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Examines the subject of the glass ceiling for women managers and empirical research within a Metropolitan District Council. Looks at the causes of, effects of, and…
Examines the subject of the glass ceiling for women managers and empirical research within a Metropolitan District Council. Looks at the causes of, effects of, and solutions to, the glass ceiling for women managers within an organisation in the UK. Concludes that the glass ceiling for women managers is a complex phenomenon. The results of the empirical research show that a glass ceiling for women managers exists within the council. The causes of the glass ceiling are wide ranging including a lack of career counselling and development for women, a lack of management development for women, attitudes of male councillors and managers, the expected role of women in society, conflicts between personal and work life, and the organisational culture within which women work. The effects of the glass ceiling for both the employer and women managers are analysed and solutions to the problem are explored.
With more women now working than ever before, there is also an enormous growth in younger women's entering many of the formerly male‐dominated jobs, including the field of…
With more women now working than ever before, there is also an enormous growth in younger women's entering many of the formerly male‐dominated jobs, including the field of management. In the USA, with the strongest legislation affecting the employment of women, 23.6 per cent of managers and administrators are women, followed by the UK with 18.8 per cent. Even so, in the UK, the occupations in which women are most likely to be managers are traditionally female occupations such as retailing, catering and personnel. At senior levels of management there are fewer women and only 8.3 per cent of general management jobs are held by women in Britain.
Women managers have to cope with greater pressures than men managers. If employers recognised and tackled this both women and men managers could do their jobs more effectively.
The growth of women in management positions has largely been at juniorlevels. This has been particularly so within the education sector, wherethe growth in the number of…
The growth of women in management positions has largely been at junior levels. This has been particularly so within the education sector, where the growth in the number of women employed has had little impact on the proportion of women in senior positions. One explanation for the lack of women in senior management positions has been the male stereotyping of the manager role. Reports on a survey, using the Schein Descriptive Index, which was carried out among academics in 19 UK business schools or management departments of the new universities which showed different patterns of stereotyping from that found among managers in other organizations. Male academics at lower levels did not stereotype the manager role at all, but those in senior positions stereotyped the manager role as male. Among the female academics the results showed no association between the characteristics of successful managers and those of women in general, but some association between the characteristics of managers and men in general.
The utility of career planning for managers is evaluated. Thecurrent activities and beliefs of practising managers are drawn on. Theresults of a study of 50 women and men…
The utility of career planning for managers is evaluated. The current activities and beliefs of practising managers are drawn on. The results of a study of 50 women and men managers support other empirical findings and point to the absence of career planning and future plans in managers′ lives. This is contrary to the advice given to women managers, in particular, which advocates the importance of career planning in career advancement. Implications drawn for management development suggest that career planning is not useful as a broad strategy for advancement, is a misnomer, and may lead managers into following plans rather than developing the flexibility to take opportunities.
This article is the result of a co‐operative research supported by the IAPW, Los Angeles Chapter. The response, over 50 per cent, has been very gratifying. The data were gathered during May‐June, 1980. The author is grateful for the support of the IAPW, Los Angeles Chapter and to the respondents. The high response is a testimonial to the high level of professionalism of women in personnel management.
This article looks at research into comparative patterns ofpromotion of men and women in Australia. The study was by interview andlooked at equal numbers of men and women…
This article looks at research into comparative patterns of promotion of men and women in Australia. The study was by interview and looked at equal numbers of men and women in medium to large organisations. A number of the findings were contrary to prevalent myths, e.g. both men and women were prepared to play games of corporate politics. Some women saw being too outspoken as a hindrance to promotion but more women saw their success as due to their own performance, while men were more likely to put it down to luck. In general there were more similarities than differences in patterns of promotion and perceived factors that help or hinder.
An Australian study interviewed 50 women and men middle and senior managers about the factors they perceived as important in their promotion in management. A major finding…
An Australian study interviewed 50 women and men middle and senior managers about the factors they perceived as important in their promotion in management. A major finding was the similarity between the profiles of female and male managers although female managers averaged fewer promotions. Helping factors, perceived similarly by both female and male managers were: coaching by others, past training and experience, personal skill and positive work attitudes. Male managers mentioned luck as a factor in promotion more than the female managers. “Having a career plan” was not an important factor and few of the managers had firm plans for the next five years. Greater variability was found in the factors perceived to hinder promotional progress. The findings are discussed considering the popular advice offered to emergent managers by self‐help books, researchers and consultants.
Women in UK retail management are well represented at therecruitment stage and at middle‐management level, but in spite of theprovision of equal opportunities policies…
Women in UK retail management are well represented at the recruitment stage and at middle‐management level, but in spite of the provision of equal opportunities policies, are not well represented at senior levels (the so‐called “glass ceiling” effect). Reports recent research findings about the experience of female managers in the UK retail industry. Researchers sought to explore possible reasons for women′s under‐representation at senior management levels, including: varying emphasis on commitment; equal opportunities practices; and factors influencing career progression. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 34 female managers awaiting promotion to the senior position of store/general manager and data yielded significant results. The majority of female managers in the sample were highly committed and ambitious for promotion; criteria for promotion may not always reflect equal opportunities policies; and results suggest that women are disadvantaged by different career planning, a lack of political awareness and support.
Surveys of women in management postitions in the USA and elsewhere have indicated a notion of masculine managerial model of “organizational man”. Malaysia presents an…
Surveys of women in management postitions in the USA and elsewhere have indicated a notion of masculine managerial model of “organizational man”. Malaysia presents an interesting case study on attitudes towards women managers because it is a society undergoing rapid changes from its strong traditional religious and cultural norms to modern values about women. This study focuses on the perceptions of Malaysian men and women executives about the female managers in corporate Malaysia. Specifically, the study examines the organizational environment for women managers in Malaysia, how men and women at different ranks feel about women’s advancement in the organization, the differences in the leadership styles of men and women managers and their effectiveness in achieving organizational goals.