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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Narelle Patton

Many forms of modern life are united by their fragility, temporary nature, vulnerability, and inclination to constant change (Bauman, 2012). The complex and fluid nature…

Abstract

Many forms of modern life are united by their fragility, temporary nature, vulnerability, and inclination to constant change (Bauman, 2012). The complex and fluid nature of 21st century society requires expansion of competence and skills focused university curricula. Academic institutions are challenged to rejuvenate curricula to encompass – besides the development of students’ technical and cognitive skills – the development of students’ ability to engage with and drive their own learning, thereby developing graduates who can thrive in a fluid world. Work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly being embraced as a possible remedy to answer this call for career-ready graduates (Goulter & Patrick, 2010). Consideration of specific work-integrated learning pedagogies underpinned by situated and workplace-learning theories that privilege student participation in workplace activities is required (Patton, Higgs, & Smith, 2013). The critical contribution of student disposition to the shaping and reshaping of workplace learning spaces and the central position of students in driving – not just receiving – workplace learning must be part of the pedagogical change. Building on my doctoral research that used photo-elicitation techniques to explore physiotherapy students’ learning in clinical workplaces (Patton, 2014), as well as contemporary literature, this chapter introduces visual spaces as a pedagogical strategy to assist students to drive their own unique learning in workplaces.

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Work-Integrated Learning in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-859-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Patricia M. Rowe

Work experience is increasingly seen as an important complement to traditional higher education. There are a variety of forms of these educational programs, such as…

Abstract

Work experience is increasingly seen as an important complement to traditional higher education. There are a variety of forms of these educational programs, such as internships, sandwich programs, field work, and cooperative education, that are referred to generically as Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). As yet, however, there is relatively little research on the concept of work experience and considerable inconsistency in its definition and measurement. This chapter describes some of the research and writing from the industrial and organizational psychology field and its relevance to WIL. Based on the previous work, a model of work experience, specifically developed to aid our understanding of the role of work experience in WIL, is proposed. Three dimensions are suggested: level of specificity (task, job, organization, and career), measurement mode (number, time, relation to program, density, timing, and type), and version of WIL (cooperative education, sandwich, etc.). The model also includes individual factors and contextual factors as influences on work experience. Both immediate and secondary outcomes are described. Finally, the applicability of the model to several examples of WIL research are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

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Work-Integrated Learning in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-859-8

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

AnneMarie Dorland, David J. Finch, Nadège Levallet, Simon Raby, Stephanie Ross and Alexandra Swiston

Work-integrated learning (WIL) has emerged as a leading pedagogy that blends theory with application. In recent years, policymakers, educators and practitioners have…

Abstract

Purpose

Work-integrated learning (WIL) has emerged as a leading pedagogy that blends theory with application. In recent years, policymakers, educators and practitioners have called for a significant expansion of WIL, one which would enable every undergraduate student has at least one WIL experience during their program of study. Despite these appeals, there remains a significant divide between the aspiration of universality and the realities. Consequently, the study asks the following question: How can post-secondary institutions expand their WIL initiatives to universal levels that deliver transformative learning?

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory study, the authors leverage research from entrepreneurship and management to develop a conceptual model of universal work-integrated learning (UWIL). Entrepreneurship and management research is relevant in this context, as the rapid introduction of a UWIL has transformative implications at the level of the individual (e.g. students, faculty), organization (e.g. processes) and the learning ecosystem (e.g. partners, policymakers) — issues at the core of research in entrepreneurship and management over the past two decades.

Findings

At the core of the authors’ proposal is the contention that the high-impact talent challenge and the delivery of UWIL must be reframed as not simply a challenge facing educators, but as a challenge facing the broader ecosystem of the workforce and the larger community. The authors propose the implementation of UWIL through an open innovation framework based on five strategic pillars.

Originality/value

Ultimately, the findings the authors present here can be leveraged by all members of the learning ecosystem, including administrators, faculty, policymakers, accreditation bodies and community partners, as a framework for operationalizing a UWIL strategy. The study’s model challenges all members of this learning ecosystem to operationalize a UWIL strategy. This entrepreneurial reframing introduces the potential for innovating the delivery of UWIL by leveraging the broader learning ecosystem to drive efficiencies and transformative learning.

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Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Finbar Lillis and Darryll Bravenboer

This article draws on a study of best practices in work-integrated learning (WIL) identified in the Middlesex University Degree Apprenticeships Development Fund (DADF…

Abstract

Purpose

This article draws on a study of best practices in work-integrated learning (WIL) identified in the Middlesex University Degree Apprenticeships Development Fund (DADF) Project, which examined their application for four public sector degree apprenticeships (DAs). The authors suggest that WIL pedagogical practices deployed to deliver DAs can bridge traditional pedagogical and occupational divisions while building institutional resilience in a post-viral world. The paper is intended to contribute to both practitioner and policy-level discourse regarding the best practice in WIL for DAs.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of key texts was used to identify “success characteristics” in WIL “signature” pedagogies, with potential applicability for DA design and delivery. These characteristics were used to frame interrogation of best pedagogical practices, using the best practice matrix developed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected expert practitioners to examine their matrix responses and to discuss the researcher's initial “read-across” analysis of best practices and possible implications for pedagogical practice in WIL for DAs across other sectors. This paper also draws on feedback from employer groups who were consulted on the project report recommendations and further feedback from a national project dissemination conference in 2018. The findings from the research project have also been re-evaluated with reference to further literature in the context of the challenges presented by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Findings

The findings from the study indicate that pedagogical best practices were to a significant degree transferable across professions and sectors; success characteristics in one pedagogical area (for example, mentoring/practice education) underpin success in another (recognition of prior learning [RPL] and practice-based assessment of achievement); success characteristics in WIL can also be applied and operated across professions and sectors to demonstrate how the best practice in WIL should be applied in the design of DAs more generally.

Research limitations/implications

The original project research study focussed on WIL pedagogical practices in four specified professions across four public sectors within one institution. This approach, though limited, enabled the research study to focus on in-depth qualitative interactions with practitioners from different sectors rather than institutional differences. As a consequence, the research study was able to focus on in-depth and dynamic interrelationships in pedagogical practice from the perspective of the professions, which facilitated productive examination of similarities and differences across these professions.

Originality/value

The research study provided evidence of the potential value of a more explicit recognition of WIL practice in the higher education sector and how consistent approaches to WIL should inform programme design. This has potential to improve the quality of curriculum design and pedagogy across DA programmes and provide a valuable reference point for quality assuring this provision.

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Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Karsten E. Zegwaard, Matthew Campbell and T. Judene Pretti

Much rhetoric around the construct of a work-ready graduate has focused on the technical abilities of students to fulfill the expectations of the future workplace. Efforts…

Abstract

Much rhetoric around the construct of a work-ready graduate has focused on the technical abilities of students to fulfill the expectations of the future workplace. Efforts have been made to extend from the technical skills (e.g., skills in calculation for engineers) to include soft or behavioral skills (e.g., communication). However, within previous models of understanding of the work-ready graduate there has been little done to explore them as critical moral agents within the workplace. That is, whilst the focus has been on being work-ready, it is argued here that in current and future workplaces it is more important for university graduates to be profession-ready. Our understanding of the profession-ready graduate is characterized by the ability to demonstrate capacities in critical thinking and reflection, and to have an ability to navigate the ethical challenges and shape the organizational culture of the future workplace.

This chapter aims to explore a movement of thinking away from simply aspiring to develop work-ready graduates, expanding this understanding to argue for the development of profession-ready graduates. The chapter begins with an exploration of the debates around the characteristics of being work-ready, and through a consideration of two professional elements: professional identity and critical moral agency, argues for a reframing of work-readiness towards professional-readiness. The chapter then considers the role of work-integrated learning (WIL) in being able to support the development of the profession-ready graduate.

Details

Work-Integrated Learning in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-859-8

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Norah McRae and Karima Ramji

Canadian postsecondary institutions are increasing their emphasis on internationalization, sending many students abroad and welcoming students from far and wide onto their…

Abstract

Canadian postsecondary institutions are increasing their emphasis on internationalization, sending many students abroad and welcoming students from far and wide onto their campuses. Also, Canadian organizations and multinational corporations have an increasingly diverse workforce. These trends require postsecondary institutions to prepare students adequately for this global village of the 21st century. At the University of Victoria’s (UVic’s) Co-operative Education Program and Career Services, we have created a strategy to help develop global ready graduates using a framework derived from Earley and Ang’s work on cultural intelligence (Earley & Ang, 2003). Cultural intelligence (CQ) is defined as an individual’s capability to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008). A recently completed research project to measure the development of cultural intelligence of students participating in the UVic’s CANEU-COOP program formed the impetus for developing this CQ strategy (McRae, Ramji, Lu, & Lesperance, 2016). The strategy involves a framework that includes curriculum for inbound international students, outbound work-integrated learning (WIL) students, and all students preparing to work in diverse workplaces. In addition to developing specific curricula for these audiences, the strategy includes tools to assess the intercultural competencies that students gain during their WIL experiences, as well as helping students use these competencies to transition to the 21st century global village. This strategy and the Intercultural Competency Development Curriculum (ICDC) are discussed in this chapter.

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Work-Integrated Learning in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-859-8

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Sandra Pennbrant and Lars Svensson

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe work-integrated learning (WIL) related to healthcare pedagogics, and to describe the distinctive aspects of research on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe work-integrated learning (WIL) related to healthcare pedagogics, and to describe the distinctive aspects of research on WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics.

Design/methodology/approach

The general purpose of this theoretical paper is to define and formulate a research agenda within WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics.

Findings

WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics is a multidisciplinary field of knowledge encompassing education, health sciences and social sciences, and focuses on research and knowledge-creation involving nursing schools in higher education, healthcare organizations and the surrounding community.

Originality/value

The starting point of the research environment is the ambition to gain knowledge about the conditions, processes and outcomes in healthcare education and healthcare organizations, both individually and collectively, intra- and inter-professionally, in the perspective of life-long learning. WIL with specialization in healthcare pedagogics is a research area that can carry out important research in healthcare education and healthcare organization and, thus, contribute to high-quality care meeting current and future needs.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Evangeline Elijido-Ten and Louise Kloot

Work-integrated learning (WIL) helps improve the work readiness of accounting graduates. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role played by large and…

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Abstract

Purpose

Work-integrated learning (WIL) helps improve the work readiness of accounting graduates. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role played by large and small-to-medium enterprise (SME) employers in providing experiential learning opportunities to accounting students in an Australian higher education context.

Design/methodology/approach

Case-study data for this research were collected from the case university’s processes, semi-structured in-depth interviews with employer representatives and online survey with WIL students.

Findings

The analysis reveals that both SMEs and large firms provide good training opportunities that enhance the student’s experiential learning particularly when proper WIL structures for pre-placement processes, training, supervision and performance reviews are in place. The results also confirm that WIL is seen as a positive experience by employers and students alike.

Originality/value

There is a three-way partnership between the university, employers and students in a WIL contract. Calls for collaborative research involving all three parties have been made to enhance WIL programs. This study is a response to this call.

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Alperhan Babacan and Hurriyet Babacan

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper draws on learning from Australia, England and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The backdrop of this conceptual paper is WIL and transformative education. The text begins with a critique of existing WIL frameworks and practices in legal education in Australia, England and the USA. This exposes a focus on skills enhancement at the expense of social and personal transformation. Drawing on transformative learning, the paper proposes practices which can be used in WIL offered in legal education to enhance personal and social transformation.

Findings

There is very little literature on how legal education and WIL in legal education can enhance personal and social transformation. Tensions continue to exist between the predominant aim of instilling the legal skills necessary to ensure that graduates are prepared for legal practice through WIL programmes and between the need to simultaneously enhance critical consciousness and social transformation necessary for active participation in social and professional life.

Research limitations/implications

More research is required on the best manner in which the ideals and practices of emancipatory education can be installed within WIL programmes so as to successfully reduce the tensions between the instilling of legal skills required to practice law and the need to train students to be holistic, critical and constructive thinkers.

Practical implications

The suggestions made in this paper provide a framework to adopt critical pedagogies in the provision of WIL in legal education. The theoeretical and practice-based suggestions presented in this paper are also relevant to other professional disciplines where personal transformation is desired.

Originality/value

The literature on legal education predominantly focuses on enhancing lawyering skills and competencies and there is an absence of the utilisation of transformative pedagogies in legal education generally and WIL offered in legal education. Drawing predominantly on the literature and practices relating to legal education in Australia and incorporating comparative insights from England and the USA, the paper contributes to the broader literature on transformative learning. Most significantly, the paper contributes specifically to the use of transformative pedagogies in WIL offered in legal education through the suggestion of practices relating to critical reflection and dialogue which are not commonly used in legal education.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

Christine Bilsland, Leanne Carter and Leigh N. Wood

Research into employability initiatives such as work integrated learning (WIL) in transnational education (TNE) is scarce, and the alumni voice in TNE is largely…

Abstract

Purpose

Research into employability initiatives such as work integrated learning (WIL) in transnational education (TNE) is scarce, and the alumni voice in TNE is largely unreported. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to TNE research by investigating the value of internship electives in the TNE campus location.

Design/methodology/approach

A grounded theory approach employed semi-structured interviews with local business undergraduate alumni in Vietnam.

Findings

Internships were instrumental to local graduate employment transitions. University support of WIL internships was a valuable differentiator in the Vietnamese university context, where internships lack formal support mechanisms. Alumni regarded internships as transformational learning journeys, rather than simply as pathways to post-graduate jobs.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of the study was Vietnam. Findings imply the importance of incorporating local stakeholder perspectives into TNE, particularly regarding WIL.

Practical implications

Universities that operate in transnational environments must meet local stakeholder needs by providing authentic, industry-related learning activities. The findings support the integration of WIL internships into TNE programmes in Vietnam and further research relevant to other TNE contexts.

Originality/value

The study contributes to underdeveloped TNE research around employability in general, and more specifically about the particular value of internships in TNE campus locations. Alumni stakeholders constitute uniquely valuable feedback sources based on their shared experience as TNE students, interns and graduate employees in local work environments. Their insights enable universities to facilitate locally relevant learning outcomes.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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