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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Ayushi Dutta, Sarthak Mondal and Shiny Raizada

This paper analyses competitive balance in the “big five” women's football leagues in Asia longitudinally between 2010 and 2019.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses competitive balance in the “big five” women's football leagues in Asia longitudinally between 2010 and 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

Competitive balance has been measured using recognised measures of concentration, HICB and NHICB, alongside recognised measures of dominance, i.e., identification of top teams. A time-trend analysis has been employed to identify trends of CB in the respective leagues followed by ANOVA and relevant post-hoc tests to identify difference in concentration measures. A multiple linear regression analysis has been conducted to identify the impact of external economic factors on CB.

Findings

Some significant differences were detected in the levels of concentration between leagues. There was also some variation in terms of some leagues being dominated by a fewer number of teams. However, these two measures of competitive balance (concentration and dominance) were not necessarily correlated with each other. The paper also tries to find the optimum number of teams to maintain CB in the women's football leagues in Asia, but an exact figure could not be found.

Research limitations/implications

Some significant differences were detected in the levels of concentration between leagues. There was also some variation in terms of some leagues being dominated by a fewer number of teams. However, these two measures of competitive balance (concentration and dominance) were not necessarily correlated with each other. External economic factors were found to have negative impact on CB.

Originality/value

The paper is an original research and aims to add to the growing body of CB research in world through analysis of competitive balance (ACB).

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2018

Maurizio Valenti, Nicolas Scelles and Stephen Morrow

Women’s football has received increasing attention in the academic literature, partly due to its growing popularity worldwide. However, women’s football research remains…

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1176

Abstract

Purpose

Women’s football has received increasing attention in the academic literature, partly due to its growing popularity worldwide. However, women’s football research remains scattered across numerous academic domains. Focusing on the social sciences, humanities and management disciplines, the purpose of this paper is to map and organise contributions, and to identify research directions for future studies within these disciplines.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the keywords “women”, “girls”, “female” and “football” or “soccer” to initially identify articles, an integrative approach was followed to evaluate and analyse relevant literature. In all, 117 academic journals were classified and subsequently divided into 26 themes according to the subject area, topic and level examined.

Findings

Results of this integrative review show an increasing trend of journal publications since 1998, with a large representation of studies related to historical and sociological research, where qualitative methods are dominant. Articles investigating economic, managerial and marketing areas appeared in more recent times. Women’s football has been researched from different perspectives (players, fans, sport organisations) and across various countries.

Research limitations/implications

The restricted scope of this review (i.e. its focus on social sciences) and the manual classification of articles represent two limitations of this study. However, the synthesis of academic literature provided may assist scholars who are interested in women’s football and women’s sports research to fill identified research gaps and contribute to further advance academic investigations in this area.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of salient research avenues and represents the first attempt to critically appraise the direction of academic contributions in women’s football for the purpose of advancing scholarly inquiry in this sport.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Dunja Antunovic, Katie Taylor, Macauley Watt and Andrew D. Linden

On 2 February 2020, 99.9 million viewers learnt about the Women's Football Alliance (WFA), the largest women's American football league in the United States, when former…

Abstract

On 2 February 2020, 99.9 million viewers learnt about the Women's Football Alliance (WFA), the largest women's American football league in the United States, when former player Katie Sowers became the first woman to coach in the Super Bowl. In the same month, the WFA announced several corporate partnerships and a new television deal with statements that connected the support for women's American football to advancing gender equity.

This chapter examines the professionalisation of women's American football in the United States through the lens of mediated visibilities. We use the term mediated visibilities, rather than media coverage, to move beyond how journalists are writing about sport (or ‘covering’ sport) and account for the complex ways in which content about women's sport circulates across producers and platforms in the digital media environment. In particular, our analysis examines the opportunities and limitations of digital media in the process of (semi-)professionalisation of women's American football.

The WFA joined the broader ‘momentum’ of women's sport in the United States as both the league's social media platforms and the sponsors aligned their messages with cultural narratives around women's sport to invoke gender equity in promoting women's American football. Moreover, the league positioned the strategy to enhance mediated visibility the sport as an integral step in the process of (semi-)professionalisation. However, the role of the WFA's digital media platforms alone appears to be limited without substantial structural change.

Details

The Professionalisation of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-196-6

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Abstract

Details

Seven Faces of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-711-1

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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Beth G. Clarkson, Ali Bowes, Lucy Lomax and Jessica Piasecki

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 prompted widespread global lockdowns as the world looked to contain and reduce the impact of the virus, including a pause…

Abstract

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 prompted widespread global lockdowns as the world looked to contain and reduce the impact of the virus, including a pause on most sporting competitions (Parnell et al., 2020). COVID-19 has greatly affected the world, exposing stark inequalities, especially across gendered lines, in areas of society such as the labour market, domestic responsibility and economic hardship (Alon et al., 2020). Sport is a crucial, interwoven aspect of society and like wider societal trends, elite women's sport has been adversely affected by the pandemic, facing an existential threat (Bowes et al., 2020; Clarkson et al., 2020; Rowe, 2020). The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of how the pandemic is negatively impacting a wide variety of elite women's sports. Specifically, we cover sports where women have traditionally existed on the margins of the sport and could be considered as male-dominated labour industries. Centring primarily on the United Kingdom, we present a brief chronology of the impact of the crisis on elite women's sport, across football, rugby, cricket and golf – in many ways different from the men's versions – spanning the eight months since the start of the pandemic in March 2020 until the time of writing in November 2020. Throughout, the chapter utilises qualitative data from elite sportswomen encouraged to share their experiences during the pandemic (see Bowes et al., 2020). Subsequently, this chapter concludes with a summary of the challenges for women operating in (semi-)professional sports environments.

Details

The Professionalisation of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-196-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Henriette Klavenes, Alicia Orea-Giner, Fernando E. García-Muiña and Laura Fuentes-Moraleda

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the #MeToo movement in the work environment of professional football organizations in Spain. It also explores the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the #MeToo movement in the work environment of professional football organizations in Spain. It also explores the current situation of the professional career of women working in this industry to know if the opportunities are equal for men and women to reach management or executive positions.

Design/methodology/approach

From a gender approach and considering gender as a social structure (Risman, 2004), the authors are going to analyse men and women’s professional careers in football organizations from a three-dimensional gender perspective (individual, interactional and institutional). The objective is twofold: to know the effect of the #MeToo movement in these organizations; and also to know the opinion of both men and women of these organizations concerning gender influence for women’s career progression. The methodology implemented in this investigation is qualitative; 24 in-depth interviews (12 men and 12 women) have been carried out with professionals from different executive positions in both football clubs and organizations.

Findings

The gender approach improves current knowledge about women’s roles in the football industry. The exploratory analysis of the results shows that although the #MeToo phenomenon is relatively known it has had an indirect impact in Spanish football, where its consequences have not been as visible as in other sectors.

Originality/value

The paper provides an exploratory approach by analysing the effects of the #MeToo movement in the football sector, an area where almost no previous research has been done. Also, it presents the main factors that influence women’s professional careers in this sector and the significance of the recent #MeToo phenomenon in the football industry.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

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Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Hirotaka Matsuoka and Akiko Arai

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2017

Ken Roberts

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether European sport has been damaged or adapted during the austerity in public sector and consumer spending that has followed the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether European sport has been damaged or adapted during the austerity in public sector and consumer spending that has followed the financial crisis of 2008-2009.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of literature and data.

Findings

Sport has adapted successfully.

Research limitations/implications

The overall conclusions will not apply to every sport in every country.

Practical implications

Sport flourishes when it adapts to historical trends.

Originality/value

Updates all previous reviews.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2013

Liu Dongfeng

Existing literature reports the positive image impact of major sports events on sport tourists. This paper empirically tests the image impact of an overall sports events…

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1027

Abstract

Existing literature reports the positive image impact of major sports events on sport tourists. This paper empirically tests the image impact of an overall sports events initiative on a host city, and on intention to revisit from the perspective of general international tourists. The findings show that major sports events, in general, can be useful in reaching out to tourists. However, it questions the utilisation of sports events in destination marketing to general tourists - as awareness of sports events actually depresses tourism atmosphere and service image, as well as the overall destination image. Practical implications and future research are suggested.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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