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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Yang Tang, Thomas D. Cook, Yasemin Kisbu-Sakarya, Heinrich Hock and Hanley Chiang

Relative to the randomized controlled trial (RCT), the basic regression discontinuity (RD) design suffers from lower statistical power and lesser ability to generalize…

Abstract

Relative to the randomized controlled trial (RCT), the basic regression discontinuity (RD) design suffers from lower statistical power and lesser ability to generalize causal estimates away from the treatment eligibility cutoff. This chapter seeks to mitigate these limitations by adding an untreated outcome comparison function that is measured along all or most of the assignment variable. When added to the usual treated and untreated outcomes observed in the basic RD, a comparative RD (CRD) design results. One version of CRD adds a pretest measure of the study outcome (CRD-Pre); another adds posttest outcomes from a nonequivalent comparison group (CRD-CG). We describe how these designs can be used to identify unbiased causal effects away from the cutoff under the assumption that a common, stable functional form describes how untreated outcomes vary with the assignment variable, both in the basic RD and in the added outcomes data (pretests or a comparison group’s posttest). We then create the two CRD designs using data from the National Head Start Impact Study, a large-scale RCT. For both designs, we find that all untreated outcome functions are parallel, which lends support to CRD’s identifying assumptions. Our results also indicate that CRD-Pre and CRD-CG both yield impact estimates at the cutoff that have a similarly small bias as, but are more precise than, the basic RD’s impact estimates. In addition, both CRD designs produce estimates of impacts away from the cutoff that have relatively little bias compared to estimates of the same parameter from the RCT design. This common finding appears to be driven by two different mechanisms. In this instance of CRD-CG, potential untreated outcomes were likely independent of the assignment variable from the start. This was not the case with CRD-Pre. However, fitting a model using the observed pretests and untreated posttests to account for the initial dependence generated an accurate prediction of the missing counterfactual. The result was an unbiased causal estimate away from the cutoff, conditional on this successful prediction of the untreated outcomes of the treated.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Abstract

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Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

RODNEY T. OGAWA and ANN WEAVER HART

A sample of elementary schools and a sample of high schools were employed in a replication of a study conducted on corporations to determine the influence exerted by…

Abstract

A sample of elementary schools and a sample of high schools were employed in a replication of a study conducted on corporations to determine the influence exerted by principals on the instructional performance of schools. An analysis of the components of variation was conducted to estimate principals' effects while controlling for environmental and organizational factors. It was found that principals exert a small but important influence on school performance, as measured by standardized achievement tests.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2016

Arch G. Woodside, Xin Xia, John C. Crotts and Jeremy C. Clement

The study here helps to fill the gap between the current practices of management performance audits for firms and government agencies. The study advances recent theories…

Abstract

The study here helps to fill the gap between the current practices of management performance audits for firms and government agencies. The study advances recent theories of program evaluation and marketing management auditing. While the application in this chapter refers to government agencies managing destination marketing programs (tourism agencies), the algorithmic model construction is applicable for all management audits. The study applies the perspectives from two streams of theory to describe five relevant activities for managing destination marketing programs: scanning, planning, implementation, assessing, and administering. The analysis proposes impact assessments to improve management performances of DMOs via checklists for assessing the quality of information in tourism-management performance audits. Checklists can serve as a management tool by management performance auditors and by DMO executives to enhance the quality in executing destination marketing programs. A meta-evaluation of 10 tourism management audit reports identifies good and bad practices. The findings indicate that substantial improvements are possible in the practice of DMO’s management performance auditing, and the proposed checklist may ensure both high quality performance audit reports and improved performances in DMO practices.

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Making Tough Decisions Well and Badly: Framing, Deciding, Implementing, Assessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-120-3

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Brigham R. Frandsen

Conventional tests of the regression discontinuity design’s identifying restrictions can perform poorly when the running variable is discrete. This paper proposes a test…

Abstract

Conventional tests of the regression discontinuity design’s identifying restrictions can perform poorly when the running variable is discrete. This paper proposes a test for manipulation of the running variable that is consistent when the running variable is discrete. The test exploits the fact that if the discrete running variable’s probability mass function satisfies a certain smoothness condition, then the observed frequency at the threshold has a known conditional distribution. The proposed test is applied to vote tally distributions in union representation elections and reveals evidence of manipulation in close elections that is in favor of employers when Republicans control the NLRB and in favor of unions otherwise.

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1960

ONLY as events recede can we view them in proper perspective. It is then that we discover how often initial judgments were wrong, our fears con‐founded or our hopes…

Abstract

ONLY as events recede can we view them in proper perspective. It is then that we discover how often initial judgments were wrong, our fears con‐founded or our hopes dispelled. Treaties to end wars, pacts of eternal friendship and alliance are the debris which litter our uneasy world.

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Work Study, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Abstract

Details

Regression Discontinuity Designs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-390-6

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Chris S. Hulleman and Corwin Senko

Achievement goal theory traces people's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions in achievement situations to the broad goals they pursue in that activity, whether in education…

Abstract

Achievement goal theory traces people's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions in achievement situations to the broad goals they pursue in that activity, whether in education, sports, work, or other achievement domains (Dweck, 1986; Maehr & Midgley, 1991; Nicholls, 1984). Two goals have featured prominently: mastery goals (also sometimes called learning goals) and performance goals (also called ego goals or ability validation goals). Both goals concern the pursuit of competence and the assessment of one's own skill level, yet they do so in distinct ways. People pursuing a mastery goal strive to develop their skill or expertise, while those pursuing a performance goal instead strive to demonstrate and validate their existing skill, typically by outperforming peers. As such, those pursuing mastery goals typically use self-referential standards to define success versus failure, while those pursuing performance goals instead use normative standards to define success versus failure.

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The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2017

Giovanni Cerulli, Yingying Dong, Arthur Lewbel and Alexander Poulsen

Regression discontinuity (RD) models are commonly used to nonparametrically identify and estimate a local average treatment effect. Dong and Lewbel (2015) show how a…

Abstract

Regression discontinuity (RD) models are commonly used to nonparametrically identify and estimate a local average treatment effect. Dong and Lewbel (2015) show how a derivative of this effect, called treatment effect derivative (TED) can be estimated. We argue here that TED should be employed in most RD applications, as a way to assess the stability and hence external validity of RD estimates. Closely related to TED, we define the complier probability derivative (CPD). Just as TED measures stability of the treatment effect, the CPD measures stability of the complier population in fuzzy designs. TED and CPD are numerically trivial to estimate. We provide relevant Stata code, and apply it to some real datasets.

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Uchenna Efobi and Emmanuel Orkoh

Using quasi-experimental designs, the purpose of this paper is to study the effects of training entrepreneurs and such entrepreneurs going ahead to retrain its workers on…

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Abstract

Purpose

Using quasi-experimental designs, the purpose of this paper is to study the effects of training entrepreneurs and such entrepreneurs going ahead to retrain its workers on the business high-growth performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used a unique evaluation data from the National Business Plan Competition in Nigeria, organized by the Nigerian government in collaboration with the World Bank. The data was analyzed using the Propensity Score Matching technique and complemented with the Difference-in-Difference estimates.

Findings

The authors find from the estimation of this paper that those entrepreneurs who received standard evaluation training and goes ahead to retrain its workers experienced an expansion in the number of employees by two persons, an increase in innovation index by about 3 units. An increase in revenue is also observed, but this increase was not significant at the 1, 5 or 10 per cent levels.

Originality/value

This paper presents an interesting view point on how training within an entrepreneurial venture should be viewed as a ‘two sided coin’. This is such that training the entrepreneur is one side of the story, and the entrepreneur retraining its workers is another important side of the story.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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