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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

This paper aims to predict a college football team’s competitiveness using physical resources, human resources and organizational resources.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to predict a college football team’s competitiveness using physical resources, human resources and organizational resources.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by the resource-based theory, the study used archival data of 101 college football teams. The dependent variable was competitiveness (indicated by win-loss records), the independent variables were physical resources (operationalized as home attendance and total revenues), human resources (measured as coaches’ salary and coaches’ experience) and organizational resources (specified as conference rankings and the number of sports). Kendall Tau correlation and binary logistic regression were used to examine the associative and predictive competitive advantages.

Findings

The binary logistic regression model showed an overall percentage predictive correctness of 71.3%, with a Negelkerke R2 of 41.1% of the variance of all predictors – with coaches’ experience, total revenues and home attendance being the best predictors of generating competitive advantages that produced superior win-loss records.

Research limitations/implications

The research focused exclusively on physical, organizational and human resources as sources of competitive advantage and not physiological and/or psychological variables.

Practical implications

College football teams aspiring to be competitive may benefit from this study by applying a three-fold strategy of hiring well-paid high performing and experienced coaches who can increase attendance and revenues.

Originality/value

The study was unique in two ways – one, it made clear the positive significance of coaches’ experience as a source of competitive advantage, and second, it highlighted the catalytic effects of revenues and attendance in fueling competitiveness.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of first-mover advantage (FMA) on revenue generation capacity (RGC) of US college football programmes during the 2008…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of first-mover advantage (FMA) on revenue generation capacity (RGC) of US college football programmes during the 2008 global financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used archival data analysed quantitatively using non-parametric regression in the form of binary logistic regression. The study was then framed and interpreted by the resource-dependence theory.

Findings

FMA was positively and statistically associated with donations, branding, media rights and ticket revenues, but not win–loss records. The binary logistic regression model was correctly classified at 82.1 per cent of the variance and indicated that branding and ticket revenues were mostly associated with FMA.

Research limitations/implications

The study was delimited to public college football programmes in the USA during the 2008 global financial crisis.

Practical implications

The findings indicated that despite the 2008 global financial crisis, FMA was positively associated with RGC but not win–loss records.

Originality/value

The study was pioneering in evaluating the effects of FMA as a source of competitive advantage in college football programmes during the challenging time of the 2008 global financial crisis.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

This study aims to predict the determinants of net income of 101 US university football programs.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to predict the determinants of net income of 101 US university football programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by stakeholder theory, financial capacity model and resource dependency theory, the dependent variable was net income (indicated as profit or loss) and independent variables were measured as the number of women and men’s team sports, average home attendances, win–loss records, conference ranking, endowment funds and age of football programs. Statistical analysis was performed using Kendell tau and binary logistic regression (BLR).

Findings

Net income was positively and statistically associated with home attendance, win–loss record, conference rankings and endowment funds, but not number of women’s sports, age of football program and number of men’s sports teams. The BLR indicated that home attendance was the best predictor of net income.

Research limitations/implications

The research was delimited to 101 Football Bowl Subdivision football programs from public universities.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that home attendance and conference rankings had the highest association with net income, but the former was the best predictor of net income and not football tradition nor number of sports teams.

Originality/value

The study was pioneering in the predictive evaluation of the possible determinants of loss or profitability in college football programs.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2007

Mauricio Ferreira and Gonzalo Bravo

This study examined the determinants of attendance at the Chilean national soccer tournaments between 1990 and 2002. A multilevel model approach was taken to estimate the…

Abstract

This study examined the determinants of attendance at the Chilean national soccer tournaments between 1990 and 2002. A multilevel model approach was taken to estimate the effects of several factors, including unobserved sources, hypothesised to influence attendance in Chile. Results regarding team success, team division, population, stadium size and habitual persistence were found to influence professional soccer attendance; other factors such as admission price, age of team, international success, availability of soccer teams in the same vicinity and stadium ownership did not.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2009

Michael A. Levin

This paper investigates the role of competitive balance among teams in a league in predicting attendance at spectator sporting events. It also controls for the demographic…

Abstract

This paper investigates the role of competitive balance among teams in a league in predicting attendance at spectator sporting events. It also controls for the demographic and economic characteristics of the league's markets, and changes in the number of teams in the league. The research relies on a sample that includes 707 non-major professional team seasonal win-loss records (12,956 games) from five sports, aggregated into 75 seasons to develop a model consistent with extant literature. The authors find that competitive balance and average income in the league's markets are significant predictors of leaguewide attendance.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

James M. Gladden and Richard Wolfe

Given the importance of image matching as a rationale for sponsorship investment, this paper examines the extent to which image matching occurs in U.S. intercollegiate…

Abstract

Given the importance of image matching as a rationale for sponsorship investment, this paper examines the extent to which image matching occurs in U.S. intercollegiate athletics. Utilizing student-athlete education and athletic program ethics as image dimensions, while controlling for winning, the authors find that individual corporations tend to sponsor athletic programs that project very different images. The authors then prescribe an approach that prospective sponsors could use to determine appropriate image matches.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

J. Ian Norris, Daniel L. Wann and Ryan K. Zapalac

The purpose of these studies is to determine how maximizing sport fans seek optimal outcomes through team identification. Maximizers seek optimal outcomes but do not…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of these studies is to determine how maximizing sport fans seek optimal outcomes through team identification. Maximizers seek optimal outcomes but do not always obtain them. This may be particularly true of sport fans, who often identify with teams for reasons that run deeper than team success. Maximizing fans may be more concerned with being the best fans than following the best teams.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, the authors measured maximizing tendency and identification with participants’ favorite National Football League (NFL) teams. The authors then used moderated regression to predict identification levels from the interaction of maximizing and the historical win–loss records of these teams. In Study 2, the authors manipulated team success by providing participants either an optimistic or pessimistic preview of their college basketball team’s upcoming season. The authors measured maximizing tendency as a moderator of this relationship and identification with the college basketball team as the dependent variable.

Findings

In Study 1, maximizers identified more strongly with their favorite NFL team when their favorite team was a historically unsuccessful team. In Study 2, maximizers identified more strongly with their college basketball team after reading a pessimistic preview of the team’s upcoming season than after reading an optimistic preview of that season.

Research limitations/implications

Study 1 required participants to self-report their favorite NFL teams, so the results were only correlational. However, the authors were able to address this limitation with an experimental Study 2.

Practical implications

There are a number of potential implications for sport marketing strategy. For one, sport marketers may want to appeal to fans’ desire to be the best by supporting their teams when they need it most, particularly for teams that are not performing well.

Originality/value

This is the first examination of team or fan identification in the context of maximizing tendency.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Mahmoud M. Nourayi

The aim of this study is to demonstrate suitability of the continuous improvement framework and use of benchmarking method in the context of sports.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to demonstrate suitability of the continuous improvement framework and use of benchmarking method in the context of sports.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses non‐financial performance measures that are indicative of performance and are closely related to the desired outcomes. Use of such measures seems necessary in the sports and appropriate in relation to professional sports organizations' recruiting, attendance, and profit maximizing objectives. Analyses of this study are based on data of National Basketball Association (NBA) games over three basketball seasons.

Findings

The results indicated significant correlation between attendance and winning percentages. Furthermore, the results suggest that a team can improve its winning percentages by changes in the roster that help it emulate superior teams. Comparing teams that advanced in a given season and reach the playoffs with those that did not, revealed the more important skill factors for success in the NBA. The results also indicated that some players' skills might be more critical for a given team in reaching the playoffs.

Research limitations/implications

The results presented in this paper are influenced by the NBA's basketball rules. Because basketball rules are not the same for all leagues and such rules change over time, the findings are time‐specific and should be considered in that light. Additionally, the research design used in this study must be modified for other professional sports.

Originality/value

This paper provides an example for application of continuous improvement framework to professional sports.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

James J. Zhang, Eddie T. C. Lam and Daniel P. Connaughton

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between general market demands and consumption levels of professional sport consumers. This study was…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between general market demands and consumption levels of professional sport consumers. This study was accomplished through: (a) validating the theoretical constructs of general market demand variables by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis, (b) examining the predictability of general market demand factors to consumption levels of live and televised sporting events, and (c) investigating the relationships between sociodemographic and general market demand factors. Five hundred and twenty-five residents of a major southern US city were interviewed using a questionnaire that included eight sociodemographic variables, 12 market demand variables under three factors (Game Attractiveness, Economic Consideration, and Marketing Promotion), and 10 professional sporting event consumption variables. The factor structure of the general market demand variables was confirmed. Regression analyses revealed that market demand factors were positively (p < .05) predictive of professional sport consumption. Sociodemographic variables were significantly (p < .05) related to the market demand factors. The findings imply that professional sport teams should highlight the market demand variables and adopt differential marketing procedures for various sociodemographic segments in their marketing practice.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Abstract

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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