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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Christoffer Apneseth, Dacfey Dzung, Snorre Kjesbu, Guntram Scheible and Wolfgang Zimmermann

Sensors and actuators are found in large numbers on every production line in every industry. And each and every one of them requires data and power cabling. Not only are…

Abstract

Sensors and actuators are found in large numbers on every production line in every industry. And each and every one of them requires data and power cabling. Not only are these cables costly to install, they are also a frequent source of failure. ABB is introducing a novel wireless proximity switch that incorporates a communication module for the power supply, signal transmission and man‐machine communication, and so has no need for cables.

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Sensor Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

S. Arzanpour, J. Fung, J.K. Mills and W.L. Cleghorn

To design a reconfigureable flexible fixture for the assembly of a set of sheet metal automotive body parts. Reconfigureable fixturing permits different parts to be…

Abstract

Purpose

To design a reconfigureable flexible fixture for the assembly of a set of sheet metal automotive body parts. Reconfigureable fixturing permits different parts to be grasped for assembly by a fixture without the need to conduct costly redesign and fabrication of hardware fixtures, which is an industry standard in widespread use in industry. While somewhat more complex than fixtures in current use, reconfigureable fixtures provide one solution to the problem of costly redesign of fixtures due to changes in dimensions, or geometry of parts to be assembled.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose a novel reconfigureable fixture for robotic assembly of a number of different parts. Motivated by the marine organism, O. vulgaris, commonly referred to as an octopus, which grasps different objects or prey using suction cups, the proposed fixture has three fingers, each equipped with a suction cup, to facilitate the grasping process and increase grasp flexibility. Using this design approach, the fixture is sufficiently general in design to grasp several different parts. To position the suction cups located on the flexible fixture, two linkage‐based mechanisms are employed. Pneumatic cylinders and electric motors are used as actuators. A prototype flexible fixture has been built and experimental results with this prototype confirm the effectiveness of the proposed flexible fixture. Software has been developed to calculate the relative positions and angles in the mechanism as required for reconfiguration.

Findings

The proposed reconfigureable fixture, used as an end‐of‐arm tool, permits each of a set of four sheet metal parts to be successfully grasped permitting assembly of these four components, in a robotic assembly work cell.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed flexible fixture is a simple proof‐of‐concept device that is suitable for a laboratory setting. We do not consider part localization of parts when grasped by the reconfigureable fixture.

Practical implications

Assembly operations, in industrial manufacturing operations, are typically heavily reliant on hardware fixtures devices to orient and clamp parts together during assembly operations. While of great importance in such operations, hardware fixtures are very costly to design and build. Further, fixtures are designed for use with parts of specific dimensions and geometry, hence cannot be used to grasp or orient parts with even very small differences in dimensions or geometry. Typically, if parts with different dimensions or geometry are to be assembled, new hardware fixtures must be designed and manufactured to grasp and orient these parts. This lack of flexibility leads to substantial manufacturing costs associated with fixturing. Reconfigureable fixtures permit parts with different geometries to be grasped and oriented for assembly.

Originality/value

Reconfigureable fixtures for use in the automotive manufacturing sector is an important development due to the highly competitive nature of this industry. Rapid introduction of new models of vehicles is greatly facilitated through the use of reconfigureable fixtures which can be reprogrammed to grasp parts of different geometries required for new vehicle models.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Abstract

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Assembly Automation, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Yong‐Won Lee, Keun‐Soo Kim and Katsuaki Suganuma

The purpose of this paper is to optimize assembly processes in order to minimize defects in the assembly of 01005 chip components.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize assembly processes in order to minimize defects in the assembly of 01005 chip components.

Design/methodology/approach

During the study, solder paste printing process‐related variables, such as solder paste type, stencil type, and stencil opening ratio, and pick and place process‐related methods, such as vision camera type and vacuum pickup nozzle type were evaluated with the goal of achieving a high‐yield assembly solution for 01005 chip components. A test board was used in a series of designed experiments to optimize the solder paste printing, pick and placement, and reflow processes. Assembly defects were analyzed as a function of the stencil design and the assembly processes.

Findings

The results of the study indicated that both electroformed and electropolished laser‐cut stencils had a comparable print quality with respect to the solder volume delivered to the pads. In terms of assembly yield performance, type 4 (size range: 20‐38 μm) solder paste with a smaller sphere size gave a better overall yield and better paste deposition on the pad, if used on a 0.08‐mm thick electroformed stencil with a 90 per cent aperture. Temperature cycling between −65 and 150°C, with up to 1,500 cycles, showed that no cracks were observed at the solder joints due to temperature cycling. The process and design change required for achieving a robust manufacturing process have been indicated and reported.

Originality/value

The results of this work provide process recommendations for the implementation of 01005‐sized chip components assembly in mass production processes.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Yueli Liu and R. Wayne Johnson

To optimize the printed circuit board design and assembly processes to minimize defects in the assembly of 01005 size chip resistors.

Abstract

Purpose

To optimize the printed circuit board design and assembly processes to minimize defects in the assembly of 01005 size chip resistors.

Design/methodology/approach

A test board was designed with a range of pad sizes, pad shapes, pad spacings and pad orientations. This test board was used in a series of designed experiments to optimize the printing, placement and reflow processes. Assembly defects were analyzed as a function of board design and assembly processes.

Findings

An electroformed, 76 μm stencil yielded a robust paste printing process and higher process capability indices (Cp) compared to a 102 μm stencil. Nitrogen reflow was required to achieve good solder wetting due to the high surface‐to‐volume ratio of the solder deposits. With regard to bridging defects, no defects were observed if the pad‐to‐pad spacing for parallel resistors was 150 μm or larger. Rectangular pads with no vias‐in‐pad and designed at 90 percent of nominal pad size (pad size type 2) with the ramp profile, independent of 0° or 90° resistor orientation yielded the lowest number of defects. Given the undersized pads on the actual board, the 90 percent pad average width was 170 μm (versus a design value of 183 μm) and the measured width of the 01005 chip resistor was 180 μm. Thermal cycle reliability testing of the solder joints with this pad size showed no failures after 1,000 thermal cycles.

Originality/value

The results of this work provide a set of design and assembly processes recommendations for those who must implement 01005 size component assembly in production.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Abstract

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

Yong‐Won Lee, Keun‐Soo Kim and Katsuaki Suganuma

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the electropolishing time of stencil manufacturing parameters and solder‐mask definition methods of PCB pad design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the electropolishing time of stencil manufacturing parameters and solder‐mask definition methods of PCB pad design parameters on the performance of solder paste stencil printing process for the assembly of 01005 chip components.

Design/methodology/approach

During the study, two types of stencils were manufactured for the evaluations: electroformed stencils and electropolished laser‐cut stencils. The electroformed stencils were manufactured using the standard electroforming process and their use in the paste printing process was compared against the use of an electropolished laser‐cut stencil. The electropolishing performance of the laser‐cut stencil was evaluated twice at the following intervals: 100 s and 200 s. The performance of the laser‐cut stencil was also evaluated without electropolishing. An optimized process was established after the polished stencil apertures of the laser‐cut stencil were inspected. The performance evaluations were made by visually inspecting the quality of the post‐surface finishing for the aperture wall and the quality of that post‐surface finishing was further checked using a scanning electron microscope. A test board was used in a series of designed experiments to evaluate the solder paste printing process.

Findings

The results demonstrated that the length of the electropolishing time had a significant effect on the small stencil's aperture quality and the solder paste's stencil printing performance. In this study, the most effective electropolishing time was 100 s for a stencil thickness of 0.08 mm. The deposited solder paste thickness was significantly better for the enhanced laser‐cut stencil with electropolishing compared to the conventional electroformed stencils. In this printing‐focused work, print paste thickness measurements were also found to vary across different solder‐mask definition methods of printed circuit board pad designs with no change in the size of the stencil aperture. The highest paste value transfer consistently occurred with solder‐mask‐defined pads, when an electropolished laser‐cut stencil was used.

Originality/value

Due to important improvements in the quality of the electropolished laser‐cut stencil, and based on the results of this experiment, the electropolished laser‐cut stencil is strongly recommended for the solder paste printing of fine‐pitch and miniature components, especially in comparison to the typical laser‐cut stencil. The advantages of implementing a 01005 chip component mass production assembly process include excellent solder paste release, increased solder volume, good manufacture‐ability, fast turnaround time, and greater cost saving opportunities.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Pete Starkey and Martin Goosey

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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