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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Eimear Nolan and Xiaoning Liang

The last decade has seen a significant increase in self-initiated expatriation research across various cohorts; however, limited research exists on the self-initiated…

Abstract

Purpose

The last decade has seen a significant increase in self-initiated expatriation research across various cohorts; however, limited research exists on the self-initiated expatriation of medical doctors despite their high mobility rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of cross-cultural adjustment among self-initiated medical doctors working and living in a host culture.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed to self-initiated expatriate (SIE) doctors working in Irish hospitals. In total, 193 valid responses were collected. Three linear regression analyses were conducted to explore factors influencing cross-cultural adjustment among SIE medical doctors, along with qualitative insight into their adjustment to working and living in Ireland.

Findings

This study found that age, marital status, cultural novelty, previous international work experience, length of time working in the host culture did not influence the cross-cultural adjustment of SIE doctors. However, gender, language ability and perceived fair treatment were found to influence their cross-cultural adjustment in the study. Specifically, female SIE doctors reported higher levels of general adjustment to that of SIE male doctors. SIE doctors' language ability was found to influence their work adjustment, and those who perceived unfair treatment in the host culture reported lower levels of general adjustment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the limited knowledge and understanding surrounding the self-initiated expatriation of medical doctors and their cross-cultural adjustment to the host hospital and host culture.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Matthias Rosenbaum-Feldbrügge, Stine Waibel, Herbert Fliege, Maria M. Bellinger and Heiko Rüger

Previous research indicates that accompanying partners often struggle to find employment upon international relocations. This study aims to highlight diplomat’s partners…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research indicates that accompanying partners often struggle to find employment upon international relocations. This study aims to highlight diplomat’s partners’ employment situation and to examine how unrealized professional aspirations affect their socio-cultural and psychological adjustment in the foreign environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies OLS regression analysis to a sample of 220 partners of German Foreign Service diplomats who were surveyed regarding their locational adjustment, general stress and perceived quality of life using an online questionnaire. This study differentiates between working partners (19.5% of the total sample), non-working partners with a desire to obtain paid employment (65.5%) and partners who are unemployed by choice (15.0%).

Findings

The results demonstrate that partners’ employment situation and employment aspirations are important variables explaining differences in socio-cultural and psychological adjustment. Working partners reveal the highest levels of general stress, non-working partners with an employment desire report the lowest levels of locational adjustment and non-working partners without employment aspirations experience the highest quality of life.

Research limitations/implications

As this study has a cross-sectional design, the authors are not able to deal with potential issues of reverse causality.

Practical implications

Sending organizations should consider accompanying partners' unrealized employment aspirations by providing services with regard to job search and career development. Moreover, they should ensure the provision of services that support the work–life balance of working couples.

Originality/value

Previous research only sparsely examined the adjustment and well-being of partners accompanying foreign service employees, who are in contrast to business expatriates required to relocate every three to five years. Moreover, this study features the crucial role of partners' employment situation and discusses possibilities to promote spousal employment, as well as complementary measures to improve work–life balance for dual-earner couples.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Hao Huang, Hong Liu, Xingguang Zhao, Hanrong He and Yusen Ding

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification in the simulated home environment. Another objective of this study is to provide an effective cross-cultural adjustment model adopted by many Chinese enterprises operating overseas. Furthermore, it examines the mediating effects of organizational embeddedness and organizational identification on POS and expatriate adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this quantitative research study was acquired from a questionnaire survey completed by 326 expatriates from Chinese enterprises in a power station in Bangladesh, and regression analyses were conducted using SPSS software.

Findings

The study found that POS of expatriates is positively correlated with their organizational embeddedness and organizational identification, and it positively impacts expatriate adjustment. Moreover, the study also evaluated that organizational embeddedness and organizational identification positively influence expatriate adjustment. Finally, it was demonstrated that organizational embeddedness mediates the relationship among living POS, emotional POS and expatriate adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships among work POS, emotional POS and work adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships between work POS and interaction adjustment.

Practical implications

The research results demonstrate that the living, work and emotional support to the expatriates from the projects department of Chinese enterprises is of particular importance for their better adjustment in overseas engineering projects. Furthermore, these results are particularly conducive to the successful management of employees accommodated in fully-closed and semi-closed simulated homes.

Originality/value

In the setting of a simulated home in the overseas engineering projects, this research study has demonstrated for the first time that the living, work and emotional support provided by an organization can effectively help its expatriate workers acclimatize during their overseas placement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Yuwen Liu

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by highlighting how workplace friendships enhance the process of adjustment for expatriates and how these effects on adjustment subsequently translate into expatriates' dual commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 187 expatriates, working in managerial positions, in subsidiaries of multinational corporations, all of whom were assigned expatriates. Serial multiple indirect effects were tested.

Findings

The results indicated that the relationship between workplace friendships and interaction adjustment was supported, but the relationship between workplace friendships and work adjustment was not supported. The serial indirect effects of international adjustment and work adjustment on the relationship between interaction adjustment and expatriates' dual commitment were supported.

Originality/value

This study seeks to fill a gap in the research literature on expatriates by focusing on the issue of workplace friendships and expatriates' dual commitment. The findings help bolster the literature on relational schemas in that expatriates' workplace friendships establish scripts for expatriates' expected outlines of adjustment in work domains. This study also provides insights relevant to the literature on social interaction and adjustment, as the findings support our theory that expatriate commitment is not directly contingent on workplace friendships but rather on the mediating roles of both interaction adjustment and work adjustment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Mohamed Mohamed Battour and Ahmed Rageh Ismail

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) between individual (previous international…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) between individual (previous international experience, self‐efficacy, social network and cultural sensitivity) and organizational factor (direct and indirect support) and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 201 expatriates working in Malaysia and analyse by using structural equation modelling (Amos‐16).

Findings

The results of the study indicated that expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) mediate the relationship between individual and organizational factors and expatriate performance (supervisor rated).

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected from the expatriates working in Malaysian universities. There can be differences between education industry and pure business organization in terms of working environment, selection process and management support. The respondents were citizens of different countries around the world which include Asia, Europe and Middle East. Even though Malaysia is a multicultural society and expatriates from any part of the world can find themselves in Malaysia, this research did not group the respondents in terms of their cultural differences and similarities with Malaysian culture.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that human resource managers and MNC's management should provide direct and indirect support to the expatriates and their families in terms of language and cultural training, career development, logistical assistance, family mentoring, psychological counselling, job search, self‐development and social activities. Furthermore, recruitment managers and MNC's management should consider these factors before appointing any employee for international assignment. Finally, the findings of this research suggest that better expatriate performance help MNC's to perform better in their international operations which will ultimately improve the home and host country economic situation. The better performance of MNC's in their international operations through effective expatriate performance will encourage other domestic organizations to expand their operations globally.

Originality/value

Expatriate literature have highlighted many individual and organizational factors which affect expatriate job performance and adjustment but the role of some individual and organizational factors is still not clear and/or ignored by past researchers. For example, the role of direct and indirect support has not been well conceptualized in past studies. In addition, only a few studies have explained the importance of self‐efficacy, cultural sensitivity and social network in expatriate literature. Furthermore, role of previous international experience has generated conflicting results in past research.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Khahan Na-Nan

Employee work adjustment (EWA) represents the ability of individuals to adjust effectively to working conditions, supervisors, the environment and their peers. To deal…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee work adjustment (EWA) represents the ability of individuals to adjust effectively to working conditions, supervisors, the environment and their peers. To deal with work adjustment in different environments, companies need to both understand and continually assess their employees. The purpose of this paper is to develop an instrument to measure EWA for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in three stages to develop a measurement scale for EWA. First, 18 questions were developed as a questionnaire based on concepts and theories of EWA and validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) into four dimensions such as work, supervisor, environment and peer adjustments. Then, a survey was conducted for 360 new employees in SMEs. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity were tested along the four adjustment dimensions.

Findings

This research extended and broadened the EWA concept to provide theoretical support for the adjustment of intelligence research. Four dimensions were developed to measure EWA including aspects of work, supervisor, environment and peer.

Research limitations/implications

The EWA model was examined using EFA and CFA only. Questionnaire results suggested that concrete constructs were stronger because of single-source, self-assessed data collection as the sample included only employees of SMEs in high-growth sectors of Thailand. EWA findings exhibited a good fit but results require further future refinement and validation using a larger sample size and sampling area.

Practical implications

The EWA questionnaire has practical use regarding management behaviour and can assist companies and practitioners to better understand the required adjustments for new employees at start-up. This knowledge will help managers to encourage and support newcomers to work better and deliver effective results. Managers and practitioners can develop and hone work adjustment practices for new recruits according to the four dimensions proposed here.

Originality/value

The validity of this EWA questionnaire will facilitate the future study on boundaries with EWA measurements spanning SMEs contexts. Empirical research results verified that EWA assessment offered new perspectives to explore vital individual work adjustments that are necessary for new recruits to succeed. This instrumental support will help researchers to effectively understand EWA and explore its potential in future studies.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Markus G. Kittler, David Rygl, Alex Mackinnon and Katja Wiedemann

The purpose of this paper is to analyze four major aspects of the work role and how they influence the expatriate work adjustment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Russia.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze four major aspects of the work role and how they influence the expatriate work adjustment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a quantitative design. Self‐reported data were collected from 113 German expatriates assigned to the CEE region and Russia.

Findings

The results of the study confirm the hypothesized negative association of work adjustment with role conflict and support a positive association with role clarity. Positive relationships of work adjustment with role flexibility and negative relationships with role novelty are not supported.

Originality/value

The empirical results partially confirm but also challenge the established connection of work role and work adjustment in a less well understood geographical context and provide relevant material for the business practitioner with implications for future research.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Seok-Young Oh and Kyoungjin Jang

The purpose of this study is to identify how young South Korean self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have adjusted to their work and to verify the role of workplace learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify how young South Korean self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) have adjusted to their work and to verify the role of workplace learning activities as work adjustment processes in the relationship between work adjustment resources and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a mixed-method approach, beginning with a qualitative study, followed by a quantitative study.

Findings

The main findings of the qualitative study indicated two types of SIE personal characteristics (ability to embrace cultural differences and entrepreneurship), their participation in training programs and that a supportive work environment which facilitates their work adjustment. Workplace learning, which led to role clarification within their organizations, is also critical for adjustment. Based on these findings, the quantitative research study examined the effects of personal and contextual factors on workplace learning and adjustment (n = 120). The quantitative part of the study found cultural intelligence (CQ), entrepreneurship, training programs and supportive environments were positively related to sociocultural adjustment through the work adjustment process.

Research limitations/implications

As work adjustment is an important predictor of increased sociocultural adjustment among SIEs, organizations should build learning-supportive climates to promote workplace learning and seek people with appropriate characteristics for expatriation. Further studies should expand participant sample sizes to represent a wider population of SIEs.

Originality/value

Extant literature on SIEs mainly explored their performance and management. This study explores their adjustment processes through the perspective of workplace learning.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Jennifer Palthe

Using an international field study of 196 US executive expatriates from multiple industries on assignment in South Korea, Japan and the Netherlands, this study aimed to…

Abstract

Using an international field study of 196 US executive expatriates from multiple industries on assignment in South Korea, Japan and the Netherlands, this study aimed to explore the relationship between three facets of cross‐cultural adjustment (work, interaction, and general) and expatriate attitudes (job satisfaction and non‐work satisfaction), and to examine the role of cross‐cultural adjustment in mediating the relationship between family adjustment and expatriate attitudes. The results demonstrate the influence of each facet of adjustment on expatriate attitudes, and provide evidence that the relationship between family adjustment and non‐work satisfaction is mediated by general adjustment. Future research directions and implications for practice are offered.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Michael J. Morley and Mary Flynn

Borrowing from earlier contributions in the cross‐cultural management and international human resource management literatures, firstly we conceptualise expatriate…

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Abstract

Borrowing from earlier contributions in the cross‐cultural management and international human resource management literatures, firstly we conceptualise expatriate adjustment as a multifaceted construct encompassing work, general, interaction and overall adjustment and then we examine the impact of work‐role characteristics in the form of role novelty, role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload on these different domains of adjustment. With respect to adjustment, while our data, drawn from a postal survey of US and Canadian expatriates on assignment in Ireland, show some variations in work, general, interaction and overall adjustment, the composite measure of overall adjustment reveals that, on the whole, respondents are well adjusted to working and living in Ireland. Turning to the impact of work‐role characteristics on adjustment domains, role novelty is positively correlated with work adjustment. Both role ambiguity and role conflict are negatively correlated with work adjustment. Multiple regression results reveal that, combined, role novelty, role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload account for 31.1 per cent of the variance in work adjustment, 13.4 per cent of the variance in general adjustment, 17.2 per cent in the case of interaction adjustment and 17.5 per cent of the variance in overall adjustment.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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