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Article

Won Seok Lee, Choongbeom Choi and Joonho Moon

This study aims to investigate how upper echelon theory accounts for franchising by selecting the top management team to proxy for the upper echelon and using age, tenure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how upper echelon theory accounts for franchising by selecting the top management team to proxy for the upper echelon and using age, tenure, education, equity ownership and stock options as its main attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was drawn from the Execucomp and Compustat databases and from other publicly accessible resources (e.g. LinkedIn and Business Week, in addition to Annual 10-K reports). A total of 29 restaurant companies were used for data collection, which covered the period of 2000-2013. A panel feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) regression was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The study found a significant moderating effect of the degree of internationalization on the relation between the attributes of the upper echelon (e.g. tenure, education and share ownership) and franchising decisions.

Research limitations/implications

The results verified that top managers in the restaurant industry with more tenure and share ownership become more risk averse when they operate under riskier conditions, whereas highly educated restaurant top management teams tend to take more risks in strategic decision-making.

Originality/value

This study expanded internationalization research to upper echelon theory and into the arena of franchising.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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Article

Won Seok Lee, Insin Kim and Joonho Moon

The purpose of this research is to account for the internationalization of restaurants. The conceptual framework of upper echelons theory is applied to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to account for the internationalization of restaurants. The conceptual framework of upper echelons theory is applied to identify the demographic determinants of internationalization among chief executive officers (CEOs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 30 restaurant firms for the period 1999-2013 were collected from a variety of sources, primarily Compustat and Execucomp, based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 5812, the annual 10-K and public information. A panel feasible generalized least squares model was used as the main instrument of analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that the CEO gender and share ownership negatively affect the internationalization of restaurant companies, whereas size, the extent of franchising, the type of restaurant and stock options positively affect the degree of internationalization. Additionally, an inverted U-shaped relation exists between CEO tenure and the degree of internationalization.

Practical implications

The presented information may provide shareholders and boards of directors with valuable guidelines regarding the assignment of appropriate managers depending on the extent to which their companies are pursuing internationalization strategies.

Originality/value

Most studies in hospitality sectors have focused only on accounting-based measures to explain strategic decision-making, although proponents of upper echelons theory have argued that CEO attributes influence strategic decisions/changes. This study contributes to the literature on hospitality by identifying the effects of CEO characteristics on internationalization decisions.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Organized Labor and Civil Society for Multiculturalism: A Solidarity Success Story from South Korea
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-388-6

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Article

Jae‐Won Choi, Ryan B. Wicker, Seok‐Hyun Cho, Chang‐Sik Ha and Seok‐Hee Lee

The paper's aim is to explore a method using light absorption for improving manufacturing of complex, three‐dimensional (3D) micro‐parts with a previously developed…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to explore a method using light absorption for improving manufacturing of complex, three‐dimensional (3D) micro‐parts with a previously developed dynamic mask projection microstereolithography (MSL) system. A common issue with stereolithography systems and especially important in MSL is uncontrolled penetration of the ultraviolet light source into the photocrosslinkable resin when fabricating down‐facing surfaces. To accurately fabricate complex 3D parts with down‐facing surfaces, a chemical light absorber, Tinuvin 327™ was mixed in different concentrations into an acrylate‐based photocurable resin, and the solutions were tested for cure depths and successful micro‐part fabrication.

Design/methodology/approach

Tinuvin 327 was selected as the light absorber based on its high absorption characteristics (∼0.4) at 365 nm (the filtered light wavelength used in the MSL system). Four concentrations of Tinuvin 327 in resin were used (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 percent (w/w)), and cure depth experiments were performed. To investigate the effects of different concentrations of Tinuvin 327 on complex 3D microstructure fabrication, several microstructures with overhanging features such as a fan and spring were fabricated.

Findings

Results showed that higher concentrations of Tinuvin 327 reduced penetration depths and thus cure depths. For the resin with 0.15 percent (w/w) of the Tinuvin 327, a cure depth of ∼30 μm was achieved as compared to ∼200 μm without the light absorber. The four resin solutions were used to fabricate complex 3D microstructures, and different concentrations of Tinuvin 327 at a given irradiance and exposure energy were required for successful fabrication depending on the geometry of the micro‐part (concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 percent (w/w) provided the most accurate builds for the fan and spring, respectively).

Research limitations/implications

Although two different concentrations of light absorber in solution were required to demonstrate successful fabrication for two different micro‐part geometries (a fan and spring), the experiments were performed using a single irradiance and exposure energy. A single solution with the light absorber could have possibly been used to fabricate these micro‐parts by varying irradiance and/or exposure energy, although the effects of varying these parameters on geometric accuracy, mechanical strength, overall manufacturing time, and other variables were not explored.

Originality/value

This work systematically investigated 3D microstructure fabrication using different concentrations of a light absorber in solution, and demonstrated that different light absorption characteristics were required for different down‐facing micro‐features.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Dae Seok Kang, Youn Sung Kim and Dong Won Lee

This study sought to examine the effect of three (distributive, procedural, and interactional) justice perceptions in predicting employees’ motivation to participate in…

Abstract

This study sought to examine the effect of three (distributive, procedural, and interactional) justice perceptions in predicting employees’ motivation to participate in training activities. On the basis of theoretical linkages between the constructs, full mediation and partial mediation models by perceived benefits of training were developed. The models were tested using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) on responses from 302 employees of three wireless operators in the Republic of Korea. The results showed the partial‐mediation model is a dominant model. It also confirmed that interactional justice directly influence motivation to participate in training, whereas procedural justice influence the variable through perceived benefits of training. Furthermore, limitations and implications of the current study and directions for future work are discussed.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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Book part

Yean-Ju Lee

Previous studies as well as anecdotes have indicated that parental involvement in adult children’s marital conflicts is fairly common in Korea. This study attempts to…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies as well as anecdotes have indicated that parental involvement in adult children’s marital conflicts is fairly common in Korea. This study attempts to explain how in-law conflicts – arguably a structural outcome of the traditional Confucian family – lead to marital disruption in contemporary families.

Methodology/approach

This study adopts the hypotheses of the corporate group, mother identity, and gendered-role expectations, which are instrumental to understanding the social context in which the legacy of the Confucian culture interacts with the knowledge-based neoliberal economy to revive in-law conflicts. Divorced-couple data are from in-depth interviews and court rulings, and their analysis illustrates the trajectories of marital breakdown.

Findings

The findings provide support for the hypotheses. Parents, especially mothers, who heavily invested time and money in their children’s education and career building meddle in their marriages in hopes to ensure the best returns to their investment. Normative prescriptions of gendered roles provide references for the parents regarding the roles of their children and children-in-law, and the gaps between their expectations and perceived reality trigger parental meddling and in-law conflicts. Adult children who are indebted to the parents for their status formation may acquiesce to the parental intervention.

Social implications

In the traditional patriarchal family, in-law conflicts were restricted to mother- and daughter-in-law relationships, but are now extended to mother- and son-in-law relationships, reflecting a paradoxical twist in gender-role expectations. This chapter suggests that heavy parental investment in their children can have an unexpected consequence increasing the probability of adult children’s marital disruption.

Details

Divorce, Separation, and Remarriage: The Transformation of Family
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-229-3

Keywords

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Article

Kiyoung Kim

This paper, in face of the increasing interconnectivity between local and global, has attempted to retrospect the critical moment of Korean society under Tae‐woo Rho…

Abstract

This paper, in face of the increasing interconnectivity between local and global, has attempted to retrospect the critical moment of Korean society under Tae‐woo Rho (1988–93) regime, in which Korea struggled for fundamental reforms of the earlier centrally controlled state system through economic rationalization and labor flexibilization. During that juncture of Korean history, neo‐liberalization under the influence of Fordian decline was a governing theme behind the Korean economy's policy formation as well as labor agenda. This reliance of government on the neo‐liberal pillar has made an impact on the subsequent leaderships under Young Sam Kim (1993–1998) and Dae Jung Kim (1998‐present). After briefly reviewing the major aspect of Korean economy and labor problems surrounding the financial crisis of East Asia around 1998, the international influence of Fordian decline and neo‐liberalization as a Korean alternative has been discussed.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article

Young-seok Kim and Louise Cooke

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a big data analysis of public library operations and services of two cities in two countries by using the Chernoff face method.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a big data analysis of public library operations and services of two cities in two countries by using the Chernoff face method.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is designed to evaluate library services by analyzing the Chernoff face. Big data on public libraries in London and Seoul were collected, respectively, from Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy and the Korean government’s website for drawing a Chernoff face. The association of variables and human facial features was decided by survey. Although limited in its capacity to handle a large number of variables (eight were analyzed in this study) the Chernoff face method does readily allow for the comparison of a large number of instances of analysis. A total of 58 Chernoff faces were drawn from the formatted data by using the R programming language.

Findings

The study reveals that most of the local governments in London perform better than those of Seoul. This consequence is due to the fact that local governments in London operate more libraries, invest more budgets, allocate more staff and hold more collections than local governments in Seoul. This administration resulted in more use of libraries in London than Seoul. The study validates the benefit of using the Chernoff face method for big data analysis of library services.

Practical implications

The Chernoff face method for big data analysis offers a new evaluation technique for library services and provides insights that may not be as readily apparent and discernible using more traditional analytical methods.

Originality/value

This study is the first to use the Chernoff face method for big data analysis of library services in library and information research.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article

Kyung‐Ho Cho and Seok‐Hwan Lee

This study argues that the literature on public‐private distinction has failed to distinguish among different types of organizational culture found in the public sector…

Abstract

This study argues that the literature on public‐private distinction has failed to distinguish among different types of organizational culture found in the public sector, while recognizing other important differences. Drawing upon a distinctive bureaucratic culture in South Korea, this study seeks to examine Korean public and private managers' perceptual and attitudinal differences associated with their levels of organizational commitment. Influenced by Confucian values and experience with past military regimes, Korean public managers score higher on their perceived job prestige and perceived centralization than do their counterparts in the private sector. No significant differences are found in the dimensions of commitment to stay, job satisfaction, and perceived inequity between the two sectors. This study also reveals that one of the powerful antecedents of organizational commitment in the Korean public sector is the job prestige perceived by public managers. Finally, implications are discussed.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

Content available
Article

Hyoung-kyu Chey

The purpose of this paper is to analyse international political economy (IPE) thought in Korea during its pre-modern and colonial eras.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse international political economy (IPE) thought in Korea during its pre-modern and colonial eras.

Design/methodology/approach

It divides these eras into three periods. The first period is the eighteenth century, in which Silhak arose. The second is the mid- and late nineteenth century, a time characterised by conflicts between Wijeong-cheoksa and Gaehwa thoughts. The final period is that of colonial Korea under imperial Japan, and during this time economic nationalist movements were pursued while Marxist theories were also introduced to the country.

Findings

This research shows that IPE thoughts analogous to Western economic liberalism and economic nationalism did emerge endogenously in Korea when its environment was similar to those in which these Western thoughts arose, although in ways that reflected Korea’s peculiar situations of the times. This study also demonstrates that the “economic” thoughts of the Koreans in these periods were shaped largely by their political thoughts.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the building of a more “globalised” intellectual history of classical IPE thought.

Details

International Trade, Politics and Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-3932

Keywords

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