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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Ross Gordon, Joseph Ciorciari and Tom van Laer

This paper aims to present a study using encephalography (EEG) to investigate consumer responses to narrative videos in energy efficiency social marketing. The purpose is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a study using encephalography (EEG) to investigate consumer responses to narrative videos in energy efficiency social marketing. The purpose is to assess the role of attention, working memory, emotion and imagination in narrative transportation, and how these stages of narrative transportation are ordered temporally.

Design/methodology/approach

Consumers took part in an EEG experiment during which they were shown four different narrative videos to identify brain response during specific video segments.

Findings

The study found that during the opening segment of the videos, attention, working memory and emotion were high before attenuating with some introspection at the end of this segment. During the story segment of the videos attention, working memory and emotion were also high, with attention decreasing later on but working memory, emotion and imagination being evident. Consumer responses to each of the four videos differed.

Practical implications

The study suggests that narratives can be a useful approach in energy efficiency social marketing. Specifically, marketers should attempt to gain focused attention and invoke emotional responses, working memory and imagination to help consumers become narratively transported. The fit between story object and story-receiver should also be considered when creating consumer narratives.

Social implications

Policymakers and organisations that wish to promote pro-social behaviours such as using energy efficiently or eating healthily should consider using narratives.

Originality/value

This research contributes to theory by identifying brain response relating to attention, working memory, emotion and imagination during specific stages of narrative transportation. The study considers the role of attention, emotion, working memory and imagination during reception of stories with different objects, and how these may relate to consumers’ narrative transportation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Nicholas Martin, John Capman, Anthony Boyce, Kyle Morgan, Manuel Francisco Gonzalez and Seymour Adler

Cognitive ability tests demonstrate strong relationships with job performance, but have several limitations; notably, subgroup differences based on race/ethnicity. As an…

Abstract

Purpose

Cognitive ability tests demonstrate strong relationships with job performance, but have several limitations; notably, subgroup differences based on race/ethnicity. As an alternative, the purpose of this paper is to develop a working memory assessment for personnel selection contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors describe the development of Global Adaptive Memory Evaluation (G.A.M.E.) – a working memory assessment – along with three studies focused on refining and validating G.A.M.E., including examining test-taker reactions, reliability, subgroup differences, construct and criterion-related validity, and measurement equivalence across computer and mobile devices.

Findings

Evidence suggests that G.A.M.E. is a reliable and valid tool for employee selection. G.A.M.E. exhibited convergent validity with other cognitive assessments, predicted job performance, yielded smaller subgroup differences than traditional cognitive ability tests, was engaging for test-takers, and upheld equivalent measurement across computers and mobile devices.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research is needed on the use of working memory assessments as an alternative to traditional cognitive ability testing, including its advantages and disadvantages, relative to other constructs and methods.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate working memory’s potential as an alternative to traditional cognitive ability assessments and highlight the need for cognitive ability tests that rely on modern theories of intelligence and leverage burgeoning mobile technology.

Originality/value

This paper highlights an alternative to traditional cognitive ability tests, namely, working memory assessments, and demonstrates how to design reliable, valid, engaging and mobile-compatible versions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Arieh Riskin, Peter Bamberger, Amir Erez and Aya Zeiger

Incivility is widespread in the workplace and has been shown to have significant affective and behavioral consequences. However, the authors still have a limited…

Abstract

Incivility is widespread in the workplace and has been shown to have significant affective and behavioral consequences. However, the authors still have a limited understanding as to whether, how and when discrete incivility events impact team performance. Adopting a resource depletion perspective and focusing on the cognitive implications of such events, the authors introduce a multi-level model linking the adverse effects of such events on team members’ working memory – the “workbench” of the cognitive system where most planning, analyses, and management of goals occur – to team effectiveness. The model which the authors develop proposes that that uncivil interpersonal behavior in general, and rudeness – a central manifestation of incivility – in particular, may place a significant drain on individuals’ working memory capacity, affecting team effectiveness via its effects on individual performance and coordination-related team emergent states and action-phase processes. In the context of this model, the authors offer an overarching framework for making sense of disparate findings regarding how, why and when incivility affects performance outcomes at multiple levels. More specifically, the authors use this framework to: (a) suggest how individual-level cognitive impairment and weakened coordinative team processes may mediate these incivility-based effects, and (b) explain how event, context, and individual difference factors moderators may attenuate or exacerbate these cognition-mediated effects.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Breda Cullen and Jonathan J. Evans

This paper aims to summarise key models of the neuropsychology of memory function, illustrating how they can be used to inform the assessment and formulation of memory

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarise key models of the neuropsychology of memory function, illustrating how they can be used to inform the assessment and formulation of memory disorders in clinical practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Models of short term and working memory, long-term memory and prospective memory are described. Commonly used tools and methods to assess these functions in adults are summarised.

Findings

It is argued that a clearer understanding of models of memory function adds value to the process of cognitive assessment, guiding the selection of appropriate tests and aiding diagnosis, formulation and rehabilitation planning.

Originality/value

This paper is intended to serve as a resource for professionals who encounter memory disorders in their clinical practice.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Book part
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Marjana Johansson and Sally Jones

In this chapter, we explore classed and gendered identities through feminist duoethnography and memory work. In so doing, we write of and for a place where we no longer…

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore classed and gendered identities through feminist duoethnography and memory work. In so doing, we write of and for a place where we no longer live, but which part of us will always inhabit and be inhabited by. Beyond geographical parameters, this place is deeply embedded in us and resides in the past. Being women academics of working-class backgrounds, we have gradually learnt to navigate the once foreign world of academia. Adapting to it has included not always being candid about our background, but in this text we foreground our histories, which ultimately have a bearing on our identities, our politics and our writing. We argue for the value of remembering past events as a source of knowledge which is personal yet social, as we present autobiographical reflections and excerpts of dialogue in which we explore our life and career trajectories. Our experiences, although felt to be subjective and private, are not entirely unique nor disconnected from historical, cultural and political circumstances. The chapter shows a way to explore past and present experiences, and to exercise a way of writing that seeks to capture the richness, contradictions and intersubjective nature of ongoing interpretations of those experiences. We also reflect on how our approach might enrich our understanding of class and gender in academia, and what kind of knowledge it might furnish us with. Above all, we want to acknowledge the value of the knowledge of those, who in various ways, come from ‘other places’.

Details

Writing Differently
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-337-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Michael Clark, Charlie Murphy, Tony Jameson-Allen and Chris Wilkins

The purpose of this paper is to describe the findings from a pilot and a follow-on study in which care assistants in care homes were trained to use sporting memories work

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the findings from a pilot and a follow-on study in which care assistants in care homes were trained to use sporting memories work to better help and engage with residents with dementia and low mood. Care homes have to support increasingly more fragile people and often the range of activities in the homes do not offer the best engagement between residents and staff to benefit the residents. This is for reasons of time to run activities in a busy home, and because of the need to find financially viable means of running a range of activities. Care assistants in care homes are a group of non-professionally educated workers and are often overlooked for training beyond basic health and safety training to help them improve their work and the care they provide. This work sought to explore whether sporting memories work was viable as an activity to offer in care homes via the training of care assistants.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the evidence from a pilot and then follow-on project in care homes in one city area. In the pilot observation was made of a training session and follow up interviews were undertaken with care home managers to see how the implementation of sporting memories was going. In the follow-on project the support to those undertaking the training was modified to include three learning network sessions. Data were collected on the experience of participants and their use of sporting memories work.

Findings

The findings were that care assistants could be trained in using sporting memories work and they often found it easy to use and fulfilling for them and people they cared for. This was despite the care assistants who participated often not having much interest in sports and little experience in this kind of work. However, practical barriers to maintaining the use of sporting memories work did remain.

Research limitations/implications

The evidence to date is of case studies of training staff in care homes in the use of sporting memories work, which provides good grounding for proof of the concept and key issues, but further research is needed on the costs and impacts of sporting memories work in care homes. The lack of direct feedback about experiences of care home residents of sporting memories work and its impact on them is a further limitation.

Practical implications

Sporting memories work is a flexible and readily adoptable intervention to engage older people in care homes and the evidence to date is that care assistants in care homes can be trained to use this approach to engaging older people. Practical challenges still remain to using sporting memories work in care homes, notably the issue of time for staff to do the work, but it is an approach for care homes to have available to them to match up to the interests of residents.

Social implications

Sporting memories work can be an important part of meeting some of the challenges society faces with an ageing population profile and to enhancing the care home environment and care assistants can be trained to use the approach.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to discuss training care home staff in the use of sporting memories work.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Fred H. Previc

Human performance, particularly that of the warfighter, has been the subject of a large amount of research during the past few decades. For example, in the Medline

Abstract

Human performance, particularly that of the warfighter, has been the subject of a large amount of research during the past few decades. For example, in the Medline database of medical and psychological research, 1,061 papers had been published on the topic of “military performance” as of October 2003. Because warfighters are often pushed to physiological and mental extremes, a study of their performance provides a unique glimpse of the interplay of a wide variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the functioning of the human brain and body. Unfortunately, it has proven very difficult to build performance models that can adequately incorporate the myriad of physiological, medical, social, and cognitive factors that influence behavior in extreme conditions. The chief purpose of this chapter is to provide a neurobiological (neurochemical) framework for building and integrating warfighter performance models in the physiological, medical, social, and cognitive areas. This framework should be relevant to all other professionals who routinely operate in extreme environments. The secondary purpose of this chapter is to recommend various performance metrics that can be linked to specific neurochemical states and can accordingly strengthen and extend the scope of the neurochemical model.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Soon Seok Park

Prodemocracy protest in South Korea in the 1980s can be described in terms of two waves of sustained activism between 1979 and 1987. One wave was brutally repressed in the…

Abstract

Prodemocracy protest in South Korea in the 1980s can be described in terms of two waves of sustained activism between 1979 and 1987. One wave was brutally repressed in the Gwangju Uprising of May 1980, while the other succeeded in bringing in a transition to democracy in June 1987. How did activists recover from the repression in the first wave, and how did they create a viable movement in the second wave? This work focuses on the role of memory work about the Gwangju Uprising in the mobilization of the prodemocracy movement. Drawing on a wide assortment of documents collected from various archives in South Korea, the author demonstrates how memory work contributed to the movement dynamics. Cognitively, memory work radicalized movement participants such that they became completely disillusioned with the legitimacy of state power. Emotionally, memory work triggered a moral shock among recruits that motivated them to take the high risks associated with activism. Relationally, memory work provided a bonding experience for activists within a network. The findings also show a process through which memory work becomes a powerful social force: emergence of a challenger, proliferation of an alternative narrative, and then a full-blown contention between the state and a challenger. The process also means changes of the status of memory in terms of ownership, salience, and valence.

Details

Four Dead in Ohio
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-807-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Vic Blake, Jeff Hearn, Randy Barber, David Jackson, Richard Johnson and Zbyszek Luczynski

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of setting up and participating in a collective memory work group of older men, with a focus on the making and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of setting up and participating in a collective memory work group of older men, with a focus on the making and unmaking of older men and masculinities through age, ageing, gender, gendering, and other intersections.

Design/methodology/approach

Participant review and reflection on collective of memory work group of older men.

Findings

Memory work is located in relation to related but different forms of writing and group work, emphasizing how in this method everyone becomes a writer, an author, a listener, a reader, a discussant, and a commentator. This provides a novel way to explore the constructions and intersections of ageing, gender, men, and masculinities.

Social implications

The potential of memory work, both for working with older men, and more generally is outlined. Key issues are: genuine and collective commitment to substantive change, not just at a personal level, but also at wider social/political/cultural levels; willingness to trust in the other members of the group, an issue that may be difficult for some men; and commitment for caring for one another especially in their moments of greatest vulnerability.

Originality/value

There is little, if any, other writing on this approach to ageing, men, and masculinities. The paper is therefore of great value, and may stimulate wider application of this approach.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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