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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Won-Moo Hur, Taewon Moon and Jea-Kyoon Jun

This study aims to examine how workplace incivility (i.e. coworker and customer incivility) affects service employees’ creativity, specifically the way emotional…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how workplace incivility (i.e. coworker and customer incivility) affects service employees’ creativity, specifically the way emotional exhaustion at work decreases their intrinsic motivation, and, in turn, damages service employees’ creativity. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to show the mechanism by which both coworker and customer incivility at work affects service employee creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

Service employees from a hotel in South Korea were surveyed using a self-administered instrument for data collection. Out of 450 questionnaires, a total of 281 usable questionnaires were obtained after list-wise deletion, for a 62.4 per cent response rate. Structural equation modeling analysis provided support for the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate a serial multiple mediator model in which both coworker and customer incivility increase service employees’ emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, reduces their intrinsic motivation at work and ultimately decreases their creativity. That is, the findings of this study reveal a negative relationship between workplace incivility (i.e. coworker and customer incivility) and service employees’ creativity that is fully and sequentially mediated by the service employees’ emotional exhaustion and intrinsic motivation.

Research limitations/implications

The use of cross-sectional self-reports potentially raises concerns about common method bias. Caution is recommended in reaching conclusions concerning the causal relationships between the variables, as the current study did not capture causality variation. For instance, it may be that emotional exhaustion from incivility gradually compounds over time, leading to a greater negative impact on service employees. In contrast, employees may develop strategies to cope with uncivil behavior over time, which attenuates the negative effects on service employees as time passes. A longitudinal design might offer an alternative to overcome this limitation in future research.

Practical implications

Considering the findings about the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion between workplace incivility and employee outcomes (i.e. intrinsic motivation and creativity), firms should consider establishing systematic institutional practices and policies to prevent employees from feeling emotionally exhausted from workplace incivility. Executive and senior management teams would benefit by instituting strict policies and regulations which nurture desirable behaviors among organizational members that protect victims of workplace incivility.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the relationship between workplace incivility and creativity. Moreover, the present study attempts to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanism through which both coworker and customer incivility negatively affect service employees’ creativity.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Won-Moo Hur and Yeonshin Kim

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer mistreatment behaviors within the banking industry and the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer mistreatment behaviors within the banking industry and the moderating effects of customer–company identification (CCI) and brand equity on the hypocrisy-mistreatment behavior relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Using multistage sampling, 567 South Korean banking service users participated in an online survey. Structural equation modeling (confirmatory factor analysis) and hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Perceived corporate hypocrisy was positively related to customer mistreatment behaviors. CCI and brand equity differentially moderated the positive relationship between perceived corporate hypocrisy and customer mistreatment behaviors. Specifically, CCI and brand equity strengthened and weakened the positive relationship between perceived corporate hypocrisy and customer mistreatment behaviors, respectively.

Practical implications

Marketers and banking service managers should pay careful attention to customer evaluations of their social activities and communication about the ethical values and actions of their firms. Since CCI and brand equity have contrasting moderating effects on the corporate hypocrisy-aggressive behavior relationship, marketers should devise different strategies to manage the adverse effects of such corporate crises on company-identified and brand-committed customers. For example, managers should focus on customers who actively express their deep sense of disappointment or profound anger in response to corporate hypocrisy (e.g. those with high levels of CCI) because they are likely to exhibit aggressive behaviors toward the company or its employees. Managers need to devise customized relationship-recovery strategies for such customers (e.g. forging a personal connection between the customer and service provider).

Originality/value

The present findings delineate the adverse effects of perceived corporate hypocrisy on customer behaviors and the moderating effect of customer relationship quality on the corporate hypocrisy-mistreatment behavior relationship within the banking industry.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Won-Moo Hur, Tae-Won Moon and Jun-Ho Lee

This study aimed to examine the effect of self-efficacy on job performance through creativity. We predicted that exposure to customer incivility and rigid service scripts…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine the effect of self-efficacy on job performance through creativity. We predicted that exposure to customer incivility and rigid service scripts will moderate the mediating effect of creativity on the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 397 salespersons who were working in a department store in South Korea. The PROCESS macro was used to test the study hypotheses.

Findings

The results revealed that the positive relationship between self-efficacy and job performance was partially mediated by creativity. Furthermore, exposure to customer incivility and rigid service scripts weakened the positive effects of self-efficacy on creativity. Finally, customer incivility and rigid service scripts also dampened the positive effects of self-efficacy on job performance through creativity.

Research limitations/implications

Sales organizations should understand that the extent to which self-efficacy improves job performance by enhancing creativity is contingent on the extent to which salespersons are exposed to customer incivility and are required to adhere to rigid service scripts in the workplace.

Originality/value

Our findings paint a more complete portrait of the beneficial effects of self-efficacy. Specifically, they suggest that the development of creativity is an important mechanism that underlies the process by which internal resources enhance job performance and that customer incivility and service scripts weaken this relationship.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Tae Won Moon, Won-Moo Hur and Yong Jun Choi

Previous research has focused mainly on the antecedents and consequences of service employees’ emotional labor during the enactment of service roles, with little attention…

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1141

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has focused mainly on the antecedents and consequences of service employees’ emotional labor during the enactment of service roles, with little attention having been paid to how perceptions of leaders’ emotional labor are related to followers’ job outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model in which followers’ perceptions of the uses of emotional labor by leaders toward customers influence followers’ job performance in their service encounters.

Design/methodology/approach

Working with a sample of 268 medical service employees in South Korea, structural equation modeling was employed to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that perceptions of leaders’ deep acting toward customers are positively related to followers’ perceptions of authentic leadership. Second, followers’ perceptions of authentic leadership are positively associated with their identification with and trust in their leaders. Finally, followers’ identification with and trust in their leaders is positively related to their job performance.

Research limitations/implications

The research shows that leaders’ use of deep acting toward customers has a positive effect on followers’ job outcomes. Thus, service firms should consider training programs, mindfulness and policy changes regarding display rules at the organizational level so that service employees are encouraged to use deep acting with customers by empathizing with the customers’ needs, while regulating their inner feelings.

Originality/value

The current study broadens the conceptual work and empirical studies in the emotional labor literature related to the service sector by presenting a fundamental mechanism for the effect of perceptions of leaders’ use of emotional labor toward customers on service employees’ job performance. This study is the first to provide an empirical test of how leaders’ emotional labor is related to followers’ job performance.

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Won-Moo Hur, Taewon Moon and Seung-Yoon Rhee

This study examines whether compassion at work increases service employees’ job performance. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to show the mechanism through…

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2636

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines whether compassion at work increases service employees’ job performance. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to show the mechanism through which experienced compassion in an organization affects the job performance of service employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The employees from a department store in South Korea were surveyed using a self-administered instrument for data collection. Out of 550 questionnaires, a total of 309 usable questionnaires were obtained after list-wise deletion, for a 61.6 per cent response rate.

Findings

The results of this study suggest that the evaluative perspective of positive work-related identity mediates the relationship between compassion at work and service employees’ job performance. In addition, the findings of this study demonstrate that there is significant mediating effect of service employee creativity on the relationship between compassion at work and job performance. Furthermore, the relationship between compassion at work and job performance was sequentially mediated by the evaluative perspective of positive work-related identity and the creativity of service employees.

Research limitations/implications

The common method variance in the self-reported variables imposes a need for caution in the interpretation of the findings. Future studies could avoid the problem of common method bias by, for example, using supervisor ratings of creativity and job performance. On the other hand, this study will add to the growing body of research on service marketing by highlighting the role of compassion at work to enhance service employees’ job performance.

Practical implications

This study offers new insight for practitioners (i.e. CEOs, top management teams, employees) by suggesting that they may promote service employees’ job performance if they pay more attention to compassionate acts in service marketing.

Originality/value

As services are becoming more important and harder to sell simultaneously, this study provides a new perspective to improve service employees’ job performance by examining its link with compassion at work.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Won-Moo Hur, Yuhyung Shin, Seung-Yoon Rhee and Hyosun Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational virtuousness and task crafting, and to test the mediating roles…

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1262

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational virtuousness and task crafting, and to test the mediating roles of organizational identification and work engagement in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected questionnaires from 175 Korean flight attendants and conducted structural equation modeling analyses.

Findings

Employees’ perceptions of organizational virtuousness were positively associated with task crafting. While organizational identification was not solely responsible for mediating this relationship, it intervened in the relationship between organizational virtuousness perceptions and task crafting by affecting work engagement.

Research limitations/implications

While this study provides important insights into the roles of organizational virtuousness, organizational identification, and work engagement in promoting task crafting, the use of self-reported, cross-sectional data limits causal inferences between variables.

Practical implications

Based on the present findings, managers can better understand the antecedents and mediating processes affecting employees’ task crafting.

Originality/value

This study adds value to the positive organizational psychology literature by revealing crucial intermediary processes linking organizational virtuousness perceptions and task crafting, thus suggesting reciprocity and social identity-based motivation as potential underlying mechanisms of task crafting.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Tae Won Moon and Won-Moo Hur

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spillover effects of coworker incivility on customer-directed counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and how emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spillover effects of coworker incivility on customer-directed counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and how emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between them. The authors predicted that job calling and perceived organizational support (POS) would moderate the relationship between experienced coworker incivility and service employees’ emotional exhaustion, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 252 frontline employees working at six full-service luxury hotels in South Korea were examined.

Findings

The results indicated that experienced coworker incivility was positively related to customer-directed CWB. In addition, the relationship between experienced coworker incivility and customer-directed CWB was mediated by emotional exhaustion. Finally, employees’ job calling attenuated the positive effects of experienced coworker incivility on customer-directed CWB. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed, together with its limitations and future research directions.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the study is to provide an empirical framework for how instances of coworker incivility spillover, which lead to the target employee’s customer-directed CWB through emotional exhaustion, and how personal (e.g. job calling) may buffer against negative effects.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Won-Moo Hur, Hyun Kyung Kim and JungKun Park

The primary purpose of this research is to draw out in-depth lifestyle characteristics which can be used in new product development and marketing. To achieve this goal…

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2727

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this research is to draw out in-depth lifestyle characteristics which can be used in new product development and marketing. To achieve this goal, this research aims to explore US female household consumers ' lifestyle structures regarding food-related AIO and identify the values that discriminate best among different consumer segments.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 518 US female consumers aged between 20 and 65 participated based on multi-stage stratified random selection of age. The cluster analysis was performed to identify meaningful segments.

Findings

Six segments of Wellbeing-oriented, Social- and dining-oriented, Family-oriented, Innovation- and action-oriented, Price-conscious, and Convenience-oriented were found. These segments show differences in motivation for buying kitchen appliances, evaluation of quality aspect of foods, consumption situations, and in socio-demographic characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

These results identify that a product-specific lifestyle helps one to understand the market better than product function even in a technology-oriented industry. Consumer electronics companies should concentrate on their potential target market and understand their specific needs.

Originality/value

The study found that refined and modified AIO-based research is effective in terms of consumer lifestyle analysis. In addition, employing the combination of multivariate analytical techniques made it possible to attain the major objectives of the study

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Won‐Moo Hur, Kwang‐Ho Ahn and Minsung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to: analyze the effect of trust and affect toward a brand community on the commitment of brand communities; and investigate the mechanism…

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24944

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: analyze the effect of trust and affect toward a brand community on the commitment of brand communities; and investigate the mechanism through which the commitment of a brand community is able to increase various loyalty behaviors (e.g. repurchase intentions, positive word‐of‐mouth, and constructive complaints).

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypotheses, a total of 200 Chinese female online brand community users were sampled, specifically users who had been active in the online brand community for over a year, and Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis was performed.

Findings

The results identified the significant positive paths: brand community trust → brand community commitment; brand community affect → brand community commitment; and brand community commitment → brand loyalty behaviors. In addition brand community commitment was found to play a mediating role in the relationships between brand community trust/affect and brand loyalty. Finally, brand community commitment was seen to have a stronger effect on word‐of‐mouth than on constructive complaints.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates the need to elaborate the brand community commitment construct. Specifically, attention to the underlying dimensions of commitment should identify more dynamic relationships among trust/affect, brand community commitment, and brand loyalty behaviors.

Practical implications

Marketing executives and brand managers who are considering customer loyalty improvement strategies must understand the value of managing an online brand community effectively. The findings of this study suggest significant ways to increase brand loyalty behaviors, particularly for brands seeking to broaden their appeal in the female Chinese market.

Originality/value

In contrast with the existing studies dealing with community commitment as an attitudinal antecedent of brand loyalty, this study empirically tested the mediating role of community commitment based on Baron and Kenny's logic. Moreover, the mediation was found to have a differential effect, namely a partial mediation for the relationships community trust‐repurchase intention/WOM but a full mediation for the relationship brand community affect‐constructive complaint.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 49 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Inyong Shin, Won-Moo Hur and Hongseok Oh

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the emotional labor strategies of service employees differently influence the level of their creativity, and whether creative…

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1495

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the emotional labor strategies of service employees differently influence the level of their creativity, and whether creative employees consequently benefit from that creativity in terms of achieving a high level of job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed flight attendants from an airline in South Korea. The authors distributed 150 questionnaires to flight attendants, received 126 responses, and finally obtained 119 usable data. The authors used Mplus 7.13 to evaluate validity and test the hypotheses.

Findings

Whereas employees using deep acting were found to be less emotionally exhausted and more affectively committed toward their organization, which produced a high level of creativity, those who selected surface acting were shown to suffer more emotional exhaustion and have less affective commitment, which generated a low level of creativity. Customer service personnel behaving creatively resulted in superior official job performance appraisals.

Originality/value

This study makes distinct contributions to the literature by proposing emotional labor as the key antecedent of employee creativity in service organizations, by confirming emotional exhaustion and affective commitment as the motivational mechanisms through which emotional labor strategies influence service employee creativity, and by suggesting the value of employee creativity.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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