organizations must not focus narrowly on training leaders on how to benefit followers but should also aim to optimize leaders' levels of workload to enable them to act in a supportive manner.

Originality/value

By considering both the receivers (i.e. followers) and providers (i.e. leaders) of support simultaneously, we take a crossover approach to COR theory and acknowledge that work contextual factors at higher organizational levels may spread to employee well-being at lower levels of the organization.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Abdessamed Mogtit, Noureddine Aribi, Yahia Lebbah and Mohand Lagha

Airspace sectorization is an important task, which has a significant impact in the everyday work of air control services. Especially in recent years, because of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Airspace sectorization is an important task, which has a significant impact in the everyday work of air control services. Especially in recent years, because of the constant increase in air traffic, existing airspace sectorization techniques have difficulties to tackle the large air traffic volumes, creating imbalanced sectors and uneven workload distribution among sectors. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to find optimal airspace sectorization balancing the traffic controller workload between sectors, subject to airspace requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

A constraint programming (CP) model called equitable airspace sectorization problem (EQASP) relies on ordered weighted averaging (OWA) multiagent optimization and the parallel portfolio architecture has been developed, which integrates the equity into an existing CP approach (Trandac et al., 2005). The EQASP was evaluated and compared with the method of Trandac et al. (2005), according to the quality of workload balancing between sectors and the resolution performance. The comparison was achieved using real air traffic low-altitude network data sets of French airspace for five flight information regions for 24 h a day and the Algerian airspace for three various periods (off peak hours, peak hours and 24 h).

Findings

It has been demonstrated that the proposed EQASP model, which is based on OWA multicriteria optimization method, significantly improved both the solving performance and the workload equity between sectors, while offering strong theoretical properties of the balancing requirement. Interestingly, when solving hard instances, our parallel sectorization tool can provide, at any time, a workable solution, which satisfies all geometric constraints of sectorization.

Practical implications

This study can be used to design well-balanced air sectors in terms of workload between control units in the strategic phase. To fulfil the airspace users’ constraints, one can refer to this study to assess the capacity of each air sector (especially the overloaded sectors) and then adjust the sector’s shape to respond to the dynamic changes in traffic patterns.

Social implications

This theoretical and practical approach enables the development and support of the definition of the “Air traffic management (ATM) Concept Target” through improvements in human factors specifically (balancing workload across sectors), which contributes to raising the level of capacity, safety and efficiency (SESAR Vision of ATM 2035).

Originality/value

In their approach, the authors proposed an OWA-based multiagent optimization model, ensuring the search for the best equitable solution, without requiring user-defined balancing constraints, which enforce each sector to have a workload between two user-defined bounds (Wmin, Wmax).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Linda Hendry, Yuan Huang and Mark Stevenson

The purpose of this paper is to present a successful implementation of a comprehensive workload control (WLC) concept; and to describe the associated implementation process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a successful implementation of a comprehensive workload control (WLC) concept; and to describe the associated implementation process.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal action research using a contingency‐based approach to ensure alignment between the case company and the characteristics of the WLC approach; and the resulting expected improvements in performance. A set of 17 issues and responses from the literature is used as a checklist for implementing WLC.

Findings

Performance improvements include: reduced lead times; significant improvement in lateness and tardiness; reduced costs; improved internal and external co‐ordination; and higher quality. The relevance of 15 of the 17 implementation issues is confirmed along with the same response as in previous research for ten issues and an improved response for five issues. In addition, three new issues are identified and addressed.

Research limitations/implications

Dependability was a more important competitive priority in this company than speed; and, therefore, the ability of WLC to reduce lead times was not fully assessed.

Practical implications

The importance of a contingency‐based approach to production planning and control is confirmed. Comprehensive WLC approaches are closely aligned with the high‐variety/low‐volume context of make‐to‐order (MTO) companies.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that empirically demonstrates performance improvements resulting from WLC alongside a detailed discussion of the implementation process. Few examples of successful implementations have been published previously, and these tend to treat the implementation process as a “black box”. Where more detail on the implementation process has been given in previous studies, evidence of effectiveness in practice was not provided.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Michael P Leiter and Christina Maslach

This chapter evaluates a model of the organizational context of burnout with direct reference to a new measure, the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS). The model proposes a…

Abstract

This chapter evaluates a model of the organizational context of burnout with direct reference to a new measure, the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS). The model proposes a structured framework for considering six areas of worklife – workload, control, reward, community, fairness, and values – that have resonated through the literature on burnout over the previous two decades. The chapter presents extensive data on the AWS, testing a model of the six areas’ interrelationships as well as their overall relationship to the three aspects of burnout. The results of these analyses are discussed in reference to the psychometric qualities of the measure and the implications of a structured approach to work environments for future development of research on burnout. Implications for developing workplace interventions are also considered.

Details

Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Paola Spagnoli and Cristian Balducci

Organizational change eliciting negative outcomes might play a role in the development of workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational change eliciting negative outcomes might play a role in the development of workplace bullying. The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and the interaction effect of two particular negative outcomes of organizational change, such as high workload and job insecurity, on workplace bullying.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants in the study were 134 Italian workers who had just experienced an organizational change. A multiple regression analysis, using the stepwise method, was conducted to test for whether workload, job insecurity, and their interactions predicted workplace bullying.

Findings

Results show that high level of workload is related to workplace bullying; job insecurity is not directly related to workplace bullying; the interaction between high workload and job insecurity enhanced the risk for workplace bullying. In particular, when the level of job insecurity is high there is a stronger relationship between workload and bullying, compared to when the level of job insecurity is low.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design applied does not allow inference on the causal relationships between the predictors and outcomes.

Practical implications

In order to decrease the occurrence of bullying, managers should avoid that employees experience high workload after organizational change by carefully designing the reengineering process. Additionally, they should try to reduce, as far as possible, employee perceptions of job insecurity.

Originality/value

The focus of the study is on the “survivors” after organizational change and on particular interaction of workplace bullying’s causes that could extremely enhance the risk of the phenomena.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Gary J. Salegna and Paul S. Park

Examines the planning and scheduling systems in an integrative framework for a dual resource constrained (DRC) job shop. Models a bottleneck shop environment which…

Abstract

Examines the planning and scheduling systems in an integrative framework for a dual resource constrained (DRC) job shop. Models a bottleneck shop environment which represents a common situation in practice. Research on workload smoothing mechanisms which integrate the planning and scheduling systems is sparse. Simulates 13 smoothing rules (utilizing aggregate workload and bottleneck information), three despatching rules and two order review/release rules. The results of this study indicate that workload smoothing by the planning system has a significant effect on the performance of the DRC job shop. Pulling work ahead in valley periods improved the tardy measures of performance, while pushing jobs back in peak periods usually deteriorated shop performance. Suggests that combining a planning system effectively with order review/release can improve mean tardiness, percentage tardy and mean flowtime measures of performance.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 12000