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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Shazia Nauman, Connie Zheng and Ameer A. Basit

This study contributes to the leadership literature by examining how and when despotic leadership jeopardizes employees' performance. Specifically, we examine whether…

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the leadership literature by examining how and when despotic leadership jeopardizes employees' performance. Specifically, we examine whether employees' job performance could be harmed by despotic supervision through employees' work withdrawal behaviour. Moreover, we investigate whether the quality of work-life (QWL) helps in toning down the harmful effects of despotic supervision on work withdrawal.

Design/methodology/approach

We used a multi-wave research design with data collected from 195 employees and their supervisors working in Pakistan's manufacturing sector. At time 1, we measured the independent variable (i.e. despotic leadership) and moderator (QWL), whereas, at time-2, the mediator (work withdrawal) was tapped by the same respondent with a time interval of three weeks between them. At time 3, the outcome (supervisor-rated job performance) was assessed directly by the supervisors.

Findings

The results support the mediating effect between despotic leadership and employees' performance through an enhanced level of work withdrawal behaviour. The effect of despotic leadership on job performance via work withdrawal behaviour was found to be weaker among employees with a higher level of QWL.

Practical implications

For individuals, QWL serves as an enhancement of personal resources to deal with despotic leaders at the workplace; for organizations, our study results alert managers and leaders at the workplace to address employees' need for QWL as this positive resource may discourage work withdrawal behaviour and stimulate employees to perform well in their jobs despite facing despotic supervision.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the leadership literature by introducing work withdrawal as an underlying mechanism to explain the despotic leadership – job performance relationship. Further, we examined how the harmful effects of despotic leadership can be toned down through the moderating variable of QWL thus having practical implications for both employers and employees.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Xiaohui Wang and Haibo Wang

The purpose of the present research is to investigate the mechanisms by which conflict with customers (i.e. customer mistreatment) contributes to employees’ work withdrawal.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present research is to investigate the mechanisms by which conflict with customers (i.e. customer mistreatment) contributes to employees’ work withdrawal.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tests its hypotheses by means of a field study of a sample of front-line health care workers in China. Data were collected in three waves over four months; a total of 398 health care workers completed the questionnaires and represented the final sample. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that mistreatment by customers contributes to employees’ work withdrawal, and emotional exhaustion serves as a mediator in this linkage. In addition, social support moderates the positive relation between customer mistreatment and employees’ emotional exhaustion, whereas conscientiousness moderates the positive relation between emotional exhaustion and withdrawal behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used may not fully justify the generalizability of the research results. Without distinguishing different sources of social support may be another limitation. In addition, this study could be improved by using a multi-source survey design.

Practical implications

To help employees effectively cope with interpersonal conflict with customers, organizations should take action to promote communication between employees and their supervisors and coworkers. It is also advisable for organizations to adjust their selection strategies and hire front-line employees high in conscientiousness.

Originality/value

This research presents a resource-based framework to illuminate the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to customer mistreatment on health care workers’ withdrawal behavior in Chinese context. Furthermore, this study examines factors that may serve to mitigate the harmful effects of customer mistreatment and regards workplace social support and conscientiousness as two different kinds of resources that can play dissimilar roles when employees are coping with customer mistreatment.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2020

Chanhoo Song and Chul Ho Lee

A worker with a proactive personality actively pursues changes in the environment instead of maintaining the status quo, leading to an expected result of a negative…

Abstract

Purpose

A worker with a proactive personality actively pursues changes in the environment instead of maintaining the status quo, leading to an expected result of a negative relationship between proactive personality and psychological withdrawal behaviors. The authors propose that based on the trait activation theory (TAT), this negative relationship is moderated by servant leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data collected from subway station workers in three metropolitan cities in South Korea supported all the hypothesized relationships. Even though the workers are not public servants, the subway companies are owned by three metropolitan cities. With reliability and validity tests for the measurements, the authors performed an ordinary least square (OLS) hierarchical multiple regression analysis for hypotheses testing.

Findings

A multilevel analysis showed that the higher a worker's proactive personality is, the less likely it is that he/she shows withdrawal behaviors at work and that the negative relationship between the two is stronger under servant leadership. An organization pursuing maximization of its members' proactive personality may find an advantage in servant leadership.

Research limitations/implications

First, the data was collected from three metropolitan city-owned companies, which may have different work attitudes and behaviors. Second, the authors hypothesized and found a negative relationship between the predictor and the dependent variable. To apply TAT more appropriately, the dependent variable could have been a positive work behavior showing a positive relationship between the predictor and the dependent variable.

Originality/value

The results of this study have both theoretical and empirical implications. In terms of theoretical implication, the study rather indirectly supports TAT. While Greenbaum et al. (2017) demonstrated the triggering effect of abusive supervision on employees' Machiavellianism, which leads to unethical behaviors, this study showed a stronger negative relationship between proactive personality and psychological withdrawal behaviors. This study provided empirical evidence showing servant leadership's role in lowering negative behaviors. This study's findings suggest how an organization could maximize the benefits of members' proactive personality under high servant leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Raed Ibrahim Mohamad Ibrahim, Okechukwu Lawrence Emeagwali and Murat Akkaya

Workplace flourishing and withdrawal behavior are important concepts for human resource practitioners in today’s multicultural and multilingual work atmosphere. Despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Workplace flourishing and withdrawal behavior are important concepts for human resource practitioners in today’s multicultural and multilingual work atmosphere. Despite the prevalence of linguistic ostracism, only a handful of studies have considered its impact on workplace flourishing and withdrawal behavior. This paper embarks on unveiling the nature of these associations.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of n = 395 employee responses was obtained from Jordanian tourism and hospitality organizations. The data were analyzed with the variance-based structural equation modeling (VB-SEM) technique using ADANCO software.

Findings

VB-SEM results indicate that linguistic ostracism reduces workplace flourishing and indirectly increases withdrawal behavior through the mediating role of workplace flourishing. Decreased feelings of workplace flourishing resulted in increased withdrawal behavior.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to empirically examine the association between linguistic ostracism, workplace flourishing and withdrawal behavior and the mediating role of workplace flourishing using ethnolinguistic identity and stressor–emotion theories as a theoretical framework. Implications for practice and theory are discussed alongside future research directions.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Ling Jiang, Kristijan Mirkovski, Jeffrey D. Wall, Christian Wagner and Paul Benjamin Lowry

Drawing on sensemaking and emotion regulation research, the purpose of this paper is to reconceptualize core contributor withdrawal (CCW) in the context of online…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on sensemaking and emotion regulation research, the purpose of this paper is to reconceptualize core contributor withdrawal (CCW) in the context of online peer-production communities (OPPCs). To explain the underlying mechanisms that make core contributors withdraw from these communities, the authors propose a process theory of contributor withdrawal called the core contributor withdrawal theory (CCWT).

Design/methodology/approach

To support CCWT, a typology of unmet expectations of online communities is presented, which uncovers the cognitive and emotional processing involved. To illustrate the efficacy of CCWT, a case study of the English version of Wikipedia is provided as a representative OPPC.

Findings

CCWT identifies sensemaking and emotion regulation concerning contributors’ unmet expectations as causes of CCW from OPPCs, which first lead to declined expectations, burnout and psychological withdrawal and thereby to behavioral withdrawal.

Research limitations/implications

CCWT clearly identifies how and why important participation transitions, such as from core contributor to less active contributor or non-contributor, take place. By adopting process theories, CCWT provides a nuanced explanation of the cognitive and affective events that take place before core contributors withdraw from OPPCs.

Practical implications

CCWT highlights the challenge of online communities shifting from recruiting new contributors to preventing loss of existing contributors in the maturity stage. Additionally, by identifying the underlying cognitive and affective processes that core contributors experience in response to unexpected events, communities can develop safeguards to prevent or correct cognitions and emotions that lead to withdrawal.

Originality/value

CCWT provides a theoretical framework that accounts for the negative cognitions and affects that lead to core contributors’ withdrawal from online communities. It furthers the understanding of what motivates contributing to and what leads to withdrawal from OPPC.

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

The purpose was to explore the role of work engagement in mediating between the resources of reverse mentoring and job crafting and the potential outcomes of improved…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose was to explore the role of work engagement in mediating between the resources of reverse mentoring and job crafting and the potential outcomes of improved performance and work withdrawal behavior

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigated the subjects in the Indian IT sector. They administered a survey online to volunteers from 14 software firms. They received 369 completed questionnaires. The majority of respondents were aged between 25 and 34 and 73.7pc were men.

Findings

Results showed that both reverse monitoring and job crafting increase levels of work engagement, leading to improved performance and less work withdrawal behavior. The study also looked at work engagement as a mediating factor: It partially mediated the relationship between job crafting and both outcomes, fully mediated the relationship between reverse mentoring and withdrawal behavior, and partially mediated the relationship between reverse monitoring and work performance.

Originality/value

The results have practical implications. Organizations need to take note that reverse monitoring and job crafting could motivate employees to reciprocate in kind with higher levels of work engagement. By fostering opportunities for reverse monitoring, organizations could stimulate learning and connections across management levels and age groups. Meanwhile, job crafting would help employees to focus on their strengths, or areas of interest, making their work more enjoyable and productive.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Natasha M. Loi, Jennifer M.I. Loh and Donald W. Hine

There is a vast array of literature which investigates the concept and impact of workplace incivility. Evidence suggests that compared to male employees, female employees…

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2274

Abstract

Purpose

There is a vast array of literature which investigates the concept and impact of workplace incivility. Evidence suggests that compared to male employees, female employees tend to experience and put up more with workplace incivility. However, there is limited research on how this affects female employee’s willingness to complete work-related tasks. The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine whether gender moderates the role between tolerance for workplace incivility and those behaviours characterised by work withdrawal.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 317 employees from a range of business industries and governmental agencies completed a quantitative survey of measures relating to their work withdrawal behaviour and their perception of their workplaces’ tolerance for uncivil behaviours.

Findings

Results revealed that when females perceived high levels of tolerance for workplace incivility, they decreased their work withdrawal behaviour. No relationship between tolerance for workplace incivility and work withdrawal was found for males.

Research limitations/implications

The homogeneity of the sample, that is, the sample comprised predominantly of white-collar, White Australian workers.

Practical implications

Improve managers and organisations’ knowledge and understanding about deviant workplace behaviours – especially between male and female employees.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the work in the workplace incivility, diversity-gender and equity research area. Specifically, it highlights how male and female employees react when they perceive that their workplace tolerates deviant behaviours. This knowledge will inform managers and their organisations of a more effective way of managing conflict.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Neha Garg, Wendy Murphy and Pankaj Singh

Reverse mentoring and job crafting are innovative, employee-driven job resources that can lead to positive organizational outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Reverse mentoring and job crafting are innovative, employee-driven job resources that can lead to positive organizational outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of work engagement in mediating the association of these resources with work performance and work withdrawal behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling on data obtained from 369 software developers in India.

Findings

Findings demonstrate that reverse mentoring and job crafting are positively related to work engagement, which, in turn, increase performance and decreases work withdrawal behaviors. Work engagement partially mediates the association of job crafting with both outcomes. In contrast, work engagement fully mediates the relationship between reverse mentoring and withdrawal behavior and partially mediates the relationship between reverse mentoring and work performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study is a cross-sectional, survey design in the understudied technical industry in India, which may limit generalizability. However, the authors also connect the previously unrelated literatures on reverse mentoring and work engagement and develop a scale for use in future reverse mentoring studies.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence to support practitioners in implementing resources for reverse mentoring and job crafting to increase work engagement among employees and subsequent positive outcomes.

Originality/value

Organizations can support reverse mentoring and job crafting as cost effective employee development tools. The research focuses on the mentors, who tend to be the less experienced and younger counterparts in a reverse mentoring pair and a critical part of the workforce for the growing IT industry.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Orly Shapira‐Lishchinsky

The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms – lateness, absence, and intent…

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1338

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms – lateness, absence, and intent to leave work.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for this analysis, which simultaneously measures lateness using the negative binomial distribution, absence using the Poisson distribution, and intent to leave using the normal distribution.

Findings

Findings indicate that the different dimensions of organizational ethics were related to one another. Formal climate and distributive justice were found to be negatively related to lateness, while a caring climate was found to be negatively related to absence frequency, and procedural justice was found to be negatively related to intent to leave. The results indicate certain differences between ethical predictors, which may arise from extrinsic motivation factors and those that may arise from intrinsic motivation factors. As regards socio‐demographic predictors, women teachers exhibit more absence and less intent to leave than men. Teachers with high seniority at their school prefer to respond with absence and a reduced intent to leave, and as the teacher's age rises, the lower are lateness and absence frequency.

Practical implications

School leadership should develop an integrative approach which includes ethics and socio‐demographic factors in order to reduce teachers' withdrawal behaviors. Such an approach may be achieved through training programs, developing clear rules, incentives and delegation of power.

Originality/value

The results offer an integrative framework by simultaneously considering various aspects of ethics, withdrawal behaviors, and socio‐demographic predictors.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Lorena R. Perez-Floriano and Jorge A. Gonzalez

Integrating the transactional model of stress with risk analysis perspectives and death awareness theory, this paper aims to explore how job-related risks and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Integrating the transactional model of stress with risk analysis perspectives and death awareness theory, this paper aims to explore how job-related risks and the experience of a critical job injury influence work stress and withdrawal intentions for workers in dangerous occupations, as well as the relationship between stress and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study relies on survey and archival data from Mexican police officers, taking into account the occupational and national context.

Findings

The results showed differences between officers who had or had not been injured in the line of duty and a complex stress-performance relationship for the former group. Officers who had been injured reported higher job-related risks and work stress. Also, for them, work stress had a direct, positive relationship with job performance, as well as an indirect, negative relationship with such outcome through work withdrawal intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The uniqueness of the setting may present problems with generalisability, but the study provides a rich contextual description to guide scholars and practitioners. The complex work stress – job performance relationship implies that managers can assess and use workers’ construction of danger and risk to improve their work performance, but that they should be mindful of potential adverse repercussions on work withdrawal.

Originality/value

The study informs the transactional model of stress and the monolithic model of police culture, affirms the role of perception of resources to manage risk and stress in dangerous occupations, introduces the role of mortality cues in shaping risk perceptions and points to the benefits of performance metrics in risk and work stress research.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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