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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Nadeem M. Firoz and Gloria Wightman

This paper provides broad guidelines to start a non‐profit organization. Once the non‐profit organization has been legally incorporated, it is crucial that it applies for…

Abstract

This paper provides broad guidelines to start a non‐profit organization. Once the non‐profit organization has been legally incorporated, it is crucial that it applies for a tax exemption status. The application is time consuming but worth the effort. Obtaining the status of tax exemption places the organization in an advantageous position and increases its capacity to raise funds for its operations and charitable activities, since the contributions become tax deductible for the donors. A case study is presented in the second segment of this paper. In September 1997, businessman and philanthropist Ted Turner donated 1 billion dollars to the United Nations. The creation and operations of the UN Foundation, (501) (c)(3) established to disburse Turner's funds to the United Nations, are also covered in this research.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Anil Kumar K, Reshmi R S and Hemalatha N

In India, the number of migrants to urban areas is increasing over time. Unlike in earlier years where male migration was prominent, recent trend shows an increasing trend…

Abstract

Purpose

In India, the number of migrants to urban areas is increasing over time. Unlike in earlier years where male migration was prominent, recent trend shows an increasing trend of female and family migration. As migration and health status are highly correlated, the nature of relationship deserves greater attention from researchers. Although literature on internal migration in India is abundant, little attention is given to the research on the effect of migration on the health status of children. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper, based on National Family Health Survey 3 data, examines the health status of migrant and non-migrant children in the urban areas of India.

Findings

Distribution according to social and demographic characteristics is disadvantageous for urban children who are born to migrant women. As seen from various child health indicators, urban children’s health in general and the health situation of migrant women’s children in particular leaves much to be desired. Pattern of migration tends to have an impact on child health in urban areas; children of women who migrate from rural areas are in an adverse position. Duration of migration has a negative influence on health status of urban children. Overall, it was found that migration status of mothers has an independent effect on child health outcomes; children of migrant mothers have a lower health status.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills the need to study the health status of migrant and non-migrant children in the urban areas of India.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Simone Martin-Howard

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore perceptions of the impact of program participation on parenting styles and behavioral changes using observations…

Abstract

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore perceptions of the impact of program participation on parenting styles and behavioral changes using observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with Black and Coloured staff and mothers at a community-based organization (CBO) in the Western Cape Province (WCP) in South Africa (SA). Purposive sampling was utilized in this research via the CBO and narratives from a total of twenty-three (twelve mothers and eleven staff) interviews form the basis of this manuscript. Data was collected between January – February 2017 and was analyzed through the phenomenological and inductive thematic analysis approach. The staff interviews revealed that child abandonment and neglect and the abuse of women are the two main environmental contextual factors that impact program participation. According to staff, improved self-esteem and positive life changes were identified as successful outcomes of participant involvement. The parent interviews provided examples of emotional issues such as domestic abuse and personal issues with alcohol and drugs as individual factors that impact their program participation. Changes in parenting styles was identified as successful outcomes among parent participants. The goal of this study was to provide much-needed insight into this community by presenting a variety of voices, specifically Black and Coloured men and women, that are underreported in the literature. Findings from this research adds to the knowledge of community-based parenting programs (CBPPs) for low-income and underserved populations in SA and internationally.

Details

Transitions into Parenthood: Examining the Complexities of Childrearing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-222-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Kei Nomaguchi and Marshal Neal Fettro

Past studies suggest that full-time maternal employment may be negatively related to children’s cognitive development. Most studies measure maternal employment at one time…

Abstract

Past studies suggest that full-time maternal employment may be negatively related to children’s cognitive development. Most studies measure maternal employment at one time point, while mothers’ work hours may not be stable during early childrearing years. Using data from the 2001 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (N ≈ 6,500), the authors examine stability in mothers’ work hours across four waves when children are 9 and 24 months old, in preschool, and in kindergarten, mothers’ background characteristics associated to it, and its link to child cognitive development. Results show that the majority of mothers change work hours across the four waves. Analysis using multinomial logistic regression models suggests that mothers’ older age, fewer children, and higher household income are related to working full time at all four waves compared to varying work hours across the waves; more children and less than high school completion are related to staying home at all four waves; and mothers’ older age, being White, no change in partnership status, and holding a college degree are related to working part time at all four waves. Compared to mothers’ changing work hours, mothers’ stable work hours, full time or part time, at all four waves is related to children’s better reading, math, and cognitive scores in kindergarten, whereas mothers’ staying home at all four waves is negatively related to these scores. These associations disappear when background characteristics are controlled for in ordinary least squares regression models. These findings underscore the role of background characteristics in shaping both mothers’ stable employment and children’s cognitive development.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Rachel Dolan

There is limited research on the mental health of pregnant women in prison in England, mother and baby unit (MBU) applications and associated factors. Eighty-five pregnant…

Abstract

There is limited research on the mental health of pregnant women in prison in England, mother and baby unit (MBU) applications and associated factors. Eighty-five pregnant women were interviewed in eight different prisons in England, UK. Schedules for the Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used to assess mental health; Severity of Dependence Questionnaire (SOD-Q) for drug misuse; Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT) for hazardous drinking and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) to identify personality disorder. About 51% of participants had depression and 57% had anxiety. Those with prior social services involvement, diagnosis of personality disorder or history of suicidality were less likely to be admitted to MBUs. The high levels of depression and anxiety can have negative impacts on both the mother and her unborn child. Factors which influence MBU admission suggest those who might benefit most from MBU placement are least likely to be admitted. Other countries offer feasible alternatives to imprisonment for pregnant women and mothers which could be implemented in England.

Details

Mothering from the Inside
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-344-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Brenda Jones Harden, Brandee Feola, Colleen Morrison, Shelby Brown, Laura Jimenez Parra and Andrea Buhler Wassman

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to…

Abstract

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their exposure to multiple poverty-related risks, African American children may be more susceptible to exposure to toxic stress. Toxic stress affects young children’s brain and neurophysiologic functioning, which leads to a wide range of deleterious health, developmental, and mental health outcomes. Given the benefits of early care and education (ECE) for African American young children, ECE may represent a compensating experience for this group of children, and promote their positive development.

Details

African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2011

Sitora Khakimova

Natural disasters have an enormous impact on the lives and well-being of people in many parts of the world. When a disaster occurs, it causes massive damage to people's…

Abstract

Natural disasters have an enormous impact on the lives and well-being of people in many parts of the world. When a disaster occurs, it causes massive damage to people's livelihoods. Although a household is automatically disrupted after experiencing a natural disaster (floods, earthquakes, mudslides, etc.), the accessibility of food commodities is often the most negatively impacted. Since pre-disaster periods are already challenging in the context of providing sufficient food within poverty-stricken areas, natural disasters leave a trail of vulnerable and disadvantaged people who cannot acquire an adequate amount of nutritious food necessary for survival. The inability to maintain consumption levels exposes households to food insecurities – insecurities experienced particularly by women, who head households. Women are more susceptible to food scarcity and lose the ability to sustain their families’ livelihood due to the loss of seeds, livestock, and food, in general. Natural cataclysms, however, not only hamper access to nutritious food, but also considerably affect women's and children's health conditions. In countries like Tajikistan, there is a small body of research that assesses the impact of hazardous events on women's and children's health and nutrition in the aftermath of disasters. This study seeks to provide insights into the access of balanced diets to families in post-disaster situations and analyzes how disasters impact the health of affected people.

Details

Democracies: Challenges to Societal Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-238-8

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Shraboni Patra, Arokiasamy Perianayagam and Srinivas Goli

The level of mother’s health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children’s health and medical care, and spending on medical…

Abstract

Purpose

The level of mother’s health knowledge influences not only her health, but also significantly predicts her children’s health and medical care, and spending on medical care. This relationship has not yet been empirically assessed in India. The purpose of this paper is to measure the level of health knowledge of mothers in India and its association with the short-term illness in their children, medical care and medical care expenditure.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from India Human Development Survey, 2004-2005. An index of “health knowledge” was constructed by using factor analysis. Multivariate binary logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression and multiple classification analysis were employed to analyze the relationship between mother’s health knowledge and child illness. Pearson’s χ2 test and ANOVA test were used to estimate levels of statistical significance in bivariate analyses.

Findings

The results revealed that children of mothers with medium and high-health knowledge were significantly less likely to have short-term illness (OR=0.390, p < 0.01 and OR=0.543, p < 0.01) than those children whose mothers had no or low-health knowledge (OR=1.00, p < 0.01) cutting across all background characteristics. Similarly, the attainment of modern medical care for short-term illness of children was nearly two times greater (OR=1.97, p < 0.05) in mothers with higher health knowledge as compared to mothers with no or low-health knowledge (OR=1.00, p < 0.01). The results also showed that mothers with higher health knowledge spent more on medical care for their children’s short-term illness than mothers with no and low-health knowledge.

Practical implications

The findings suggested a significant effect of mother’s health knowledge on the prevalence of short-term illness among their children, medical care and expenditure on the medical care. Appropriate health knowledge for women is crucial to the wellbeing of their children. Besides, social equity in terms of the distribution of facilities, to gain health knowledge and medical care, are essential to be established in India.

Originality/value

To the knowledge, this study is the first attempt to measure the health knowledge of women in reproductive age and its association with the prevalence of short-term illness, medical care and medical expenditure of their children in India. In general, a health knowledge index could be a significant composite predictor of the health in a population.

Details

Health Education, vol. 116 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Vicky M. MacLean, Patricia Parker and Melissa Sandefur

The study assesses public health programs to shed light on the experiences of low-income and minority women with children seeking health services. Thirteen focus groups…

Abstract

The study assesses public health programs to shed light on the experiences of low-income and minority women with children seeking health services. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 111 pregnant women or women with children. Women consumers of public health services experience difficulties accessing health services due to a lack of insurance, information and language barriers about programs and eligibility, a shortage of Medicaid providers and specialist services, long waits, bureaucratic barriers, and dismissive treatment. Accessibility and information barriers were more prominent in rural regions whereas bureaucratic barriers were more pronounced in urban areas. Lower satisfaction with services was reported among ethnic minority women compared to whites.

Details

Access, Quality and Satisfaction with Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-420-1

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Samia Mahmood, Javed Hussain and Harry Z. Matlay

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of microfinance loans on poverty reduction amongst women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. The authors set out to establish…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of microfinance loans on poverty reduction amongst women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. The authors set out to establish whether there exists an optimal loan size to attain the objectives of women entrepreneurs and poverty reduction in this country.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is based upon an empirical investigation of 123 semi structured interviews as well as in-depth, semi structured interviews with a sub sample of ten women entrepreneurs who secured microfinance loans for their new or established enterprises.

Findings

Emergent results show that access to finance is important for female entrepreneurs and helps them realise their potential as entrepreneurs. An optimal, poverty reduction, microfinance size has been identified. A range of entrepreneurial characteristics were found to be critical to the success of women led enterprises in general and to poverty reduction amongst their families in particular.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses upon a relatively small sample of female entrepreneurs operating in the Pakistani economy. Although the results could be relevant to women entrepreneurs in other developing countries, caution should be exercised when attempting to generalise these finding to other contexts.

Originality/value

Emergent results make a contribution to research on women entrepreneurship in general and optimal microfinance loan size in particular.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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