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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2014

Kathryn H. Dekas and Wayne E. Baker

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions…

Abstract

Purpose

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions the person holds about the work domain. Research has suggested that adults tend to favor one of three primary work orientations: job, career, or calling. Empirical studies have shown that adults with different primary work orientations tend to experience different work and career outcomes; however, scholars have not analyzed how or why an individual first develops a work orientation. In this study, we take a first step toward investigating the origins of adults’ work orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose hypotheses drawing on extant literature on the development of work values and occupational inheritance. We test hypotheses using a retrospective research design and survey methodology, with a sample of working adults.

Findings

Work orientations are developed through socialization processes with parents during adolescence. There are different patterns of development across the three work orientation categories: stronger calling orientations are developed when both parents possess strong calling orientations; stronger career orientations develop in accordance with fathers’ career orientations; and job orientations are related more to the nature of the adolescent’s relationship with parents than with parents’ own work orientations.

Originality/value

This research provides the first empirical study of the origin and development of work orientations.

Research limitations/implications

This research offers insight into ways generations are connected through the perceived meaning of their work, even as the nature of work changes. We encourage future scholars to use this as a starting point for research on the development of work orientations, and to continue exploring these questions using additional methods, particularly longitudinal study designs.

Details

Adolescent Experiences and Adult Work Outcomes: Connections and Causes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-572-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Katariina Salmela‐Aro and Jari‐Erik Nurmi

This study utilises a person‐oriented view to examine what kind of motivational orientations employees have, and how they contribute to their well‐being. Two separate…

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6267

Abstract

This study utilises a person‐oriented view to examine what kind of motivational orientations employees have, and how they contribute to their well‐being. Two separate studies were carried out. A total of 286 white‐collar workers employed in a public sector educational institution in a middle‐sized town in Central Finland participated in the first study (116 men and 170 women). All the participants filled in Little's Personal Project Analysis and burnout inventory, a work ability index, Beck's Depression and Diener's Satisfaction with life scales. Analysis of the results found four motivational orientations, work‐, self‐, hobby‐ and health‐orientations among the employees. The workorientation was related to burnout and low working ability, the self‐orientation was related to depression and burnout, and the hobby‐ and health‐orientations were related to high life‐satisfaction. Study 2, conducted among 186 IT workers replicated the main results. The results are discussed in relation to workaholism and well‐being at work.

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Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Heini Ikävalko and Roosa Kohvakka

This paper aims to examine the moderating effect of employees’ work orientation and gender on their feelings toward pay, that is, the relationship between perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the moderating effect of employees’ work orientation and gender on their feelings toward pay, that is, the relationship between perceived fairness of a pay system and pay level satisfaction. The perceived fairness of pay system is investigated with two pay system procedures, namely, job evaluation and performance evaluation, both determining the level of base pay.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from three public sector organizations in Finland (N = 526). Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between pay satisfaction, pay system fairness, work orientation and gender.

Findings

The results show that employees’ work orientation significantly and negatively relates to pay satisfaction. The interaction analyses suggest significant gender differences in the relationship between work orientation and pay satisfaction, as work orientation is negatively associated with pay satisfaction for women. They also show that work orientation and job evaluation fairness have a positive, joint effect on pay satisfaction.

Practical implications

This study has implications for the implementation of fair pay practices in organizations. The role of work orientation in the relationship between job evaluation fairness and pay satisfaction highlights the importance of pay system fairness especially among work-oriented employees. Special attention should be paid on work-oriented women: With equal perception of pay system fairness, work-oriented women feel unsatisfied with their pay.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study to highlight the role of work orientation and gender in reactions related to pay.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Barbara Rebecca Mutonyi, Terje Slåtten and Gudbrand Lien

This study clarifies the factors that foster individual innovative behaviour in the public sector by examining the effects and roles of empowering leadership, work group…

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3919

Abstract

Purpose

This study clarifies the factors that foster individual innovative behaviour in the public sector by examining the effects and roles of empowering leadership, work group cohesiveness and individual learning orientation. This study also explores the direct effect of empowering leadership on work group cohesiveness and individual learning orientation, the influence of work group cohesiveness on individual learning orientation and the mediating roles of work group cohesiveness and individual learning orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from an online survey of respondents working in a public sector organization. Partial least squares structural equation modelling and mediation analysis by the bootstrap method were used for the data analysis.

Findings

Empowering leadership and individual learning orientation had significant direct effects on individual innovative behaviour. Both empowering leadership and work group cohesiveness have significant direct effects on individual learning orientation. Empowering leadership was positively related to work group cohesiveness. The mediation analysis revealed that individual learning orientation mediates the relationships between empowering leadership and individual innovative behaviour and between work group cohesiveness and individual innovative behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on three factors that foster individual innovative behaviour in a public sector organization.

Originality/value

This study offers new insights into the factors that foster individual innovative behaviour in the public sector. The findings reveal the importance of using a balanced leadership style and encourage learning in the workplace for individual innovativeness by public leaders.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker and Yitzhak Fried

This study aims to examine the role of instrumental vs intrinsic work orientations in the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model.

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3921

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of instrumental vs intrinsic work orientations in the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model.

Design/methodology

Using a sample of 123 employees, the authors investigated longitudinally whether an instrumental work orientation moderates the motivational process, and mediates the health impairment process in the JD‐R model.

Findings

Regression analyses revealed that an increase in job resources over time was particularly beneficial for experienced flow at Time 2 among employees holding an instrumental (vs intrinsic) work orientation. In addition, structural equation modeling analyses showed that work pressure was reciprocal with need for recovery, which was reciprocal with instrumental work orientation.

Research limitations/implications

Findings suggest that work orientation should be integrated in research linking work characteristics with motivational and health impairment processes.

Practical implications

Organizations should avoid placing overly high demands on their employees as these not only impair employees' health, but also change their orientation towards work.

Social implications

Organizations can contribute to the wellbeing of individuals and society by designing jobs that provide affordable demands and sufficient resources.

Originality/value

The present study successfully integrated work orientations in the JD‐R model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Min Young Doo and Sung Hee Park

An increasing number of students delay graduation or graduate without a job, because they are not ready to make a career decision. In addition, the growing number of young…

Abstract

Purpose

An increasing number of students delay graduation or graduate without a job, because they are not ready to make a career decision. In addition, the growing number of young adults who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) has become a social concern in South Korea. To facilitate career decision-making of undergraduates, this study examined the effects of work value orientation and academic major orientation on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE). The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among South Korean undergraduates’ intrinsic work value orientation, extrinsic work value orientation, academic major satisfaction and CDMSE.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review, this study tested a research model using structural equation modeling with survey results of 217 undergraduates.

Findings

The research results indicated that intrinsic work value orientation influenced academic major satisfaction and CDMSE. However, extrinsic work value orientation turned out to influence neither academic major satisfaction nor CDMSE. Academic major satisfaction also seemed to affect the CDMSE of the students in this study.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the field of career development by explaining the significance of undergraduates’ intrinsic work value orientation and academic major satisfaction on career decision-making. Whereas most research has focused on the effects of CDMSE, this study investigated the factors that influence undergraduates’ CDMSE.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Francisco Trincado-Munoz, Leslier Valenzuela-Fernández and Melany Hebles

While companies have increasingly encouraged employees to adopt a customer orientation, less attention has been given to the impact that customer orientation has on…

Abstract

Purpose

While companies have increasingly encouraged employees to adopt a customer orientation, less attention has been given to the impact that customer orientation has on employees' job outcomes and performance. Previous research has used job demands-resource theory (JD-R) and proposed several mechanisms through which customer orientation influences performance, yet the intervening variables in the process have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the contextual role of organizational justice on the relationship between customer orientation and performance through work engagement. In this way, offering more understanding of the contingent effects that intervene in the customer orientation–performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a structural equation model (SEM) in a sample of 249 marketing, sales and management managers in Chilean companies, this paper tested different hypotheses concerning the role of work engagement, organizational justice and customer orientation in relation to perceived performance.

Findings

This study informs that organizational justice (procedural and distributive justice) moderates the relationship between customer orientation and performance through work engagement. Precisely, the findings reveal that at lower values of organizational justice, changes in customer orientation negatively influence work engagement and in turn performance.

Originality/value

The results contribute to strengthening customer orientation theory by integrating a contextual variable often omitted: organizational justice. By exploring the moderation effect of organizational justice on customer orientation, this paper reveals contingent effects of employees' perceived fairness on the organization in the relationship between customer orientation and performance through work engagement. The findings encourage managers to look after employees' perceived organizational justice when they implement customer-oriented approaches, in particular, of those employees who work in the frontline sales and service positions.

Propósito

Mientras las empresas han incentivado la adopción de una orientación al cliente por parte de los empleados, menos atención se ha dado al impacto que la orientación al cliente tiene en los resultados laborales y el desempeño. Investigación previa ha usado la teoría de Demandas y Recursos del Trabajo (Job Demands-Resource Theory en inglés) y propuesto varios mecanismos a través de los cuales la orientación al cliente tiene un efecto en el desempeño, no obstante las variables que intervienen en el proceso han mostrado resultados inconsistentes. Por tanto, este estudio tiene por objetivo investigar el rol contextual de justicia organizacional en la relación entre orientación al cliente y performance a través del compromiso organizacional. De esta manera, ofrecer mayor entendimiento de los efectos contingentes que intervienen la relación orientación al cliente-desempeño.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Usando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales en una muestra de 249 ejecutivos de marketing, ventas y negocios en compañías chilenas, este estudio evalúa diferentes hipótesis respecto al rol del compromiso organizacional, justicia organizacional, y orientación al cliente en relación a la percepción del desempeño organizacional.

Hallazgos

Este estudio demuestra que la justicia organizacional (como justicia distributiva y procedural) modera la relación entre orientación al cliente y desempeño a través del compromiso organizacional. Precisamente, los resultados revelan que a menores valores de justicia organizacional, cambios en la orientación al cliente influencian negativamente el compromiso organizacional y a su vez el desempeño.

Originalidad/valor

Los resultados contribuyen a fortalecer la teoría de Orientación al Valor del Cliente integrando una variable contextual que a menudo ha sido omitida: Justicia organizacional. Explorando la moderación de la justicia organizacional en la orientación al cliente, esta investigación revela efectos contingentes de la percepción de justicia de los empleados en la organización en la relación entre orientación al cliente y el desempeño percibido a través del compromiso organizacional. Estos hallazgos invitan a los gerentes a preocuparse por la percepción de justicia de los empleados cuando deciden implementar la orientación al cliente en especial con quiénes trabajan en la provisión de servicios y atención a clientes.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

MIRIAM EREZ and RACHEL ISRAELI

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three work‐value orientations — cosmopolitan, local and bureaucratic, on teachers' activities in the high‐school…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three work‐value orientations — cosmopolitan, local and bureaucratic, on teachers' activities in the high‐school system. The research supported the notion that the bureaucratic orientation is not in conflict with the two other orientations and hence its effect on teachers' activities is not opposite to that of the local cosmopolitan orientation. Two hundred and sixty‐two high‐school teachers participated in the study. They answered mailed questionnaires which sought biographical data, measures of the three work value orientations and measures of five groups of school activities. Results indicated that teachers' activities are affected by their work‐value orientations. The bureaucratic orientation was not found to be in conflict with the two other orientations, but rather complementary to the local one in its effect on teachers' activity. The teachers who rated high in all three orientations were also the most involved in all five groups of school activities.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Luo Lu, Hui Yen Lin, Chang-Qin Lu and Oi-Ling Siu

The moderating roles of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model are relatively rarely examined, especially in non-western countries. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The moderating roles of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model are relatively rarely examined, especially in non-western countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of a personal resource (i.e. intrinsic work value orientation) on the relationships between job demands, job resources, and job satisfaction among a large sample of Chinese employees from both mainland China and Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured questionnaire survey was carried out to collect data from 402 employees in mainland China and 306 employees in Taiwan.

Findings

The authors found that intrinsic work value orientation amplified the negative relationship between work constraints (a job demand) and job satisfaction. Meanwhile, intrinsic work value orientation strengthened the positive relationship between autonomy (a job resource) and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies that explored the role of personal resources in the JD-R model. One unique contribution of the study is that the authors extended the JD-R model to include the intrinsic work value orientation as a resourceful work value for Chinese employees in two major Chinese societies. Based upon the findings, the authors suggest that personal resources such as work value orientation should be taken into account in the research of the JD-R model. Managerial implications of the findings are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2004

Emma Martin

Despite the renowned poor employment practices across the hospitality industry recent analysis of the Workplace Industrial Relations Survey reported higher levels of job…

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3707

Abstract

Despite the renowned poor employment practices across the hospitality industry recent analysis of the Workplace Industrial Relations Survey reported higher levels of job satisfaction among hospitality employees than those in other industries. This paper presents a collective case study of hospitality employees across four small independent restaurants to shed light onto why this situation might exist. The paper discusses the influence an employee's orientation to work has and demonstrates how orientations underpin individual attitudes and behaviour. In presenting four different orientations to work, how individuals manage work and life for personal satisfaction and gain, is illustrated. Indeed, this individualistic ideology contributes to the levels of job satisfaction reported.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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