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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Nicholas J. Beutell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work schedules on work‐family conflict and synergy using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) and conservation of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work schedules on work‐family conflict and synergy using the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) and conservation of resources models. The impact of resources including supervisor support, work schedule control and satisfaction, as well as the moderating effects of work schedules on conflict (synergy) and domain satisfaction are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study examined responses from organizationally‐employed respondents (n=2,810) from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce using MANOVA and multiple regressions.

Findings

Work schedules were significantly related to work‐interfering with family (WIF) and work‐family synergy (W‐FS) but not for family interfering with work (FIW). Perceived supervisory support was significantly related to employee work schedule control and work schedule satisfaction. Perceived control of work schedule and work schedule satisfaction were significantly related to work‐family conflict and synergy. Work schedules moderated the relationship between work‐family conflict (synergy) and domain satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Although based on a national probability sample, this study may suffer from common method variance since all measures were from the same self‐report questionnaire.

Practical implications

The results do suggest that solutions like increased schedule flexibility for all workers may not be efficacious in reducing work‐family conflict or increasing work‐family synergy. Employee control over work schedule, employee satisfaction with work schedule, and supervisor support need to be considered as well.

Originality/value

This study examined the impact of work schedules on work‐family conflict and synergy. It is noteworthy since very little research has been conducted on work schedules and synergy. The results also broaden evidence for the JD‐R and conservation of resources models.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Edward Hyatt and Erica Coslor

The purpose of this paper is to examine employee satisfaction with an employer-imposed compressed workweek (CWW) schedule within a US municipality (City).

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2001

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine employee satisfaction with an employer-imposed compressed workweek (CWW) schedule within a US municipality (City).

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes an employee survey (n=779) to test factors related to employee satisfaction with the CWW, a four-day, ten-hours/day workweek (4/10 schedule).

Findings

Employee satisfaction with the schedule is influenced by previous 4/10 pilot experience, work schedule preference, and happiness with the 4/10 schedule’s implementation. Additionally, sick leave figures and survey results regarding informal substitute work schedules suggest that worker fatigue may limit the overall organizational value of the 4/10 schedule.

Research limitations/implications

The study is opportunistic in nature and therefore constrained by the City’s HR Department concerns for survey length and respondent anonymity. This meant an inability to collect demographic data or to utilize validated scales.

Practical implications

Analysis suggests that the potential work-life benefits of flexible work schedules may not apply equally to employer-imposed vs employee-chosen compressed work schedules. Further, CWWs engender greater fatigue despite employee satisfaction, an issue managers should consider when weighing schedule costs and benefits.

Originality/value

The study highlights the importance of employee choice in conceptualizing flexibility and for capturing CWW benefits, namely: an initiative’s voluntary or involuntary nature should be considered when determining whether it is likely to be beneficial for employees.

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Lori Wadsworth, Jared L. Llorens and Rex L. Facer

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the determinants of public employee turnover intent and the use of workplace flexibilities, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the determinants of public employee turnover intent and the use of workplace flexibilities, with particular attention on the role that gender plays on the relationship between these two constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross-sectional quantitative research design, the data collection specifically targeted employees of US municipalities that had a significant portion of their workforce using some type of alternative work schedule. Nine cities from six different states were included in the data collection.

Findings

In support of prior research and conventional wisdom, the authors find that the use of alternative work schedules is associated with lower expressions of turnover intent, but this relationship is only significant for female municipal employees.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the study is that it is mono-source data. A second limitation relates to the lack of controls for contextual and occupational characteristics. Further research is needed on the relationship between alternative work schedule choice and turnover, particularly exploring how other characteristics might impact the relationship between employment flexibilities and turnover.

Practical implications

Overall, the results of the analysis align with broader observations of the need for increasing workplace flexibilities and scholarship exploring these flexibilities, especially for female employees who are attempting to integrate their work and family responsibilities.

Originality/value

There has been relatively little research exploring the relationship between the determinants of turnover intent and the use of workplace flexibilities at the municipal level of government. This is particularly important given that employment in local government is larger than both federal and state government employment combined in the USA (US Census Bureau, 2017).

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Isabel Soares Silva and Renata Bastos

The purpose of this paper is to understand workers’ resistance toward change from a semi-continuous (SCW) to a continuous shift work system (CW), especially focusing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand workers’ resistance toward change from a semi-continuous (SCW) to a continuous shift work system (CW), especially focusing the perspective of change and its impact on workers’ personal lives.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study was conducted at a Portuguese steel plant. A questionnaire was administered to 98 shift workers of the two systems, three focus groups (FG) each with ten CW workers, and three interviews with their managers.

Findings

The results of the FG and the interviews indicate the loss of days off during weekends as the main drawback of this change, leading to work schedule dissatisfaction. The consequences of the change focused on social and family life. For the CW workers, the conciliation between working hours and life outside the company were the only predictors of satisfaction with work schedule.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design is one of the main limitations, as well the use of only one organization in the study suggests future replication. Organizations need to consider the aspects of family and social life in the management of working hours.

Originality/value

Globally, this case study highlights the importance of family and social aspects in the adjustment process to working hours, especially when these involve performing work on the weekends, such as shift work.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Mariano Rojas

The purpose of this paper is to use a subjective well-being approach to address a long-standing debate on informal employment: whether it is a low-quality or a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use a subjective well-being approach to address a long-standing debate on informal employment: whether it is a low-quality or a high-quality option. The literature generally refers to these options as exclusion vs exit. Policy makers often assume that informal employment constitutes a low-quality option.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on a mid-size survey from Mexico as well as on a group of subjective well-being indicators to explore whether people in informal employment display lower or higher well-being. Information on life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with some job-related attributes, satisfaction in other domains of life, and experiences of well-being is used to assess the situation of those in informal employment.

Findings

The empirical research finds that there are substantial differences in the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of those in formal and in informal employment. These differences in the population characteristics partially explain differences in subjective well-being. However, once these differences are taken into consideration there is little difference in subjective well-being between informal workers and formal ones. Hence, the paper concludes that in comparison with people in formal employment, informal employment is neither associated with a better life nor with a worse life. Neither the exclusion nor the exit view of informality is supported by the empirical evidence.

Practical implications

Contrary to common perceptions, informal employment does not constitute a low-quality option in the subjective well-being arena. This is a powerful message for policy makers who wish to maximize the employment-related well-being of its citizens. There may well be legitimate policy reasons why the degree of informality should be reduced. However, based on the findings in the Mexican context, the paper stipulates that reducing informal employment primarily on the grounds of greater general unhappiness is not one of them.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the relevant literature by studying informality from a subjective well-being perspective, which extends much beyond job satisfaction. No research on informal employment has previously used such a large set of subjective well-being indicators comprising variables such as life satisfaction, satisfaction in domains of life, and experiences of well-being.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Luo Lu

The aim of this research is to explore effects of hours of work and the role of personal preference on job satisfaction, work‐to‐family conflict (WFC) and overall life…

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1169

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to explore effects of hours of work and the role of personal preference on job satisfaction, work‐to‐family conflict (WFC) and overall life satisfaction among Taiwanese employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from a nationwide survey in Taiwan were used. A total of 1,122 full‐time employees were surveyed using structured questionnaires.

Findings

It was found that working hours were negatively related to job satisfaction and overall life satisfaction, and positively related to WFC, after effects of demographical and job‐related factors were partialled out. More importantly, it was found that the “fit” between preferred and actual hours of work had an effect upon the above strain variables. Specifically, people who had a fit between preferred and actual hours of work reported lower levels of WFC and higher overall life satisfaction, compared to those who had a misfit in working hours.

Research limitations/implications

Using single‐item measures is a major limitation, though it is a common practice in large‐scale social surveys due to constraints on length and time. However, these results have both theoretical and practical implications. It is recommended that both the actual and individual's preference for hours of work should be taken into consideration in any attempt to improve employees' quality of work and quality of life in general.

Originality/value

The use of a national representative sample is a major thrust of the present study. This study also fills the gap left by the scarcity of research on working hours and strain from a Chinese perspective.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Frederick P. Morgeson and Stephen E. Humphrey

The design of work has been shown to influence a host of attitudinal, behavioral, cognitive, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Despite its clear importance…

Abstract

The design of work has been shown to influence a host of attitudinal, behavioral, cognitive, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Despite its clear importance, scholarly interest in the topic has diminished over the past 20 years. Fortunately, a recent body of research has sought to reenergize research into work design by expanding our view of work design from a narrow set of motivational work features to one that incorporates broader social and contextual elements. In this chapter we seek to review the literature on work design and develop a framework that integrates both job and team design research. We begin by briefly reviewing the history of work design in order to provide needed historical context and illustrate the evolution of job and team design. We then define work design, particularly as it relates to incorporating job and team design elements and transitioning from a view of jobs to one of roles. Following this, we identify a comprehensive set of work design outcomes that provide the basis for understanding the impact that different work characteristics can have on individuals and teams. We then offer an extended discussion of our integrative model of work design, which includes three sources of work characteristics (task, social, and contextual) and the worker characteristics implied by these characteristics. Having defined the range of work and worker characteristics, we then discuss some of the fit and composition issues that arise when designing work, as well as discuss the mechanisms through which the work characteristics have their impact on outcomes. Finally, we discuss research into informal forms of work design.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-004-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Isabel de Sivatte, Judith R. Gordon, Pilar Rojo and Ricardo Olmos

The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship of work-life culture and organizational productivity and determine if it is mediated by the availability of work-life…

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5618

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship of work-life culture and organizational productivity and determine if it is mediated by the availability of work-life programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data for the study were collected using three sources: an original survey completed by managers of 195 different companies, archival data from two databases, and archival data published in three national surveys. Hypotheses were tested using path analyses.

Findings

The data reveals that work-life culture has no direct effect on labor productivity but does have an indirect effect on it, through the availability of work-life programs.

Research limitations/implications

One of the study’s limitations is that its design is cross-sectional. The authors suggest that future longitudinal studies examine the impact of work-life culture on organizational outcomes.

Practical implications

Practitioners should note the importance of promoting a favorable work-life culture and offering work-life programs as they enhance labor productivity.

Originality/value

The authors examine the impact of work-life culture on organizational productivity, a relatively understudied relationship at the organizational level.

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Sana Shabir and Abdul Gani

This study aims to examine the linkage between work–life balance (WLB) and organizational commitment (OC) among women employees in the healthcare sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the linkage between work–life balance (WLB) and organizational commitment (OC) among women employees in the healthcare sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative methodology, this paper drew upon samples of 580 health-care sector employees working in the health-care sector of Jammu and Kashmir in India. A structured questionnaire was administered to gather the required information. Data were analyzed using SMART PLS and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, in which descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and structural equation modeling were conducted to achieve the objectives of the study.

Findings

Findings indicated a significant positive relationship between WLB and OC. Further component-wise analysis revealed a positive relationship between the WLB and affective and normative commitment. However, WLB demonstrated a negative association with continuance commitment.

Originality/value

The study also brought forth the causes and potential consequences of the work–life imbalance and stressed upon the role of organizational policies in managing the relationship between work and non-work domains and subsequently the development of OC among employees.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2021

Shagufta Showkat and Siddharth Misra

Present day organizations are considering workforce diversity as one of the main challenges in the human resource management. This study aims to find out the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Present day organizations are considering workforce diversity as one of the main challenges in the human resource management. This study aims to find out the relationship between diversity management (DM) in the context of strategic human resource management (SHRM) and organizational performance (OP). An attempt is made to find out the mediation effect of cognitive diversity (CD) and affective diversity (AD) in the relationship between DM and OP.

Design/methodology/approach

The constructs investigated in the present study include DM, OP, CD and AD. Structural equation modeling has been used to test the model fit. The data was collected from 50 human resource professionals working in different organizations in the information technology (IT) sector in Bangalore, India. Confirmatory factor analysis has been used for establishing the reliability.

Findings

The results show that there exists a significant relationship between DM and OP. This significant positive relationship can be attributed to the mediating role of CD and significant negative relationship is because of the AD.

Research limitations/implications

This study has several limitations. In this study, only three DM practices have been considered. The generalization of the results is another limitation as the study has been conducted in the IT sector in Bangalore, India. Similarly, sample size also affects the implications of an empirical study and sample size in this study is small. This study has investigated only the impact of two aspects of diversity, cognitive and affective, while neglecting the effect of communicational and symbolic processes.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations must consider that by providing intercultural trainings (ICTs), work–life balance (WLB) and work-time flexibility options, the negative aspects of diversity can be minimized. Moreover, organizations should encourage the task conflict which leads to better decision-making as well as creates a sense of group identification, which may help in the avoidance of negative consequences of AD.

Originality/value

This study is undertaken to find out the effect of certain diversity-oriented SHRM practices such as flexible working times, WLB, ICT and its impact on the OP in the Indian IT industry. This study has investigated the mediating role of CD and AD on the relationship between diversity-oriented SHRM practices and OP, which is the novelty of this study. Third, the study has been undertaken considering that there is a dearth of research on the impact of AD and CD on OP in the Indian context.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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