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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Awadhesh Pratap Singh and Chandan Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the modern productivity estimation techniques, namely, Levinsohn and Petrin (LP, 2003), Ackerberg Caves and Frazer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the modern productivity estimation techniques, namely, Levinsohn and Petrin (LP, 2003), Ackerberg Caves and Frazer (ACF, 2006), Wooldridge (2009) and Mollisi and Rovigatti (MR, 2017) on unit-level data of 32 Indian industries for the period 2009-2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first analyzes different issues encountered in total factor productivity (TFP) measurement. It then categorizes the productivity estimation techniques into three logical generations, namely, traditional, new and advanced. Next, it selects four contemporary estimation techniques, computes the industrial TFP for Indian states by using them and investigates their empirical outcomes. The paper also performs the robustness check to ascertain, which estimation technique is more robust.

Findings

The result indicates that the TFP growth of Indian industries have differed greatly over this seven-years of period, but the estimates are sensitive to the techniques used. Further results suggest that ACF and Wooldridge yield the consistent outcomes as compared to LP and MR. The robustness test confirms Wooldridge to be the most robust contemporary technique for productivity estimation followed by ACF and LP.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that compares the contemporary productivity estimation techniques. In this backdrop, this paper offers two novelties. First, it uses advanced production estimation techniques to compute TFP of 32 diverse industries of an emerging economy: India. Second, it addresses the fitment of estimation techniques by drawing a comparison and by conducting a robustness test, hence, contributing to the limited literature on comparing contemporary productivity estimation techniques.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Iraj Rahmani and Jeffrey M. Wooldridge

We extend Vuong’s (1989) model-selection statistic to allow for complex survey samples. As a further extension, we use an M-estimation setting so that the tests apply to…

Abstract

We extend Vuong’s (1989) model-selection statistic to allow for complex survey samples. As a further extension, we use an M-estimation setting so that the tests apply to general estimation problems – such as linear and nonlinear least squares, Poisson regression and fractional response models, to name just a few – and not only to maximum likelihood settings. With stratified sampling, we show how the difference in objective functions should be weighted in order to obtain a suitable test statistic. Interestingly, the weights are needed in computing the model-selection statistic even in cases where stratification is appropriately exogenous, in which case the usual unweighted estimators for the parameters are consistent. With cluster samples and panel data, we show how to combine the weighted objective function with a cluster-robust variance estimator in order to expand the scope of the model-selection tests. A small simulation study shows that the weighted test is promising.

Details

The Econometrics of Complex Survey Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-726-9

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Olle Viktor Olsson, Håkan Aronsson and Erik Sandberg

This study aims to explore the involvement of middle management in forming strategies to manage variable acute patient flows at a hospital.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the involvement of middle management in forming strategies to manage variable acute patient flows at a hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence from a university hospital was gathered via interviews, internal documents, observation and participation in meetings. The role of middle management in the development of strategies was analyzed using literature on middle management involvement.

Findings

In managing variable acute patient flows, middle management adopts a number of roles and behavioral characteristics that have been previously described in research. The role of facilitator is the most prominent, with middle managers prioritizing individual goals and strategies for the clinical departments that they manage before their collective responsibility for hospital performance. Unclear responsibilities and mandates within the organization, together with a lack of hospital-wide strategies concerning how the acute patient flow should be managed, are contributing factors to this behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The research is based on an explorative, single case study methodology. Future research assessing the extent of different middle management roles in health care, in which more empirical data and quantitative analysis is conducted, is encouraged.

Practical implications

There is a need for top management to establish long-term goals to enhance middle management roles when developing strategies for managing variable patient flows.

Originality/value

Middle management involvement in developing strategies for managing variable patient flows is a novel topic for research. The interface and division of tasks between top and middle management is crucial for successful strategies in managing variable patient flows.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Kenneth Y. Chay and Dean R. Hyslop

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different…

Abstract

We examine the roles of sample initial conditions and unobserved individual effects in consistent estimation of the dynamic binary response panel data model. Different specifications of the model are estimated using female welfare and labor force participation data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. These include alternative random effects (RE) models, in which the conditional distributions of both the unobserved heterogeneity and the initial conditions are specified, and fixed effects (FE) conditional logit models that make no assumptions on either distribution. There are several findings. First, the hypothesis that the sample initial conditions are exogenous is rejected by both samples. Misspecification of the initial conditions results in drastically overstated estimates of the state dependence and understated estimates of the short- and long-run effects of children on labor force participation. The FE conditional logit estimates are similar to the estimates from the RE model that is flexible with respect to both the initial conditions and the correlation between the unobserved heterogeneity and the covariates. For female labor force participation, there is evidence that fertility choices are correlated with both unobserved heterogeneity and pre-sample participation histories.

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Awadhesh Pratap Singh and Chandan Sharma

The goal of this study is to investigate the nexus among TFP (total factor productivity), IT (information technology) capital accumulation, skills and key plant variables…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this study is to investigate the nexus among TFP (total factor productivity), IT (information technology) capital accumulation, skills and key plant variables of 34 Indian industries for the period of 2009–2015.

Design/methodology/approach

Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) data series are extracted and formulated using Microsoft SQL server. The authors employ Wooldridge (2009) technique to estimate productivity. To investigate the linkages among productivity, IT, skills and key plant variables, the authors estimate specifications using system generalized method of moments (sys-GMM). Advanced estimation techniques such as Heckman two-step process, probit equations, inverse Mills ratio and panel cointegration are applied to overcome problems of nonstationarity, omitted variables, endogeneity and reverse causality.

Findings

The results indicate that the level of IT capital influences the TFP of Indian industries, so does the level of skilled workers. The outcome suggests that intermediate capital goods, location and ownership type enable the strength of IT capital and that in turn boosts productivity. The authors fail to find any impact of regional factors and contractual labor on IT capital and productivity. While medium-level gender diversity is statistically significant to influence productivity, however, no complementarities exist between gender diversity and IT capital accumulation. The results also indicate that IT demand of Indian industries is sensitive to availability of skilled workforce, fuel and electricity and access to short-term funding.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the nexus among TFP, IT capital accumulation, skills and organizational factors using ASI unit level data. Besides this, the paper offers two more novelties. First, it uses Wooldridge (2009) technique to estimate productivity, which is used by a handful of studies in the context of India. Second, the study identifies factors that impact productivity growth, IT demand and its adoption in Indian industries and thus contributes to growth and development literature.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Julia Hautz

While strategy was traditionally perceived as exclusive, and limited to small groups within organizations, recently a shift toward greater openness through inclusion of a…

Abstract

Purpose

While strategy was traditionally perceived as exclusive, and limited to small groups within organizations, recently a shift toward greater openness through inclusion of a larger number and variety of actors is emerging. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a social network perspective to develop a theoretical framework on how this increased openness has a varying impact in the different phases of the strategy process.

Design/methodology/approach

The author suggests that the strategy process is shaped through social interactions between individuals. Specifically the author conceptualizes how introducing openness affects individuals’ structural and relational characteristics, which impact generating new strategic ideas (variation), and selecting (selection), and integrating them into the existing set of routines (retention).

Findings

The framework shows that benefits and costs of increased openness balance differently. While substantial benefits may be realized in the idea generation phase, costs may outweigh the benefits in the selection and retention phase.

Practical implications

Based on the framework, implications can be drawn on how openness should be introduced in the different phases of the strategy process. Specifically the author discusses appropriate open strategy tools based on social technologies, which organizations can use to benefit from openness in the different stages.

Originality/value

Open strategy is a newly emerging phenomenon, which seems to fundamentally change the strategist’s work. More open, inclusive ways of strategizing offer new benefits but also create costs in the strategy process. This paper deepens the theoretical understanding of the consequences of openness in the strategy process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Jorge Juliao-Rossi and Jana Schmutzler

The purpose of this paper is to test the existence of true persistence in the generation and adoption of product innovations in the context of a developing country.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the existence of true persistence in the generation and adoption of product innovations in the context of a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic probit model with random effects is used to test true persistence relying on a panel data set constructed from three waves of the Colombian innovation survey (Encuesta de Desarrollo e Innvovación Tecnológica) covering the time span from 2003 to 2008.

Findings

This paper empirically shows the existence of true innovation persistence for two of the three types of product innovation studied: the adoption of product innovation that is new to the firm; and the adoption of product innovation that is new to the national market. However, the study could not confirm true persistence in the generation of product innovation.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that systematically tests innovation persistence differentiating between the adoption of innovations that are new to the firm and innovation that is new to the national market. It is also the first study in this research area that uses a dynamic probit model with random effects according to the original specification by Wooldridge (2005).

Propósito

En este trabajo se prueba la existencia de verdadera persistencia en la generación y adopción de innovaciones de productos en el contexto de un país en desarrollo.

Diseño/metodología

Para probar la existencia de verdadera persistencia se estima un modelo probit dinámico con efectos aleatorios utilizando tres cohortes de la Encuesta de Desarrollo e Innvovación Tecnológica (EDIT) que cubren el periodo de tiempo 2003-2008.

Resultados

Este trabajo muestra empíricamente la existencia de verdadera persistencia en dos de los tres tipos de innovación de productos estudiados: en i) la adopción de innovación de productos nuevo para la empresa, y ii) la adopción de innovación de productos nuevo para el mercado nacional. Sin embargo, el estudio no pudo confirmar la verdadera persistencia en la generación de innovación de productos.

Originalidad

Este es el primer estudio que evalúa sistemáticamente la persistencia en la innovación diferenciando entre la adopción de innovaciones que son nuevas para la empresa de las que lo son para el mercado nacional. También es el primer estudio en esta área de investigación que utiliza un modelo probit dinámico con efectos aleatorios de acuerdo con la especificación original de Wooldridge (2005).

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Book part
Publication date: 21 February 2008

Jeffrey M. Wooldridge

I propose a general framework for instrumental variables estimation of the average treatment effect in the correlated random coefficient model, focusing on the case where…

Abstract

I propose a general framework for instrumental variables estimation of the average treatment effect in the correlated random coefficient model, focusing on the case where the treatment variable has some discreteness. The approach involves adding a particular function of the exogenous variables to a linear model containing interactions in observables, and then using instrumental variables for the endogenous explanatory variable. I show how the general approach applies to binary and Tobit treatment variables, including the case of multiple treatments.

Details

Modelling and Evaluating Treatment Effects in Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1380-8

Abstract

Details

Panel Data Econometrics Theoretical Contributions and Empirical Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-836-0

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2014

Sebastian Königs

I study state dependence in social assistance receipt in Germany using annual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 1995–2011. There is…

Abstract

I study state dependence in social assistance receipt in Germany using annual survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 1995–2011. There is considerable observed state dependence, with an average persistence rate in benefits of 68 per cent comparing to an average entry rate of just above 3 per cent. To identify a possible structural component, I estimate a series of dynamic random-effects probit models that control for observed and unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity of initial conditions. I find evidence of substantial structural state dependence in benefit receipt. Estimates suggest that benefit receipt one year ago is associated with an increase in the likelihood of benefit receipt today by a factor of 3.4. This corresponds to an average partial effect of 13 percentage points. Average predicted entry and persistence rates and the absolute level of structural state dependence are higher in Eastern Germany than in Western Germany. I find only little evidence for time variation in state dependence around the years of the Hartz reforms.

Details

Safety Nets and Benefit Dependence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-110-7

Keywords

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