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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Heike Schütter and Sabine Boerner

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perception of the work‐family interface in an expatriation context. Furthermore, potential antecedents of work‐family

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the perception of the work‐family interface in an expatriation context. Furthermore, potential antecedents of work‐family enrichment and work‐family conflict in the work as well as in the family domain are identified and potential gender differences in perceptions sought.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory approach was adopted. The authors conducted in‐depth interviews with 15 expatriates and repatriates that were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

Work‐to‐family conflict was perceived as a time‐based conflict, whereas family‐to‐work conflict was perceived as an energy‐based conflict. Work‐family enrichment (i.e. work‐to‐family; family‐to‐work) was perceived as a transfer of skills and mood. Furthermore, at least in an expatriation context, the work‐family interface is reflected in more reciprocal influences than are currently presented in existing concepts. In total, four potential antecedents of work‐family interaction were identified: social support at work; development opportunities at work; family social support; and family adjustment. Finally, gender differences in the perception of the work‐family interface could be revealed.

Research limitations/implications

First, the interviews were analysed solely by one person; consequently, inter‐rater‐reliability could not be tested. Second, a direct relationship between each potential antecedent and work‐family interaction can only be hypothesized.

Practical implications

The findings enable companies to implement support strategies that foster a positive interaction between the work and the family domain which, in turn, will enhance expatriation success.

Originality/value

The study provides one of the first exploratory examinations of the perception of the complete work‐family interface in an expatriation context. Furthermore, this is one of the few studies that include female and male international assignees in the sample and therefore can give a balanced perspective of the work‐family interface among male and female assignees.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Dawn S. Carlson, Joseph G. Grzywacz and K. Michele Kacmar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of schedule flexibility with performance and satisfaction in the work and family domains, and whether these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of schedule flexibility with performance and satisfaction in the work and family domains, and whether these associations are mediated by the work‐family interface. Possible gender differences in the putative benefits of schedule flexibility are also to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 607 full‐time employees in either schedule flexibility or traditional working arrangements the authors tested a moderated‐mediation model. Regression was used to test the mediation of work‐family and the moderation of gender to the schedule flexibility to work‐family path.

Findings

Both work‐to‐family conflict and work‐to‐family enrichment are mediating mechanisms in the relationship of schedule flexibility with outcomes. More specifically, full mediation was found for job satisfaction and family performance for both enrichment and conflict while partial mediation was found for family satisfaction with enrichment only and mediation was not supported for job performance. Finally, gender moderated the schedule flexibility to work‐family conflict relationship such that women benefited more from flexible working arrangements than men.

Originality/value

The paper adds value by examining a mediation mechanism in the schedule flexibility with the outcome relationship of the work‐family interface. It also adds value by including work‐family enrichment which is a key variable but has little research. Finally, it adds value by demonstrating that schedule flexibility plays a stronger role for women than men regarding the work‐family interface.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Monika Agrawal and Ritika Mahajan

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Using conservation of resources (COR) theory the study investigates the interrelationships between optimism, bidirectional work-family conflict, enrichment, and psychological health.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered from 356 Indian police officers using a survey questionnaire and purposive sampling technique.

Findings

The results inform that optimism mitigates family to work conflict (FWC) and fosters work to family enrichment (WFE), family to work enrichment (FEW), and psychological health in the police. The results further suggest optimism influences psychological health via WFE (partial mediation). However, FWC and FEW do not influence mental health.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in a specific culture and context (Rajasthan police), so results cannot be generalized. The study discusses the practical implications for police practitioners.

Originality/value

The study adds to work-family literature by considering personal differences that have received less space in work-family models. To the best of authors' knowledge, none of the previous studies have considered optimism, the work-family interface and psychological health in the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Katarina Katja Mihelič

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of work-family and family-work conflict and enrichment in predicting job satisfaction and its subsequent relation with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of work-family and family-work conflict and enrichment in predicting job satisfaction and its subsequent relation with turnover intentions in a transition country.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the role of work-family and family-work conflict and enrichment in predicting job satisfaction and its subsequent relation with turnover intentions in a transition country.

Findings

While work-family enrichment was significantly and positively related to job satisfaction, family-work enrichment was not. A similar pattern was observed for conflict, whereby only work-family conflict exhibited a positive relation to job satisfaction. Moreover, job satisfaction partially mediated the relationships between work-family interface and turnover intentions. The results revealed indirect effects of work-family enrichment and work-family conflict on turnover intentions.

Originality/value

This study is unique because it tested the relationships among the negative and positive sides of the work-family interface and job attitudes in a transition country in CEE, an underrepresented cultural context in the work-family literature. Furthermore, it tested the direct and indirect effects of work-family interface on turnover intentions. In addition, it provided evidence of the significance of same-domain effects and insignificance of cross-domain effects.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Aakanksha Sehgal and Preetam Khandelwal

The present study aims to examine work–family interface and explore its relationship with some key psycho-social variables amongst women entrepreneurs in the urban Indian context.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to examine work–family interface and explore its relationship with some key psycho-social variables amongst women entrepreneurs in the urban Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has adopted a quantitative design, whereby data collected using a questionnaire from 164 women entrepreneurs was analysed using hierarchical regression.

Findings

Findings indicate that core self-evaluations, role involvement and social support worked in tandem towards diminishing conflict and driving enrichment. The role of family support and family involvement in enabling family-to-work enrichment suggests that work–family synergies could work to the unique advantage of women entrepreneurs. Work involvement was also seen to be related positively with work-to-family enrichment and negatively with family-to-work conflict.

Research limitations/implications

The linkages between key psycho-social factors and work–family interface need to be studied on larger and varied samples, using alternative scales, for greater generalizability of results. Longitudinal research could also bring out valuable insights related to the effect of life cycle stages and other family characteristics on work–family interface.

Practical implications

Work–family interface should be regarded as a fundamental business imperative with crucial implications for the venture. Self-development training and counselling in Entrepreneurship Development Programmes for women can shield them from conflict and its negative consequences while incorporating key behaviours to foster enrichment instead.

Originality/value

The present study is the first empirical research to examine work–family enrichment and its relationship with core self-evaluations, role involvement and social support for women entrepreneurs in the Indian context.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Michelle Turner and Anthony Mariani

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work-family experience of projects managers working in the construction industry, and identify how they manage their work-family

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work-family experience of projects managers working in the construction industry, and identify how they manage their work-family interface.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured interviews were conducted with nine construction project managers working in the commercial sector, and data were subject to thematic analysis.

Findings

Role conditions were found to impact on participants’ work-family interface, identified as working hours, accountability, and the stress arising from accountability. Participants identified four key strategies used to manage their work-family interface: managing work-based stress, having a supportive partner, prioritising non-work time for family, and trading off activities. Despite having to limit time with family and trade off social and leisure activities, participants did not report negative work-to-family spillover. All participants shared a passion for their work. Findings can be explained using the heavy worker investment model, which proposes that job devotion is linked to psychological well-being, decreases in work-family conflict (WFC), and work satisfaction.

Originality/value

Contrary to previous research, findings suggest that construction project managers did not experience inter-role conflict between their work and family domains. It is recommended that further research explore these findings using the heavy work investment (HWI) framework which considers how internal and external predictors shape workers’ behaviour, and whether HWI typologies moderate the experience of WFC.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Aaron Cohen

The question of how to strike a balance between work and life is attracting increasing attention from both scholars and practitioners. This paper aims to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The question of how to strike a balance between work and life is attracting increasing attention from both scholars and practitioners. This paper aims to examine the relationship between individual level values, using Schwartz's basic human values theory, and the work‐family conflict (WFC), the family‐work conflict (FWC), and coping strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 122 employees from two Israeli high tech companies participated in this survey. The portrait values questionnaire (PVQ) was used to measure ten basic values. The PVQ includes short verbal portraits of 40 different people, gender matched with the respondent. Work‐family conflict and family‐work conflict were measured by the scales developed by Netemeyer et al. Personal coping was measured using the 16 items of Kirchmeyer's scale of coping strategies. Regression and correlation analysis were used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings showed a strong relationship between power and the three independent variables. Schwartz's ten values explained a relatively large percentage of the variation in the work‐family conflict and the use of coping strategies.

Originality/value

While there has been a growing trend to examine individual level values in order to better understand the attitudes and behaviors of employees in the workplace, very few studies have examined whether and how individual values are related to the interface between work and family. This paper responded to the call for such research. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the continuation of research on individual values in their relationship to the work‐family interface.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Timothy D. Ryan and Michael Sagas

Athletic coaches are responsible for team relationships and a team's performance, yet many may leave the coaching profession or withdraw from team management because of…

Abstract

Purpose

Athletic coaches are responsible for team relationships and a team's performance, yet many may leave the coaching profession or withdraw from team management because of work‐family issues. The purpose of this study is to use ecological theory as a guide to theorize on the relationships between work‐factors and work‐family outcomes for team leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 601 college coaches. Using an online questionnaire, participants evaluated their supervisory support, autonomy in their job, and various work‐family factors. Specifically, the effects of the work‐factors of autonomy and supervisory support were examined on work‐family variables. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested that the fit for coaches and their work‐family interface is best explained by four work‐family dimensions – two directional conflict dimensions and two directional enrichment dimensions. Results suggest that supervisory support correlates with lower conflict and greater enrichment. Additionally, coaches reported that an autonomous workplace correlated with lower conflict and greater work enrichment with family.

Practical implications

Results suggest that it is beneficial to help the coach/team leader to improve fit, even though conflict is inevitable. Previously mentioned, and found throughout the results, was the effectiveness of the supervisor at alleviating conflict and amplifying enrichment.

Social implications

A reason for the disparate number of women in team leadership positions has been family pressure. This research is expected to lay a foundation for future research on the beneficial aspects of multiple role participation.

Originality/value

This research builds on past work on the work‐family fit, which originally focused heavily on conflict, but has just recently started looking at the beneficial aspects of multiple role participation.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Doo Hun Lim, Myungweon Choi and Ji Hoon Song

The aim of this study is to validate the Korean version of the work‐family enrichment (WFE) scale and identify the current status of work‐family enrichment of workers…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to validate the Korean version of the work‐family enrichment (WFE) scale and identify the current status of work‐family enrichment of workers within the Korean cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a forward and backward translation procedure to develop the Korean version of the WFE scale, which contains the linguistic equivalence between the two language versions of the WFE scale (English and Korean). Also, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were utilized to test the psychometric fit of the underlying structure of the Korean WFE scale compared with the English version.

Findings

The results indicate that the Korean version of the WFE indicates psychometric properties parallel to the English version of the WFE. The findings also include differences in the WFE mean scores for Korean workers based on demographic and work‐related variables.

Originality/value

As in the USA, improving the work‐family balance is perceived as a social imperative in other cultural settings. Empirical studies conducted in the Korean context can potentially demonstrate how individualist‐based hypotheses regarding work‐family interface fit a collectivist‐based cultural setting.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Ujvala Rajadhyaksha

This study asks the following research question: does “city” context interact with gender and gender egalitarianism (GE) to impact the positive (WFPOS – work–family

Abstract

Purpose

This study asks the following research question: does “city” context interact with gender and gender egalitarianism (GE) to impact the positive (WFPOS – work–family positive spillover) and negative (WFC - work-family conflict) aspects of the work–family (WF) interface of working men and women in India.

Design/methodology/approach

MANCOVA analysis is used to examine data gathered from 250+ working men and women from eight different Indian cities that were ranked based on the 2018 Ease of Living (EOL) Index.

Findings

There was no significant main effect of gender on WF interface variables. Low levels of GE and low EOL were significantly associated with high levels of WFC and WFPOS. There was a significant interaction between gender, GE and city. An examination of within-gender differences indicated that in low-EOL cities, men and women with low values of GE (traditionals) had significantly higher time-based WFC than men and women with high values of GE (egalitarians). Additionally, traditional women reported higher WFPOS than egalitarian women. In high-EOL cities, traditional men reported significantly higher time-based WFC than egalitarian men. There were no significant differences between women.

Research limitations/implications

Gender, along with gender-related attitudinal and contextual variables, does a better job of explaining variance in the WF interface as compared to gender alone. Results support the notion that high WFPOS and high WFC can co-occur in contexts of change and transition such as rapidly growing urban centers.

Practical implications

The results have significance for work–family practitioners as well as urban city planners looking to improve the quality of work–life in India and other similar emerging market economies experiencing rapid urbanization.

Originality/value

The study extends work–family research by bringing aspects of urban planning and gender studies into an understanding of the work–family interface.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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