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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Sílvia Monteiro, Leandro Almeida and Adela García-Aracil

This study addresses the specific topic of transition between higher education and the world of work, taking differences naturally inherent to the individual and to the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study addresses the specific topic of transition between higher education and the world of work, taking differences naturally inherent to the individual and to the surrounding micro and macro contexts. With a holistic approach, this paper aimed to provide a deeper understanding about the university-to-work transition process in a period of turbulence and continuous changes in the labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

The three research questions that guide this qualitative study are as follows: (1) What are the factors that facilitate the transition to the labour market? (2) What are the factors that constrain the transition to the labour market? (3) What are graduates' perceptions of their employability? To answer these questions, eleven graduates were interviewed about facilitators and barriers of the transition process and perceptions of employability. Data collected from the interviews were then related to categories previously defined from the literature review. Version 12.0 of the NVivo software was used to support the process of data analysis.

Findings

Overall, participants' discourse refer to a multidimensional and dynamic perspective of factors related with work transition and employability. The obtained results indicate that the lack of career agency during graduation and professional experiences, together with late career exploration processes, represent possible barriers of transition, especially in study fields with targeted job offers. Likewise, experiences promoting the development of competencies through supportive practice from teachers, mentors and colleagues are referred as facilitators of transition.

Practical implications

One of the most consistent outcomes of the interviews conducted concerns the importance of a stronger focus on developing practical experiences during higher education studies. This empirical study demonstrated how this type of experience can mitigate the impact of the transition from university to the labour market.

Originality/value

This empirical study demonstrated how work being integrated into learning in curricula can mitigate the impact of the transition from university to the labour market. It offers important insights about possible strategies that could be adopted to promote graduates' employability from a perspective of shared responsibility.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Jessie Koen, Annelies Van Vianen, Ute-Christine Klehe and Jelena Zikic

The purpose of this paper is to explore how disadvantaged young adults construct a positive work-related identity in their transition from unemployment to employment, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how disadvantaged young adults construct a positive work-related identity in their transition from unemployment to employment, and what enables or constrains a successful transition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 apprentices of a reemployment program (Jamie Oliver’s Fifteen). The qualitative data were complemented by data on participants’ reemployment status one year after the program ended.

Findings

Identity construction was not preceded by clear motives or “possible selves.” Rather, serendipitous events led to participation in the reemployment program, after which provisional selves seemed to emerge through different pathways. The data also suggested that disadvantaged young adults had to discard their old selves to consolidate their new identity.

Research limitations/implications

A successful transition from unemployment to employment may require that old selves must be discarded before new selves can fully emerge. Given that our qualitative design limits the generalizability of the findings, the authors propose a process model that deserves further empirical examination.

Practical implications

A clear employment goal is not always required for the success of a reemployment intervention: interventions should rather focus on accommodating the emergence and consolidation of provisional selves. Yet, such programs can be simultaneously effective and unhelpful: especially group identification should be monitored.

Originality/value

Most research assumes that people are driven by specific goals when making a transition. The current study shows otherwise: the factors that enable or constrain a successful transition are not to be found in people’s goals, but rather in the process of identity construction itself.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2012

Katariina Salmela-Aro

The transition from comprehensive school to either an academic or a vocational track and from academic track to tertiary education are the key educational transitions

Abstract

The transition from comprehensive school to either an academic or a vocational track and from academic track to tertiary education are the key educational transitions during adolescence and young adulthood in many European educational systems. The present chapter approaches engagement and disengagement during these key educational transitions in the context of the 4-C (channelling, choice, co-regulation, compensation) life-span model of motivation and phase-adequate engagement model. In accordance with the life-span model of motivation and the phase-adequate engagement model, school transitions are triggers that channel the engagement and disengagement processes. The former process reflects school-related engagement, whereas disengagement is a key element of the school-burnout process. Engagement in the school context is defined as a positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind characterized by vigor and energy, dedication, and absorption. School burnout comprises three dimensions in terms of exhaustion due to school demands: a cynical and detached attitude toward the school, feelings of inadequacy as a student, and disengagement. Cynicism is manifest in an indifferent or distal attitude toward school work in general, a loss of interest in it, and not seeing it as meaningful. Inadequacy refers to a diminished sense of competence, achievement, and accomplishment as a student.

Details

Transitions Across Schools and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-292-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Tara Fenwick

Much research to date on professional transitions has focused on predicting them and then preparing individual practitioners to navigate transitions as sites of struggle…

Abstract

Purpose

Much research to date on professional transitions has focused on predicting them and then preparing individual practitioners to navigate transitions as sites of struggle. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, within the context of professional practice and learning, diverse theoretical approaches that are currently prominent in researching transitions and to propose future directions for research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by describing work contexts integral with professional transitions: regulation, governance and accountability; new work structures; and knowledge development. The discussion then examines transitions research in developmental psychology, lifecourse sociology, and career studies. These perspectives are compared critically in terms of questions and approaches, contributions to understanding professional transitions, and limitations.

Findings

The implications for educators are a series of critical questions about research and education directed to support transitions in professional learning and work. Future directions and questions for research in professional transitions are suggested in the final section, along with implications for supporting professional learning in these transitions.

Originality/value

The paper is not intended to be comprehensive, but to identify issues for the reader's consideration in thinking about various forms of transition being experienced by professions and professionals. The discussion is theory‐based, exploratory, and indicative, rather than definitive.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Sílvia Monteiro, Leandro Almeida and Adela Garcia Aracil

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of work experience and gender on graduates’ perception of competencies, preparation and expectations of success in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of work experience and gender on graduates’ perception of competencies, preparation and expectations of success in labour market (LM) transition. The research questions that guide this study are: How do graduates evaluate the competencies acquired during their masters’ degree? How do graduates evaluate their preparation for transition to the LM and their expectations of success?

Design/methodology/approach

Within the framework of employability models, the authors explore the perception of competencies developed during higher education (HE). Given previous reported effects of gender and work experience on the process of work transition, these two variables are also considered. A questionnaire was administered to 411 students in their final masters’ degree year. Descriptive and inferential statistics, namely, univariate analysis of variance (F-anova 2×3) with post-hoc multiple comparison test (post-hoc HSD of Tukey), are developed to analyse the data and address the research questions.

Findings

The main results show that there are no significant group differences concerning perception of the development of competencies; the effect of work experience on perceptions related to preparation for transition to the LM depends on gender; and expectations of successful transition to the LM are related to gender, with no significant influence of prior work experience.

Originality/value

These data suggest that, in developing their programmes, it is important for HE institutions to consider self-beliefs related to students’ diversity, in order to maximize the development and effective use of competencies and individual resources in work contexts, for all students. Exploration of the effect of gender and work experience on perceptions of competencies and preparation for the LM should help HE institutions define curricular programmes and support graduates in preparing for entry to the LM.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Irene Selwaness and Rania Roushdy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the school-to-work transition of young people from subsequent school exit cohorts between 2001 and 2012 in Egypt, thus, presenting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the school-to-work transition of young people from subsequent school exit cohorts between 2001 and 2012 in Egypt, thus, presenting an early evidence on the adjustments of the labor market in terms of patterns of youth transition to a first job following the 2011 Egyptian uprising.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis compares the early employment outcomes of those who left school after the January 25, 2011 uprising to that of those who left before 2011. The authors also separately control for the cohorts who left school in 2008 and 2009, in an attempt to disentangle any labor market adjustments that might have happened following the financial crisis, and before the revolution. Using novel and unexploited representative data from the 2014 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE), the authors estimate the probability of transition to any first job within 18 months from leaving education and that of the transition to a good-quality job, controlling for the year of school exit. The authors also estimate the hazard of finding a first job and a good-quality job using survival analysis.

Findings

School exit cohorts of 2008–2009 (following the financial crisis) and those of 2011–2012 (in the aftermath of the 2011 uprisings) experienced a significantly higher likelihood of finding a first job within 18 months than that of the cohorts of 2001–2007. However, this came at the expense of the quality of job, conditional on having found a first job. The results of the hazard model show that school leavers after 2008 who were not able to transition to a job shortly after leaving school experienced longer unemployment spells than their peers who left school before 2007. The odds of finding a good-quality job appears to decline with time spent in non-employment or in a bad-quality first job.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a limited, yet growing, literature on how school-to-work transition evolved during the global financial crisis and the Egyptian 2011 revolution. Using data from SYPE 2014, the most recent representative survey conducted in Egypt on youth and not previously exploited to study youth school-to-work transition, the paper investigates the short-term adjustments of the youth labor market opportunities during that critical period of Egypt and the region’s history.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Jonas Masdonati, Nadia Lamamra and Marine Jordan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of dual vocational education and training (VET) attritions as indicating difficulties in the transition from school to work.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of dual vocational education and training (VET) attritions as indicating difficulties in the transition from school to work.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consists of a content analysis of semi‐structured interviews with 46 young people who interrupted their dual VET during the first year.

Findings

The findings showed that VET “dropouts” experience transitional problems. These can be one of two sorts: diachronic or synchronic. Diachronic problems are related to difficulties with the shift from a standard school system to VET. Synchronic problems are due to difficulties in learning, relational or working environments.

Research limitations/implications

The results stress the need to widen the definition of transition and to consider the context in which the transition takes place. Further research could compare these results with employers' and trainers' points‐of‐view.

Practical implications

Accordingly, interventions should be taken before and after the precise moment of the shift from school to VET and should include all stakeholders of VET.

Originality/value

The paper encompasses three original aspects: it considers school‐to‐work transition as a process beginning before and ending after the concrete shift to VET, suggesting that a transition is achieved only when the person reaches a relatively stable situation on the workplace; consequently, it conceives VET attrition as an indicator of a failure of the school‐to‐work transition process; and it stresses the influence of the social and the learning environment on the quality of VET.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2010

Sally J. Power

The purpose of this paper is to identify the major variables that should be studied when exploring the relationship of innovations in career management tactics and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the major variables that should be studied when exploring the relationship of innovations in career management tactics and successful or unsuccessful interorganizational transitions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a conceptual stance, using the careers and diffusion of innovation literature to identify the major variables.

Findings

Two innovations and two major refinements in career management tactics suggested by contemporary career concepts are identified, personal criteria for transition success are described, and likely barriers to accepting these tactical innovations are hypothesized. Other factors likely to affect transition success are also revealed by analyzing a conceptual model of interorganizational transition success.

Originality/value

The paper introduces the idea that the use of new career management tactics might be related to interorganizational transition success or the lack of it. It proposes one method of developing quantitative data about how personal career management may be changing, as well as providing normative data about perceptions of successful and unsuccessful interorganizational transitions. In addition, a survey based on these concepts would uncover the primary perceptual barriers to the adoption of the new career tactics by employees.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

A dynamic model of the evolution of health for those over the age of 50 is embedded in a structural, econometric model of retirement and saving. Effects of smoking…

Abstract

A dynamic model of the evolution of health for those over the age of 50 is embedded in a structural, econometric model of retirement and saving. Effects of smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, depression, and other proclivities on medical conditions are analyzed, including hypertension, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, heart problems, stroke, psychiatric problems, and arthritis. Compared to a population in good health, the current health of the population reduces retirement age by about one year. Including detailed health dynamics in a retirement model does not influence estimates of the marginal effects of economic incentives on retirement.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Sophie Hennekam and Dawn Bennett

The purpose of this paper is to examine artists’ experiences of involuntary career transitions and its impact on their work-related identities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine artists’ experiences of involuntary career transitions and its impact on their work-related identities.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews with 40 artists in the Netherlands were conducted. Self-narratives were used to analyze the findings.

Findings

Artists who can no longer make a living out of their artistic activities are forced to start working outside the creative realm and are gradually pushed away from the creative industries. This loss of their creative identity leads to psychological stress and grief, making the professional transition problematic. Moreover, the artistic community often condemns an artist’s transition to other activities, making the transition psychologically even more straining.

Originality/value

This study provides in-depth insights into how artists deal with changes in their work-related identities in the light of involuntary career transitions.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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