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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Abraham Carmeli and David Gefen

This study is an attempt to contribute to an emerging stream of research, which attempts to explore how work commitment forms affect one another and how together they…

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8965

Abstract

Purpose

This study is an attempt to contribute to an emerging stream of research, which attempts to explore how work commitment forms affect one another and how together they serve to influence work behaviour and outcomes.Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on five universal forms of work commitment, we tested the relationships between two work commitment models and two forms of employee withdrawal intentions: from their organisation and from their occupation. To this end, we investigated professional employees (social workers) employed in the Israeli healthcare system through a structured questionnaire.Findings – Path analysis results cast doubt on the applicability of both models in their original form, across scenarios. At the same time, with some modifications, both models show a good potential for explaining variance in employee withdrawal intentions from both their organisation and their occupation.Originality/value – This research contributes to work commitment literature by providing empirical findings and theoretical interpretations regarding the role of a particular professional setting in explaining the interrelationships among models of work commitment, and how some constellations of different work commitment foci explain multiple withdrawal intentions.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Abraham Carmeli and Anat Freund

This study examines the relationships between joint work commitments, job satisfaction, and job performance of lawyers employed by private law firms in Israel. Based on…

Abstract

This study examines the relationships between joint work commitments, job satisfaction, and job performance of lawyers employed by private law firms in Israel. Based on Morrowʼs (1993) concept of five universal forms of commitment, their interrelationship was tested with respect to the commitment model of Randall and Cote (1991), which appeared to show in previous studies (Cohen, 1999, 2000) a better fit compared to other models. In addition, the study examined the relationship between the commitment model and work attitude and outcome, namely, job satisfaction and job performance. The results show that the commitment model of Randall and Cote was almost fully supported, except for the relationship between job involvement and continuance commitment. This relationship is better understood via career commitment. An interesting finding of this study is that job satisfaction has a mediating role in the relationship between joint work commitment and job performance. The article concludes with suggestions regarding further investigation of the interrelationships between work commitment constructs, and the relationship between joint commitment forms, job satisfaction, and job performance.

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Avinash D. Pathardikar, Sangeeta Sahu and Neeraj Kumar Jaiswal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between an employee’s beliefs about organizational ethics, career commitment (CC), affective commitment (AC…

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1351

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between an employee’s beliefs about organizational ethics, career commitment (CC), affective commitment (AC) and career satisfaction (CS). The model expands the earlier work commitment models with CS as the outcome variable.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were drawn from a 2014 survey of frontline and middle level executives from the insurance sector in India using a structured questionnaire from six Indian insurance companies, 252 were analyzed with structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicate that executive perceptions about organizational ethics are important for both commitment and satisfaction. Ethical practices at work have a positive outcome on CC, AC and CS. The role of career commitment as a mediator in the relationship between ethics, AC and CS is evident.

Research limitations/implications

It is a cross-section study restricted to a single group with similar demographic characteristics. Hence, generalizability of the findings need further research among different groups. Common method variance is addressed using Harman single factor test.

Practical/implications

By working out ethical practices in the organization and developing a culture with clarity in business policies and financial constraints to stakeholders, the organizations can win employee commitment and satisfaction.

Originality/value

The theoretical contribution of this paper lies in its inclusive approach encompassing the ethical belief of individual with commitment and CS. It differs from earlier studies that have shown the influence of protestant work ethic on commitment. It highlights the similarities and differences between several work commitment models developed in a western context, and the model that we have developed in the Indian context.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2018

Arfat Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a…

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13577

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a perspective whereby intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction are considered as proxy to organizational offerings, while multi overall job satisfaction and dimensional organizational commitment as employee’ attitudinal reaction to the organizational offerings. Under the aforementioned notion, the present study intends to examine the influence of job characteristics on employees’ attitudes, such as, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as psychological response to job characteristics. In a way, the study attempts to insight into how employee’ reciprocate to the perceived obligation toward its organization. The study also aims to supplement the empirical evidence about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. Although various studies exhibit positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been consistently reported. However, for the managerial implication, the identification of employee physiological and psychological needs to gauge the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to its environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization is imperative. In this context, this study makes a humble attempt to clear the relationships in the perspective of reciprocation between organization and its employees. Thus, this study attempts to illustrate how feeling a need to reciprocate, those who experienced strong satisfaction with job characteristics appear to have had a sense of moral duty to the organization can be helpful in understanding the processes by which organizational inducements exert their influence on other employee attitudes and behaviors. Evidently, while the link between employees’ satisfaction with their job and high organizational commitment, on the one hand, and low intentions to leave on the other is fairly straightforward, yet there in need to study these variables as exogenous and endogenous to inquire about their causation. Also, the available present literature on the understudy concern genuinely lacks adequate empirical material about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction as such some author hold that intrinsic characteristic of job better predict job satisfaction while as another set of behavioral scientists found extrinsic job characteristics as prime determinant of job satisfaction compare to the intrinsic worth of their jobs. The present study was conducted in the state of depressed economy where unemployment rate is as high as 194 percent it was found interesting to investigate the about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. The present study also attempts to supplement the empirical evidence in this direction.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the study use the tenets of situational theories of employee’ attitude which assume that employee’ attitude results from the psychological evaluation of one’s job characteristics or other aspects of the environment in the organization; therefore, the study integrates the job characteristics as the organizational offerings to its employee and employees attitude like job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as reciprocity reaction to the organizational offerings. The structural equation model was used to frames the intricacy job characteristics, job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Ten job characteristics were identified with which employees experience at the workplace as organizational offerings. These include salary, recognition, co-workers, supervision, organizational policies, promotion, working condition, task requirement, job security and nature of work. Subsequently, these identified facets were divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction, and were considering as proxy to the organizational offerings to its employees. These job characteristics were identified during in-depth interviews and discussions with the respondents, while overall job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions were considered as employee’s psychological reactions to the organizational offerings. The sample consists of 654 hospital employees, working at the different hospital across state. In order to ensure the representation of the entire human capital, employees working under different levels of occupational status and different sectors of economy were included in the for the purpose of data collection. The number of employees from each hospital has been selected through proportionate method. Employees from each hospital were selected on the basis of the chit method. Measurement tools Questionnaire method was used to collect the data for the present study. A five-point likert type scale was used for the sake of maintaining uniformity in measuring the variables. All the variables were measured with multiple-item scales, questionnaire item used to measure different constructs in this study are derived from the previously established studies. As such, multidimensional organizational commitment construct was measured using items drawn from Meyer and Allen (1991) scale. Job characteristics and employee’ turnover intentions scale was adapted from the study conducted by Ali Muhammad et al. (2008). The instrument used for the present study has universal application. Therefore the results thus produce are of universal significance. The reliability and validity of measurement tools for the study was established by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Findings

The findings from the study reveal employees’ subjective evaluation to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job contribute to the formation of their reciprocal perspective of psychological attitude toward its job and organization characterized as their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As such, better evaluation of job content and job context by the employees leads to the sense of obligation and commitment toward the organization, hence reduces their intentions to discord organizational membership. The findings also reveal that employees tend to incline their job satisfaction more toward the extrinsic worth of job than the intrinsic worth. While as both, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, explains relatively equal variation in the employees’ turnover intentions. The relatively strong correlation of extrinsic characteristics of job could be attributed to the fact that professionals generally have limited control over extrinsic factors and have high degree of control over intrinsic elements. Therefore, their perceptions of the job are particularly dependent on the degree of satisfaction with the extrinsic factors (Pearson and Seiler, 1983).

Originality/value

Although there are various studies manifested the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions, for all that, the present work is an attempt to deem these relationships in a different panorama to bring more insight in the subject of organizational behavior. In this study, the relationship among the job characteristics, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions were considered in a perspective of reciprocity norms. The study opens new horizons to the researchers across the globe, whereby organizational and job characteristics are considered as catalyst for the employee’ attitude and can be study and analyze in a functional relationship model. A new regime of paradigm may investigate the functional relationship between employer offerings as an input and employee attitudes as an output, with more emphasis on the organizational equilibrium. Hence, study encompass the managerial implication by gauging the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to the workplace environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization. In this way, the propositions expatiated in the present work improves the understanding for the implications of various motivational theories, different organizational theories and human resource management models. Moreover, this work substantiates and provides insight about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic job factors on job satisfaction and opens debate for the generalization of Herzberg’s motivation theory.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Mark Somers, Dee Birnbaum and Jose Casal

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess conceptually based arguments that the three-component model (TCM) is not a model of commitment but rather of employee…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically assess conceptually based arguments that the three-component model (TCM) is not a model of commitment but rather of employee turnover, and that the mindsets that comprise the TCM do not form a unified construct.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey design was used that was comprised of 223 staff nurses located in a large, urban hospital in the USA. Data were analyzed using dominance analysis, a variant of multiple linear regression that provides more accurate estimates of the strength of relationships between predictor and criterion variables when multicolinearity among predictors is present.

Findings

Results from OLS regression and dominance analysis provided no support for concerns about the viability of the TCM. First, there was no evidence that the continuance and normative mindsets were associated only with employee turnover, and there was strong support that this was not the case. Second, our overall patterns of results indicated that the mindsets that comprise the TCM operated as a unified construct that is consistent with the theory and research underpinning the TCM.

Practical implications

This study indicates that work commitment is multidimensional and must be managed accordingly so that it is important to be mindful of the development and implications of different constellations of work commitment.

Originality/value

Conceptually grounded criticisms of the TCM have not been tested empirically leading to uncertainty about the nature of work commitment. This study adds an empirical perspective that is augmented by an advanced application of multiple regression analysis.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Daphna Brueller, Nir N. Brueller and Etti Doveh

Purpose – We build a theoretical lens that draws on an emerging theory of positive work relationships to examine whether constructive emotional expressions in work

Abstract

Purpose – We build a theoretical lens that draws on an emerging theory of positive work relationships to examine whether constructive emotional expressions in work relationships influence changes in individuals' affective commitment to their organization.

Design/methodology/approach – Using longitudinal data collected from full-time employees, we employed a latent-difference-score (LDS) approach to examine whether changes in emotional carrying capacity could account for changes in organizational commitment.

Findings – The findings support this hypothesis and suggest a new perspective on the ways in which a change in relationship capacity may create changes in people's commitment to an organization.

Research limitations – The main limitation concerns the use of self-report, albeit time-lagged, data.

Practical implications – Developing higher levels of employee affective commitment is a key challenge for many organizations. Our study can help managers in recognizing the importance of building a relational space in which employees are able to express emotions frequently and openly, as well as engaging with other employees in listening to their emotional experiences and responding in a constructive manner.

Originality/value – This study contributes to an emergent body of literature that adopts a positive psychology lens to the study of employee experiences at work, by investigating the capacity to express emotions in general and its influence on people's affective commitment to the organization.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2011

Michael Wallace and Travis Scott Lowe

Purpose – In this chapter, we examine individual- and country-level differences in 4 work attitudes (work centrality, work commitment, job satisfaction, and autonomy…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, we examine individual- and country-level differences in 4 work attitudes (work centrality, work commitment, job satisfaction, and autonomy) among 31 European countries in 1999 using a multilevel framework.

Design/methodology/approach – We utilize the 1999/2000 European Values Study to investigate individual- and country-level determinants of work values and job rewards. Our analysis contains 17 traditionally capitalist and 14 post-socialist countries. At the country level, we consider 11 institutional processes as possible explanations for variations in work values and job rewards: post-socialist status, continuous democracy, contentious politics, state capacity, socialist ideology, union density, economic integration, service employment, income inequality, linguistic heterogeneity, and population density.

Findings – We find that traditionally capitalist countries tend to score lower on work values and higher on job rewards than post-socialist countries. Our analyses show that each of the 11 institutional processes, especially continuous democracy and economic integration, has statistically significant effects on the four dependent variables.

Research limitations/implications – Of the 44 hypotheses we made, 23 were supported by statistically significant effects in the predicted direction, 16 were not significant, and 5 were statistically significant in a direction unanticipated by our theory. We discuss possible reasons for the results that did not conform to our expectations.

Originality/value – The study is one of the most comprehensive multination studies of work values and job rewards in that it examines the impact of 11 institutional processes on four different work attitudes among 31 European countries. It is the only study of this scope to rigorously examine the differences between traditionally capitalist and post-socialist countries.

Details

Comparing European Workers Part A
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-947-3

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2007

Abraham Carmeli, D. Elizur and Eyal Yaniv

This study attempts to analyze the structure of work commitment by delineating and classifying the content areas that constitute the conceptual space of the work commitment domain.

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3178

Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to analyze the structure of work commitment by delineating and classifying the content areas that constitute the conceptual space of the work commitment domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the work commitment literature, the present study considers the identified forms of work commitment, but goes beyond these forms to explore a basic conceptual structure of the domain.

Findings

The findings indicated that multiple commitment measures provide more comprehensive information concerning individuals' work commitment than a single general measure. Specifically, facet analysis provides an important tool for researchers to understand the structure of work commitment.

Originality/value

The multifaceted approach employed in this study enabled the designing and empirical testing of a structural definitional framework of work commitment, which despite growing interest, lacks such a definition. Only two of the three possible facets were examined. Future research may use the complete definitional framework in order to systematically develop an empirical tool that will represent all three facets and their elements.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2005

Sheldon Stryker, Richard T. Serpe and Matthew O. Hunt

We present here research on the impact of three levels of social structure – large-scale, intermediate, and proximate – on commitment to three types of role-related…

Abstract

We present here research on the impact of three levels of social structure – large-scale, intermediate, and proximate – on commitment to three types of role-related relationships: family, work, and voluntary associational. This research is carried out using data from a sample survey of Whites, Blacks, and Latinos drawn from a five-county area of southern California. The central problem of this paper is to explicate the social structural sources of commitment to social network relationships. Our interest in this problem arises out of earlier work on Identity Theory.

Details

Social Identification in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-223-8

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Mohammed-Aminu Sanda and John Kuada

This paper aims to investigate the influencing dynamics of culture (national and organizational), employee characteristics, employee job satisfaction and organizational…

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1599

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influencing dynamics of culture (national and organizational), employee characteristics, employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in determining the organizational performances of firms in the retail banking sector in a developing country such as Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework linking national and organizational cultures to employees’ job satisfaction, job characteristics, organizational commitment and organizational performance was developed, and their measurement scales were adapted to guide the empirical investigation. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled in by 300 employees in nine retail banks in Ghana. The results were first analyzed by carrying out data reduction of the measured scales by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-based factor analysis approach. The reduced data obtained from the factor analysis were then analyzed for model goodness fit by using the Analysis of Moment Structures-based structural equation modeling approach.

Findings

Effective organizational performance of retail banks in Ghana is directly influenced by the relationships among organizational culture, employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The study sample was drawn from a single sub-sector of the Ghanaian economy. Replications and extensions of the study in different sectors that are experiencing high growth will help test the robustness and generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The study provides empirical knowledge that could be used to understand the influencing interrelationships among organizational culture, employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the organizational performances of retail banking firms in a developing country context.

Originality/value

The study adds to the literature as one of the most comprehensive studies of the links between culture, job satisfaction, employee characteristics and organizational commitment toward organizational performance within the banking sector in Ghana to date.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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