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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Cardy Moten, Quinn Kennedy, Jonathan Alt and Peter Nesbitt

Current Army doctrine stresses a need for military leaders to have the capability to make flexible and adaptive decisions based on a future unknown environment, location…

Abstract

Purpose

Current Army doctrine stresses a need for military leaders to have the capability to make flexible and adaptive decisions based on a future unknown environment, location and enemy. To assess a military decision maker’s ability in this context, this paper aims to modify the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test which assesses cognitive flexibility, into a military relevant map task. Thirty-four military officers from all service branches completed the map task.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this study was to modify a current psychological task that measures cognitive flexibility into a military relevant task that includes the challenge of overcoming experiential bias, and understand underlying causes of individual variability in the decision-making and cognitive flexibility behavior of active duty military officers on this task.

Findings

Results indicated that non-perseverative errors were a strong predictor of cognitive flexibility performance on the map task. Decomposition of non-perseverative error into efficient errors and random errors revealed that participants who did not complete the map task changed their sorting strategy too soon within a series, resulting in a high quantity of random errors.

Originality/value

This study serves as the first step in customizing cognitive psychological tests for a military purpose and understanding why some military participants show poor cognitive flexibility.

Details

Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-6439

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Lisete Barlach and Guilherme Ary Plonski

This paper aims to investigate the decision-making on new ventures of eight directors or managers of Brazilian accelerators, aiming to understand if the Einstellung effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the decision-making on new ventures of eight directors or managers of Brazilian accelerators, aiming to understand if the Einstellung effect – mental rigidity – operates during the judgment of new ventures to accelerate.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a quasi-experiment design, the study was conducted with directors or managers of Brazilian accelerators, who were separately interviewed and responded to a psychological test, previously consented, as well as to a simulated decision-making questionnaire.

Findings

The selection process, with the criteria for decision-making, functions as a “template” for the recognition of potentially successful companies and is, indeed, subject to various cognitive biases, among which, the Einstellung effect, characteristic of mental rigidity.

Research limitations/implications

The main contribution of the present study is to identify the cognitive mechanisms, which can negatively affect the evaluation of innovative projects and propose ways that can counteract or mitigate them.

Originality/value

The psychological approach to decision-making, usually studied in chess game context or problem-solving, was applied to a relatively unexplored field that is startups to accelerate. Its originality remains at the interdisciplinary approach, combining knowledge from psychology, decision-making and entrepreneurship.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Roger Stefani

For many years it has been speculated that some learning and attention problems in children are related to underlying problems in neurological functioning. In fact, the…

Abstract

For many years it has been speculated that some learning and attention problems in children are related to underlying problems in neurological functioning. In fact, the IDEA (1997) definition of learning disabilities utilizes terminology that specifically includes neurological processes and conditions: Specific learning disabilities means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps, of mental retardation, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.This chapter begins with a review of the role of neuroimaging in advancing an understanding of the basis and nature of learning and attention problems. The ever-increasing sophistication of neurodiagnostic technology has made it possible to obtain more precise information about neuroanatomical and neurophysiological bases of behavior, including learning and attention. Advances in technology have greatly increased the ability to study the functioning of the brain during the performance of relatively complex mental activities. With this advanced technology it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize normal and abnormal brain functioning, including important components of basic academic skills. The chapter includes a discussion of the recent evidence about the neurological basis of learning and attention problems.

Details

Current Perspectives on Learning Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-287-0

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Abstract

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The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2020

Zillah Webb, Karen Dodd, Alexandra Livesey, Sanjay Sunak, Chris Marshall, Lee Harrison and Heather Liddiard

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for…

Abstract

Purpose

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and none have population-specific norms. This paper aims to describe the adaptation of the behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome (BADS).

Design/methodology/approach

Adaptations were made to the BADS tests to create the BADS – intellectual disabilities (BADS-ID). Data from three doctoral dissertations were combined to explore the utility, reliability, validity and component structure of the BADS-ID. Properties of the BADS-ID were compared with the Cambridge Executive Functioning Assessment (CEFA).

Findings

The BADS-ID is accessible to IQ range 50–70 and has a two-component structure. It has good inter-rater reliability, but poor internal consistency. It has a good face and content validity but evidence for concurrent and discriminative validity is weak. All properties are comparable to or better than the CEFA.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to improve reliability and validity. The development of an accessible test battery with known reliability and validity for individuals with ID should facilitate research into executive functioning in this population. There is the potential to develop population-specific norms from the data.

Practical implications

An accessible test battery for individuals with ID is helpful in clinical situations.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the adaptation of the BADS for use with individuals with ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Tiina Tuominen, Tapio Korhonen, Heikki Hämäläinen, Satu Temonen, Helena Salo, Jouko Katajisto and Hannu Lauerma

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the nature of the academic skills deficits in male offenders and their relation to neurocognitive deficits.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 72 Finnish male prisoners were tested with regard to reading, spelling, and mathematical abilities.

Findings

Low academic skills, especially reading, were related to poor neurocognitive performance in verbal memory, visual memory, attention, and motor dexterity. The results showed a high number (29-36 percent) of reading and spelling disorders. In all, 15 percent of those with medium to severe problems in academic skills had marked difficulties in mathematics. In total, 88 percent of the participants with at least one problem area in literacy skills had neurocognitive deficits. In the present study, the pervasive neurocognitive deficits, occurring comorbidly with reading and spelling difficulties, seem to refer to a fundamental set of deficits which are only minimally explained by IQ, educational background or training.

Research limitations/implications

Reading and spelling difficulties could be seen as functional illiteracy which, combined with a broad spectrum of neuropsychological function deficits, pose a challenging task for rehabilitation. Only after proper identification of deficits has been achieved is it possible to set goals and select the appropriate means for rehabilitation. One obvious limitation is the moderate number of subjects (n=72).

Practical implications

It may not be enough just to train reading or develop literacy activities among prisoners; focussing intervention on comprehensive neurocognitive deficits is also necessary.

Originality/value

Correlates and comorbidity between academic difficulties and neurocognitive deficits among offenders, especially in arithmetic difficulties, have been less studied.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2013

Ewa Bulzacka, Jeanne Vilain, Franck Schürhoff, Alexandre Méary, Marion Leboyer and Andrei Szöke

Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder…

Abstract

Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire) to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

A recent report by Patrick G. Skelly of the ACM Standards Committee outlines some of the reasons why the ACM has asked that the Programming Language Ada specification is…

Abstract

A recent report by Patrick G. Skelly of the ACM Standards Committee outlines some of the reasons why the ACM has asked that the Programming Language Ada specification is not given American National Standard (ANSI) status at this time. The full text of the ACM position on Standardization of Ada, together with the re‐sponses from the U.S. Department of Defence Ada Joint Program Office (AJPO) is given in Communications of the ACM, 25, 2 (1982).

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2018

Glenn D. Walters and Scott A. Duncan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between differences in performance and verbal intelligence quotients (PIQ and VIQ) and the four facet scores from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between differences in performance and verbal intelligence quotients (PIQ and VIQ) and the four facet scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL–R) (Hare, 2003).

Design/methodology/approach

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and PCL–R facet scores provided by 181 male federal inmates as part of a forensic evaluation were analyzed with multiple regression, paired t-tests, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

Findings

Of the four PCL–R facet scores, only elevations on Facet 4 (antisocial) produced a significant WAIS-Revised (Wechsler, 1981) PIQ over VIQ (PIQ>VIQ) effect. In addition, only Facet 4 achieved significant ROC accuracy and correlated with the PIQ>VIQ discrepancy after other potentially important variables were controlled. In a follow-up study of 46 male inmates, Facet 4 correlated negatively with the Verbal Comprehension and Working Memory indices of the WAIS–Third Edition (Wechsler, 1997) and accurately classified a significant portion of Perceptual Organization Index (POI)>WMI cases but not a significant portion of POI>VCI cases.

Practical implications

Verbal comprehension and executive function deficits are examined as possible explanations for the relationships observed in this study.

Originality/value

These results have potentially important implications for forensic assessment in that they suggest that only certain specific features of the psychopathy construct are related to the well-known PIQ>VIQ discrepancy.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2010

Lara Arsuffi

Senior individuals are far more commonly the victims of aggression than the perpetrators, but a small minority of older adults do commit crimes. This paper describes the…

Abstract

Senior individuals are far more commonly the victims of aggression than the perpetrators, but a small minority of older adults do commit crimes. This paper describes the case of a male older adult who battered his wife to death and presented with amnesia about the attack. It describes the neuropsychological, risk and personality assessment procedures adopted to assess functioning, evaluate risk of re‐offending and formulate about the offence. It proposes formulations for the offence and illustrates the treatment provided to ameliorate distress and enhance memories of what had taken place. Finally it highlights areas for future research and service development. With a growing older adult population, the need for specialist assessment and risk management of older adults who offend is likely to increase, so more resources should be allocated to meeting the needs of such individuals.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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