Search results

1 – 10 of 605
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Margunn Bjørnholt

The purpose of this paper is to outline the background as well as methodological and epistemological aspects to, and the effects of, a follow‐up study 30 years later of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the background as well as methodological and epistemological aspects to, and the effects of, a follow‐up study 30 years later of the work‐sharing couples project, which is a Norwegian, experimental research project in the early 1970s. The aim of the project is to promote gender equality and a better work/life balance in families. In this paper the variation in work‐sharing and post work‐sharing trajectories over the life‐course is explored, mainly focusing on the impact of the work‐sharing arrangement on the couples' relations, their work/life balance and the well‐being of participants, the core objectives of the original project.

Design/methodology/approach

The original project has a small scale, interventionist design based on couples working part‐time and sharing childcare and housework; effects on family life and gender equality are documented by questionnaires and time diaries. In the follow‐up study, retrospective life‐course couple interviews with the original participants are used.

Findings

Revisiting the original project produced new insights into, the subversive and radical use of sex‐role theory in early Norwegian family sociology as an instrument of changing gender relations. In the follow‐up study, the high level of participation and the long duration of the arrangement would seem to qualify for a heightened level of expectation as to the effects of the experiment on the participants' lives. A high proportion of the couples are still married, and the work‐sharing arrangement has been regarded by the majority of participants to have had a positive impact on their marital relation, work/life balance and well‐being.

Practical implications

Insights gained from revisiting this project may prove fruitful when confronting contemporary dilemmas of work/life balance, as well as demographic and environmental challenges.

Originality/value

The original project is unique internationally owing to its theoretically subversive, interventionist design and reformatory ambition. The longitudinal follow‐up of the experiment is also unique in family research, and of great value for researchers into gender equality and the family.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Yu‐Cheng Lai and Santanu Sarkar

To measure the effects of work‐sharing arrangements on participants’ subsequent labor market outcomes in Taiwan such as full‐time employment rates, working hours of women…

Abstract

Purpose

To measure the effects of work‐sharing arrangements on participants’ subsequent labor market outcomes in Taiwan such as full‐time employment rates, working hours of women and men and the difference in scale effect and effect of substitution between hours and employment for women and men.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data from Manpower Utilization Survey, we applied the differences‐in‐differences estimation method to test the effects of work‐sharing arrangements on working hours, wage and employment. Multinomial logit was used to measure the effects of work sharing on full‐time employment. In order to correct the simultaneity and selectivity problems, we followed the Heckman two‐stage selection procedures to solve the selection bias, and used weighted least squares to solve heteroskedasticity in the wage and hour equations. The instrumental variable (IV) method was used to avoid simultaneity bias in the hour equation.

Findings

This paper found the restrictions enforced by law on working hours have negative effects on employees’ working conditions in certain industries in Taiwan. After controlling the working hours, we found the wages paid to women and men have increased subsequent to the enforcement of law. However, compared to men the net wage earned by women has increased to a lesser extent. It was further observed that with enactment of work‐sharing law, the employment rate of women has considerably declined since 2001. Main findings assimilating the results for hour, wage and full‐time employment suggest that a country like Taiwan (with work‐sharing arrangements implemented by law) has witnessed a smaller gap between women's and men's working time and wages during 2001‐2002. However, for the period of 2003‐2006 the amendment that introduced compressed work week brought a larger gender gap in working hours as well as wages. In other words, the implementation of work‐sharing law has reduced the gender gap in hours and wages during 2001‐2002, but the prevailing gender gap in hours as well as wages has worsened after the introduction of compressed work week during 2003‐2006.

Practical implications

An in‐depth analysis of labor market effects of work‐sharing law will be useful for the policymakers, especially those interested in understanding the impact of their policies on labor market outcomes like wage, hour and employment, and finding out whether policies were effective at reducing the gender gap in given outcomes.

Originality/value

Findings of the present study should not only provide the broad lessons for policymakers in Taiwan, but the results that have emerged from the country case study may be referred by other Asian countries who want to bring a change in working and employment conditions for their labor by implementing work‐sharing law.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 September 2010

Margunn Bjørnholt

This article outlines the longitudinal consequences for men who participated in the work‐sharing couples study which was a Norwegian, experimental research project in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article outlines the longitudinal consequences for men who participated in the work‐sharing couples study which was a Norwegian, experimental research project in the early 1970s. The aim of the original project was to promote gender equality and a better work/life balance in families; the design involved both spouses working part‐time and sharing childcare and housework. This paper aims to present the results of a longitudinal follow‐up study of the participants in the work‐sharing couples study. In this paper the work‐sharing men's part‐time adaptations and the impact of the work‐sharing arrangement on their careers is the main focus.

Design/methodology/approach

The original project had a small scale, interventionist design based on couples working part‐time and sharing childcare and housework; effects were documented by questionnaires and time diaries. In the follow‐up study 30 years later, retrospective life‐course couple interviews with the original participants were used. The current paper is based on an analysis of the couple interviews with a particular focus on the men's careers.

Findings

Obtaining part‐time work was not difficult, and working part‐time was mostly uncomplicated for the men. Neither did their working part time for a substantial amount of time have negative career effects, and they were rather successful professionally. Their experiences as work sharers were mainly positively valued at their workplaces as adding to managerial skills. For those who did not have a managerial career, this was due to personal choice rather than any negative effect of working part‐time.

Practical implications

Changing men's adaptations to work and care is high on the agenda in family research as well as in policy making and the findings from this study contributes to new knowledge which is of interest in research as well as policy making.

Originality/value

The original project was unique internationally, and so is the longitudinal follow‐up of this experiment. The work‐sharing men's part‐time adaptations and the longitudinal impact on their careers provide new and contra‐intuitive insights into the question of men, work and family.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Eileen Drew

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of…

Abstract

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total employment. It is estimated that in 1970, average annual hours worked per employee amounted to only 60% of those for 1870. Two major factors are attributed to explaining the underlying trend towards a reduction in working time: (a) the increase in the number of voluntary part‐time employees and (b) the decrease in average annual number of days worked per employee (Kok and de Neubourg, 1986). The authors noted that the growth rate of part‐time employment in many countries was greater than the corresponding rate of growth in full‐time employment.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 9 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Paul Rathkey

Rising unemployment in the 1970s and particularly over the last six years (1979–85) has focused trade union strategies on the question of job creation. The initial…

Abstract

Rising unemployment in the 1970s and particularly over the last six years (1979–85) has focused trade union strategies on the question of job creation. The initial response was largely a restatement of Keynesian macro‐economic policies plus a series of short‐term “special measures”. The deepening of the recession in the early 80s caused a minor re‐think and an examination of notions of work redistribution. The immediate solution was seen as “the shorter working week” and, despite a growing awareness of other options, this remans the cornerstone of TUC thinking and that of its major affiliates.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Nimruji Jammulamadaka

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the Bombay textile mills of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to provide an account of the roots of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the Bombay textile mills of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to provide an account of the roots of business–society relationship in India and contribute to postcolonial perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR). This search is premised on the understanding that India has embarked on industrialisation from a set of productive relations that differ from European feudalism.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study have been obtained from published works on Bombay Textile Mills such as Chandavarkar (1994, 2008), Morris (1965), Wolcott (2008) and Clark (1999) and some Annual Reports of Bombay Mill Owners Association. Further Kydd (1920) has been used for history of factory legislation in India.

Findings

Evidence suggests that practices in mills were informed by notions of custom and fairness, which resulted in flexible hours, socially acceptable wage outcomes and work sharing. Individual reputations built through use of discretion within networks of patronage spanned both workplace and neighbourhood, interlinking the social, ethical, political and economic lives of owners, jobbers and workers. Jobbers’ authority was earned in return for providing support to a production process, mirroring Birla’s (2009) “layered sovereignty” differing markedly from delegated managerial authority. Workers’ share in surplus value was important along with autonomy, both of which were negotiated through customary networks and protest.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that a postcolonial approach to CSR implies an expansive notion of responsibility that goes beyond a Western focus on wages to encompass worker autonomy and countervailing power. Postcolonial accounts of CSR history can only be understood as emerging from a triadic interaction of imperial interest, subordinated native business and native societal relationships. This contrasts with conventional approaches that look at CSR’s emergence simply as a process internal to that society. Account of Indian CSR trajectory is in part a journey of native business from responsible practices to a messy tessellation of legal exploitation and illegal customary concerns.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper suggest that it is possible that customary practices of care and concern might still be surviving in Indian business even if only in the illegal and informal realm. Thus CSR programs in the Indian context might be useful to bring to centre stage these customary practices.

Originality/value

This study documents the evolution of business–society relations in a post-colonial context and shows how they are different from the Western trajectory.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 August 2018

Ville-Veikko Pulkka

The purpose of this paper is to explore Finns’ labor market development predictions for the next ten years and shed light on preferred policy responses to the digital economy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore Finns’ labor market development predictions for the next ten years and shed light on preferred policy responses to the digital economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Nationally representative survey data employed in this paper were collected in autumn 2017. The data collection utilized a multiphase sampling, and the interviews (n=1004) were carried out on telephone to minimize selection-bias and produce demographically balanced data.

Findings

Over two-thirds (71 percent) of Finns do not expect technological unemployment to constitute a permanent problem in the digital economy. Nevertheless, 74 percent assume that technological unemployment will increase at least temporarily. A considerable majority (85 percent) also believe that future jobs will be more precarious. Younger generations, despite their currently weak position in the labor market, are surprisingly more optimistic in their predictions. Analysis of preferred policy responses support this paper’s main thesis that the Finnish view on the future of work is rather optimistic: education reforms and streamlining the current social security gather dedicated support, whereas more unconventional ideas such as basic income or work-sharing remain contested.

Originality/value

To predict possible barriers to labor mobility stemming from digital economy discourses and to anticipate possible political fluctuations, studies on the public view are needed. This research aims to provide a solid framework for further comparative explorations of the public view.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Jan Windebank

The purpose of this paper is to analyse work‐family reconciliation policy during the Sarkozy presidency in France, assessing the extent to which Sarkozy's injunction on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse work‐family reconciliation policy during the Sarkozy presidency in France, assessing the extent to which Sarkozy's injunction on the French to “work more to earn more” has provided a new frame for policy in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the policy debates and initiatives concerning work‐family reconciliation in France since 2007 and seeks to identify the frames of reference concerning the problems of and solutions to combining paid work and parenthood which have structured this policy process.

Findings

The change in employment policy away from work‐sharing and towards activation of previously economically‐inactive groups has influenced work‐family reconciliation policy in that both incentive measures (creation of more collective and subsidised childcare places) and coercive measures (reduction of the length of parental leave benefits) have been put in place or debated in order to increase the number of mothers of young children in the labour market. Feminist discourse has been used to justify proposals for the reduction in length of paid parental leaves representing an example of “triangulation” in which right‐wing governments invoke left‐wing ideology to defend policy.

Research limitations/implications

The present analysis emphasises the importance of incorporating the influence of the frames of reference which inform employment and poverty‐reduction policy into explaining approaches to work‐family reconciliation policy in France.

Originality/value

This article represents the first examination of work‐family reconciliation policy in France under President Sarkozy and emphasises the importance of incorporating employment‐related frames of reference in explaining work‐family reconciliation policy in the country.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1985

Preliminary work for subsequent assembly of structures, equipment and furnishing of the new A320 Airbus was initiated at the MBB Hamburg Plant on a sort of full scale…

Abstract

Preliminary work for subsequent assembly of structures, equipment and furnishing of the new A320 Airbus was initiated at the MBB Hamburg Plant on a sort of full scale ‘master aircraft’, known as an engineering mock‐up. According to the work‐sharing principle for the A320, all Airbus partners are participating in this work. The ‘master aircraft’ consists of a fuselage with wing centre section, LH main landing gear and the entire aft fuselage section.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 57 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Vlatka Hlupic

This paper aims to examine the leadership strategy of the publicly owned organisation, Innovation Norway, between 2014 and 2019, when it was under the leadership of former…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the leadership strategy of the publicly owned organisation, Innovation Norway, between 2014 and 2019, when it was under the leadership of former CEO Anita Krohn Traaseth.

Design/methodology/approach

The author, Vlatka Hlupic, Professor of Leadership and Organisational Transformation at Hult Ashridge Executive Education and CEO of The Management Shift Consulting Ltd, looked at Anita’s examples of courageous leadership while in office. Anita drew upon the different “levels” of individual mindset and corresponding organisational culture in the Emergent Leadership Model, in Vlatka’s book: The Management Shift.

Findings

Vlatka’s leadership strategy allowed Anita to oversee a cultural change in Innovation Norway from a traditional bureaucratic set-up to one based on entrepreneurship. Through trust and transparency, Anita was open with her staff and the Norwegian society at large about the transitional work, sharing not only good results but also difficult times and resistance, publishing her personal working contract as well as the organisation’s goals. Anita found Vlatka’s Emergent Leadership model an effective and honest way of guiding an existing culture into another culture.

Originality/value

Readers should come away with an understanding of how courageous leadership requires an acceptance that those in power cannot control everything. Delivering a process, a new way of thinking and working, can be an extremely challenging and risky transition, but effective leaders will believe in that process and follow it through, even if criticism and dissatisfaction occurs, in the knowledge that by being open and honest with their team throughout, they will reach business goals, unified and empowered.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

Keywords

1 – 10 of 605