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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Yuika Sakata, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

This study investigated changes in appearance due to variations in the amount of ease allowance at the bust, waist and hips with ready-made women's shirts in two different…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated changes in appearance due to variations in the amount of ease allowance at the bust, waist and hips with ready-made women's shirts in two different styles. The authors also examined the suitable range for ease allowance with those two styles using a sensory test for evaluating appearance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed two women's shirts (samples I and II) in different styles (fit and straight). The authors modified the size of the bust, waist and hips with a changeable-size dress form using 1-cm intervals. The authors observed the shape changes. With the pictures at 2-cm intervals, the authors conducted a sensory test to evaluate appearance. 20 Japanese university students in their 20s made their assessments using seven items (wrinkles, fit, silhouette, beauty, fashionable impression, comfort and purchase intention) with a five-point scale. The proportion of subjects who scored 1 or more was 40% or greater when using ease allowance in the suitable range.

Findings

The appropriate ranges of ease allowance differed according to the style and evaluation items. Regarding appearance and purchase intention with sample I from the front, the suitable range of ease allowance was 1–7 cm for the bust, 2–6 cm for the hips and 13 cm for the waist. From the side, the range was 0–6 cm for the hips and 7 cm for the bust. With sample II from the front, the suitable range of ease allowance was about 4 cm for all parts. From the side, the range was 11 cm for the bust and 4 cm for the hips.

Originality/value

Using a dress form, the authors determined suitable ranges of ease allowance for two women's shirts in fit and straight styles with seven bust, six waist and six hip sizes. The authors found that the suitable range of ease allowance varied according to the style, direction and parts of the shirt. Our results can act as a guideline for designing and selecting ease allowance for women's shirts, taking into account comfort from appearance, purchase intention and beauty.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Goutam Saha and Dilip Roy

Grounded theory, supported by leading designers, argues for an integrated approach covering end users and designers. However, no substantial work on apparel design has…

Abstract

Purpose

Grounded theory, supported by leading designers, argues for an integrated approach covering end users and designers. However, no substantial work on apparel design has been done so far where a balance is maintained by combining the opinions of consumers and the designers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for designing apparel considering both consumers’ opinions and fashion designers’ views.

Design/methodology/approach

An algorithm is proposed for reducing attributes and their levels to carry out conjoint analysis and assign utilities to different attributes and their levels. After selecting the best three design combinations based on their utilities, the authors have arrived at optimum design combinations. Through Delphi method, the opinions of a few fashion designers about these selected design combinations have been collected for matching with optimum design.

Findings

An optimum design is suggested for a formal office shirt, for North Indian women, by integrating opinions of designers and consumers.

Originality/value

Attribute and level reduction technique is an original contribution to the literature. Further, the authors’ approach to apparel design may provide a guideline to apparel manufacturers when designing their products. Knowledge of optimum design combinations gained through this approach may help apparel manufacturers and retailers in bringing efficiency in stock keeping unit management by keeping more stocks of apparel with optimum design combinations and thus ensuring a better return on investment made on their stocks.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Eva Marsac, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in taste in women’s sportswear t-shirts, between Japanese and French people.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in taste in women’s sportswear t-shirts, between Japanese and French people.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey on the impression of the appearance of t-shirts was conducted using three-dimensional simulations that the authors created. A sensory test was carried out for 24 designs (having varying types of sleeves, bodice length and fitting) on 51 examinees (26 Japanese and 25 French) who voluntarily participated.

Findings

Results show that both Japanese and French people most appreciated very short t-shirts and considered sleeveless and tank top shirts to be the most appropriated for exercise. Participants liked a cool, modern, showy, short, special, elaborate and feminine design. Additionally, Japanese people considered that casual clothes that are suitable for exercise are not suitable for wearing outside the gym, whereas this was not notable for French people.

Originality/value

The results of the present study will allow the sportswear industry to better target clients.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Nancy L. Cassill, Jane B. Thomas and Erica M. Bailey

Value is a word that is frequently used by consumers, retailers and manufacturers. Understanding how consumers define value is imperative to the success of the industry…

Abstract

Value is a word that is frequently used by consumers, retailers and manufacturers. Understanding how consumers define value is imperative to the success of the industry. Value has often been defined as price or quality; other factors such as time, energy, product category and type of retail outlet may determine the definition of value by consumers. The purpose of this research was to define value, specifically how department store consumers define apparel value. Value ivas examined with two apparel products, a man's dress shirt and a woman's jacket. Research was conducted using focus groups (qualitative) and in‐store data collection (quantitative). The two hypotheses were tested by using t‐tests and forward step‐wise regression. Results from the 533 department store consumers indicated that: (a) value can be defined using qualitative and quantitative methods, (b) the definition of value was different for the two product categories, men's dress shirt and women's jacket, (c) the value definition for the majority of this study's consumers was ‘I look for the highest quality with an acceptable price’, and (d) product features and marketing attributes are weighted differently, yielding three consumer value equations for the sample's department store consumers. Implications exist for fibre producers, textile mills, apparel manufacturers and retailers in the product development and marketing of ‘value’ apparel products to meet diverse core consumer groups.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2014

Mohammad Masudur Rahman and Cheong Inkyo

The European Union (EU) has notified its revised Generalized System of Preference (GSP) on 31 October, 2012 which will come into effect from 1 January, 2014. The EU is…

Abstract

The European Union (EU) has notified its revised Generalized System of Preference (GSP) on 31 October, 2012 which will come into effect from 1 January, 2014. The EU is also in the process of, or contemplating, to sign Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with many developing countries. Recently, EU has officially announced initiation of FTA negotiations with USA. Such preferential tariff arrangements could lead to significant erosion of preferences enjoyed currently by the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). In this backdrop, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the economic impacts originating from preference erosion in the EU market which could potentially affect LDCs in general, Bangladesh in particular. In this context, a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis has been developed by using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and database to explore the aggregate impact of the preferential erosion as well as sectoral implications for which different partial equilibrium analyses were used. The analysis evince that if the EU eliminates all tariffs for Pakistan, India and Vietnam, Bangladesh's real GDP could decrease by 0.27 percent whilst welfare loss could be to the tune of US$ 54 million. Total exports to the EU will be reduced by 0.18 percent; consequently, Bangladesh’s terms of trade and exports of textiles and clothing could be fall by about 1 percent. The product level disaggregated analysis using RCA and unit price of major items also indicate that a number of products including textiles and clothing will be confronted with formidable market access difficulties in the EU.

Details

Journal of International Logistics and Trade, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1738-2122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Jungmin Yoo and Minjeong Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of product coordination and a model's face on consumer responses in terms of affective states, perceived amount of…

2462

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of product coordination and a model's face on consumer responses in terms of affective states, perceived amount of information and purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the study was a 2 (product presentation: coordinated vs uncoordinated) × 2 (model's face: present vs absent) between‐subjects design. A convenience sample of 243 college students participated in a web experiment.

Findings

The results suggest that complementary apparel items should be coordinated together (e.g. pairing t‐shirt and pants together on a model) on the web sites to produce favorable consumers' shopping outcomes. However, contrary to prior research findings, consumers perceived more information when no model's face was present with the product than when an attractive model's face and body were shown together.

Research limitations/implications

This study used a convenience sample of college women. Thus, future research needs to include a more diverse group of e‐shoppers to enhance generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

The findings of the study provide useful insights that apparel e‐retailers can utilize to develop more effective e‐retailing web sites. Based on the findings, product coordination without a model's face is recommended for e‐retailers.

Originality/value

Overall the paper's findings provide empirical support for the Stimulus‐Organism‐Response (S‐O‐R) model and the ensemble effect.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Robert H. Lowson

In a earlier debate, it was suggested that for many reasons, the decision by a retailer to source low‐cost clothing offshore from low‐wage suppliers may be ill‐advised. We…

2144

Abstract

In a earlier debate, it was suggested that for many reasons, the decision by a retailer to source low‐cost clothing offshore from low‐wage suppliers may be ill‐advised. We were able to show that using lower priced textiles and apparel manufactured by foreign sources could be sub‐optimal operations strategy. In numerous cases, those relying upon this form of procurement failed to consider all the relevant information. Despite the obvious attraction of low cost, there were serious trade‐offs and disadvantages. We classified the latter as the hidden costs of importing (for example, delays, use of airfreight, administrative and quality costs, etc.) and the inflexibility costs. When properly attributed and quantified, these disadvantages often outweighed the benefits of low cost foreign supply. It was at this point that we proposed the need for an objective, axiomatic framework (widely accepted across the textile industry) to demonstrate the full implications of domestic versus offshore purchasing – a total acquisition cost model. Here, we expand this thinking, and begin to explore how such a model can be developed using the data obtained from a sample of international textile and clothing retailers and their suppliers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

S. Kawabata, Masako Niwa, R. Koztowsky, S. Manys, K. Nakano and Takako Inoue

Recently, the Polish National Fiber Research Laboratory provided linen samples. In addition to these Polish fabric samples, we also collected linen fabric samples which…

Abstract

Recently, the Polish National Fiber Research Laboratory provided linen samples. In addition to these Polish fabric samples, we also collected linen fabric samples which were made in Japan and throughout Europe. We have investigated hand properties of various linen fabrics, and identification of the Polish linen fabrics quality from those of other linen fabrics. The fabric hand of Polish linen fabrics is unique, it possesses a hand just between wool‐like and cotton‐like fabrics. We have clarified that the Polish linen fabrics are suitable for hari‐type and tailored type silhouette designs for women’s wear, and the fabrics are well‐suited for finishing garment appearance.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Brittney C. Bauer, Brad D. Carlson and Clark D. Johnson

Although endorsers are thought to be highly effective when they match-up with a product, the current understanding of endorser match-up offers little insight for…

Abstract

Purpose

Although endorsers are thought to be highly effective when they match-up with a product, the current understanding of endorser match-up offers little insight for distinctions between equally attractive and trustworthy endorsers who have equivalent expertise in the product category, yet still diverge in their performance. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to understand how a match between social judgments (i.e. warmth vs competence) of a celebrity endorser and specific advertising appeals (i.e. symbolic vs utilitarian) can improve consumer responses to an endorsement.

Design/methodology/approach

A preliminary study empirically distinguishes perceptions of warmth and competence from prevailing celebrity endorser evaluative criteria. Then, the authors conduct multiple 2 (warmth vs competence) × 2 (symbolic vs utilitarian) between-subjects experiments to demonstrate the effect of matching social judgments and advertising messaging, across celebrity genders (i.e. male and female), forms of marketing communications (i.e. print ads and interactive online ads) and types of brands (i.e. well-established and new/unknown).

Findings

The findings demonstrate that matching celebrity endorser social judgments with the appropriate type of advertising messaging positively influences consumer response to the brand for both male and female endorsers. Additionally, despite a commonly held belief that celebrity endorsements are more effective at changing attitudes than actual behaviors, for interactive online ads, the authors find that the match strategy can motivate consumer response through two different pathways. For well-established brands, the match improves overall brand response predominately through cognitive and behavioral mechanisms. Alternatively, for new or unknown brands, the match initially impacts affective responses, which are subsequently related to consumers shopping a brand’s product category, rating a brand higher in customer recommendations, choosing a brand’s products over top competitors and paying more for the brand’s offerings.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this research is the demonstrated support for an alternative and effective application of the match-up hypothesis, based on a fit between the endorser and the advertising messaging itself.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Helen Woodruffe‐Burton and Sam Bairstow

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which butch lesbians manage and negotiate their sexual identity in the workplace.

2034

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which butch lesbians manage and negotiate their sexual identity in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study using online ethnographical enquiry to explore lesbians' experiences of performing butch identity in the workplace. Ethical and other issues relating to online ethnographic research are also explored and discussed.

Findings

Identity negotiation is a key issue and lesbians face the constant pressure of identity management. This is not simply a personal perspective but a defence mechanism to counter the heteronormative culture within organisations. Strategies for dealing with these tensions evident in the literature and reflected in this study range from “passing” (passing as a heterosexual) to defying expectations of heteronormativity and remaining constant to individual butch identity.

Practical implications

The paper can assist HRD professionals and leaders in developing organisation cultures which embrace and include difference and help obviate oppression. It may also be of interest to researchers and policy makers in the fields of diversity and equality and LGB issues.

Social implications

The findings here will be of interest to social audiences including LGBT individuals, activist groups and support groups. Wider understanding of female masculinity and butch identity may help leverage greater tolerance and acceptance.

Originality/value

This study responds to calls for more LGBT research in the workplace and organisational context. The findings develop the understanding of identity negotiation in conditions of heteronormativity. It is also argued that this study of the experiences of lesbians in the workplace is positioned as an alternative site of understanding organisations, with learning to offer gendered leadership.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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