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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Lisa E. Baranik, Yue Zhu, Mo Wang and Wei Zhuang

Research has found that the effects of directly experiencing mistreatment at work are consistently negative; however, results from studies examining employees' reactions…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has found that the effects of directly experiencing mistreatment at work are consistently negative; however, results from studies examining employees' reactions to witnessing mistreatment are less consistent. This study focuses on nurses witnessing patient mistreatment in order to examine how third parties respond when witnessing patients mistreating co-workers. We argue that nurses high on other-orientation are less likely to experience emotion exhaustion in the face of witnessing patient mistreatment, whereas nurses high on self-concern are more likely to experience emotional exhaustion. We further argue that the indirect effect of witnessing patient mistreatment on job performance through emotional exhaustion is moderated by other-orientation and self-concern.

Design/methodology/approach

We used data collected at two time points, with six months apart, from 287 nurses working in a hospital. The study tests the hypotheses by using multiple regression analyses.

Findings

Emotional exhaustion mediated the relationships between witnessing patient mistreatment and two forms of job performance: patient care behaviors and counterproductive work behaviors. Furthermore, other-orientation moderated these indirect relationships such that the indirect relationships were weaker when other-orientation was high (vs. low). Self-concern did not moderate these relationships.

Practical implications

Service and care-oriented businesses may protect their employees from the risk of burnout by promoting prosocial orientation among their patient and customer-facing employees.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the detrimental effects of witnessing patient mistreatment on nurses' performance. It also extends the current understanding of why and when witnessing patient mistreatment is related to performance by demonstrating the joint effects of witnessing patient mistreatment and an individual difference construct, other-orientation on employees' performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Jeremy Hale and Mingzhou Jin

Inconsistencies in build quality part-to-part and build-to-build continue to be a problem in additive manufacturing (AM). The flexibility of AM often enables low-volume…

Abstract

Purpose

Inconsistencies in build quality part-to-part and build-to-build continue to be a problem in additive manufacturing (AM). The flexibility of AM often enables low-volume and custom production, making conventional methods of machine qualification and health monitoring challenging to implement. Machine health has been difficult to separate from the effects of design and process decisions, and therefore inferring machine health through part quality has been similarly complicated.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper proposes a framework for monitoring machine health by monitoring two types of witness parts, in the form of witness builds and witness artifacts, to provide sources of data for potential indicators of machine health.

Findings

The proposed conceptual framework with witness builds and witness artifacts permits the implementation into AM techniques to monitor machine health according to part quality. Subsequently, probabilistic models can be used to optimize machine costs and repairs, as opposed to statistical approaches that are less ideal for AM. Bayesian networks, hidden Markov models and Markov decision processes may be well-suited to accomplishing this task.

Originality/value

Though variations of witness builds have been created for use in AM to measure build quality and machine capabilities, the literature contains no previously proposed framework that permits the evaluation of machine health and its influence on quality through a combination of witness builds and witness artifacts, both of which can be easily added into AM production.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Leam A. Craig

In January 2013, new court procedure rules were introduced in England and Wales, which resulted in significant changes to the instruction of expert witness psychologists…

Abstract

Purpose

In January 2013, new court procedure rules were introduced in England and Wales, which resulted in significant changes to the instruction of expert witness psychologists (EWPsychs). This study aims to build on the results of previous survey studies of psychologists working as expert witnesses in identifying the current challenges faced by EWPsychs.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a mixed-methods design, a sample 58 practicing psychologist expert witnesses were surveyed, and qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach.

Findings

Six overarching themes emerged from the online survey data: training and knowledge, changes to procedure rules and Legal Aid Authority fees, quality of reports, pressures to change opinion, conflict with EWPsychs and expert witness feedback. Over a third of psychologists working as expert witness have not received specific expert witness training, with a quarter of respondents indicating that the capped legal aid fees are a determining factor in whether they accept instruction as an expert witness, and almost two-third of respondents believing that the legal aid rates do not accurately reflect the work that they do.

Practical implications

There is clear demand for high-quality EWPsychs and a need to develop expert witness training programmes and guidance documents to better support the next generation of EWPsychs.

Originality/value

These results inform existing policy, clinical practice and guidance documents in supporting psychologists working as expert witnesses.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2008

Jessica Silbey

In the 1988 film The Accused, a young woman named Sarah Tobias is gang raped on a pinball machine by three men while a crowded bar watches. The rapists cut a deal with the…

Abstract

In the 1988 film The Accused, a young woman named Sarah Tobias is gang raped on a pinball machine by three men while a crowded bar watches. The rapists cut a deal with the prosecutor. Sarah's outrage at the deal convinces the assistant district attorney to prosecute members of the crowd that cheered on and encouraged the rape. This film shows how Sarah Tobias, a woman with little means and less experience, intuits that according to the law rape victims are incredible witnesses to their own victimization. The film goes on to critique what the “right” kind of witness would be. The Accused, therefore, is also about the relationship between witnessing and testimony, between seeing and the representation of that which was seen. It is about the power and responsibility of being a witness in law – one who sees and credibly attests to the truth of their vision – as it is also about what it means to bear witness to film – what can we know from watching movies.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-378-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Livia Holden

This chapter explores expert witnessing in anthropology and the raison d’être of cultural expertise as an integrated socio-legal concept that accounts for the contribution…

Abstract

This chapter explores expert witnessing in anthropology and the raison d’être of cultural expertise as an integrated socio-legal concept that accounts for the contribution of social sciences to the resolution of disputes and the protection of human rights. The first section of this chapter provides a short historical outline of the occurrence and reception of anthropological expertise as expert witnessing. The second section surveys the theoretical reflections on anthropologists’ engagement with law. The third section explores the potential for anthropological expertise as a broader socio-legal notion in the common law and civil law legal systems. The chapter concludes with the opportunity and raison d’être of cultural expertise grounded on a skeptical approach to culture. It suggests that expert witnessing has been viewed mainly from a technical perspective of applied social sciences, which was necessary to set the legal framework of cultural experts’ engagement with law, but had the consequence of entrenching the impossibility of a comprehensive study of anthropological expert witnessing. While this chapter adopts a skeptical approach to culture, it also argues the advantages of an interdisciplinary approach that leads to an integrated definition of cultural expertise.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Jody Lyneé Madeira

Based on interviews with 27 victims’ family members and survivors, this chapter explores how memory of the Oklahoma City bombing was constructed through participation in…

Abstract

Based on interviews with 27 victims’ family members and survivors, this chapter explores how memory of the Oklahoma City bombing was constructed through participation in groups formed after the bombing and participation in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. It first addresses the efficacy of a collective memory perspective. It then describes the mental context in which interviewees joined groups after the bombing, the recovery functions groups played, and their impact on punishment expectations. Next, it discusses a media-initiated involuntary relationship between McVeigh and interviewees. Finally, this chapter examines execution witnesses’ perceptions of communication with McVeigh in his trial and execution.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-090-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 December 2000

Stacy Burns

Abstract

Details

Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-889-6

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2018

Zulfan

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to show that the settings are not self-incriminating rights the right of non-self-incrimination) within the law and how the civil…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to show that the settings are not self-incriminating rights the right of non-self-incrimination) within the law and how the civil rights of the crown witness exist.

Design/Methodology/Approach – This prescriptive and descriptive study employs the normative legal approach and qualitative analysis.

Findings – The attorney general should prove that a criminal case is not too oriented toward witnesses, especially the crown witness, and that there is still other evidence (e.g., evidence of letters and the results of forensic analysis) and the value of convincing proof is difficult to be denied by the defendant. To avoid misinterpretation towards the presence of crown witness in a criminal case process, a regulation policy issued by the Supreme Court of Republic Indonesia is needed.

Practical Implications – Proffering a crown witness under oath is to prove that a crime opposes against the procedure of criminal law with respect the human right values.

Originality/Value – Forcing a person to prove his own guilt is an act contrary to the alleged principle of an innocent person and this research has not been published.

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2018

James Phillips

Expert witnessing in asylum cases involves depicting the conditions of the applicant’s home country as a context for judging a well-founded fear for life or safety. Most…

Abstract

Expert witnessing in asylum cases involves depicting the conditions of the applicant’s home country as a context for judging a well-founded fear for life or safety. Most of the elements involved in the work of the expert country witness are dynamic and change over time, creating new challenges and new resources for describing and interpreting country context. Examining several characteristic Honduran asylum cases separated by 20 years reveals not only an increasingly complex and multifaceted set of relevant conditions in both the sending and the host country, but also a significant broadening of the anthropological “tool kit” available to the expert country witness (as the expert witness becomes aware of its relevance to country conditions at a particular time), and an increasingly reflexive and complex relationship of the expert witness to the country in question and to the court. In the interim, emerging problems of contextual complexity, subjectivity, changing and competing images of reality, and the shifting applicability of legal and sociological definitions and categories arise and can be partially addressed with emerging anthropological or social scientific resources, raising anew the nature of the relationship of the expert witness to the court and the possible mutual influence of social science and legal culture upon each other over time. As the number of refugee seekers increases globally, can expert witnesses trained in social sciences help asylum courts to imagine new ways of bridging the gap between legal regimes of governmentality and the subjectivity of refugees?

Details

Special Issue: Cultural Expert Witnessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-764-7

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Mehmet Okan and Ayse Banu Elmadag

This paper aims to examine the widespread effects of service actors’ verbal aggression on witness customers’ intentions toward the service organizations through their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the widespread effects of service actors’ verbal aggression on witness customers’ intentions toward the service organizations through their self-conscious emotions. The moderating roles of the witness customers’ empathic tendencies and the source of aggression are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

In two scenario-based experiments and by adopting a multifoci approach, severity of mistreatment (aggression vs incivility vs no-mistreatment) and source of mistreatment (employee-to-employee and customer-to-customer) were manipulated to test distinctive effects of witnessing aggression on self-conscious emotions and intentions.

Findings

This study shows that witnessing aggression during service experiences negatively influences customers’ intentions towards the service organization through self-conscious emotions. Moreover, empathic tendencies of customers make these effects more pronounced. It is also shown that witnessing employee-to-employee aggression has a stronger effect on self-conscious emotions and intentions than customer-to-customer aggression.

Research limitations/implications

This paper uncovers the distinctive effects of aggressive behaviors of service actors on self-conscious emotions from the third-party perspective. It is also shown that empathic tendencies can be detrimental to service organizations in certain conditions.

Practical implications

The results warn service managers against verbal aggression because of its negative effects on witness customers. It is suggested that they should try to clarify the incident and restore justice in front of the witnesses.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first attempts to investigate the distinctive effects of witnessing aggression during service experiences and the roles of self-conscious emotions and emphatic tendencies.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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