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Although this is a survey of research techniques, it has become increasingly apparent, as the study has progressed, that our investigation of research methods for use in…
Although this is a survey of research techniques, it has become increasingly apparent, as the study has progressed, that our investigation of research methods for use in tourism and travel studies, without prior consideration of the nature and scopes of tourism and travel themselves, would he inadequate. At the outset it would be imperative to distinguish three interrelated terms. These are recreation, tourism, and travel.
The references listed here should serve both as a guide to the free and inexpensive sources of tourism and travel research information and an ‘eye‐opener’ to the wealth of…
The references listed here should serve both as a guide to the free and inexpensive sources of tourism and travel research information and an ‘eye‐opener’ to the wealth of available data that is yours for the asking. In selecting sources of information, efforts have been made to (1) emphasize prime data, (2) list sources which can be used to locate more detailed data, and (3) keep the list brief enough to be actually read and used rather than kept in the bookshelf. Effective utilization can save hours of time and provide useful information that might otherwise be missed. Below, you will find sources in eight categories given within the constraints stated above.
The growth of tourism in our society is not a recent phenomenon that came about with the inception of the travel agent. The fact is, that tourism can be traced as far back…
The growth of tourism in our society is not a recent phenomenon that came about with the inception of the travel agent. The fact is, that tourism can be traced as far back as to at least Ancient Greece, when, in 776 B.C. visitors from Europe and the Middle East gathered at Mt. Olympus to take part in the very first Olympic Games (Young). Since that time tourism has developed into what today is an industry of major social and economie significance, and its effects range from local to international scales.
Benchmarking is recognised as an essential tool for continuous improvement of quality. A large number of publications by various authors reflect the interest in this technique. Reviews of literature on benchmarking have been done in the past by a few authors. However, considering the contributions in the recent times, a more comprehensive review is attempted here. In this paper, the authors have reviewed benchmarking literature in a way that would help researchers, academicians and practitioners to take a closer look at the growth, development and applicability of this technique. The authors have examined various papers and have proposed a different scheme of classification. In addition, certain gaps that would provide hints for further research in benchmarking have been identified.
Le tourisme peut être considéré comme un domaine relevant traditionnellement de l'économie, tandis que le domaine de la culture prend une orientation plus sociale…
Le tourisme peut être considéré comme un domaine relevant traditionnellement de l'économie, tandis que le domaine de la culture prend une orientation plus sociale. Cependant, même si cette différence entre les deux domaines est réelle, l'importance des liens fondamentaux qui existent entre le tourisme et la culture n'est pas négligeable, et les caractéristiques socio‐culturelles d'une région peuvent être un des aspects les plus importants de l'attrait de cette région. A l'inverse, le succès enregistré par une région au point de vue touristique peut aussi avoir des effets profonds, négatifs ou positifs, sur la vie culturelle de cette région. La présente étude a donc pour objectif d'explorer la nature et la force de principaux liens qui peuvent exister entre les phénomènes du tourisme et de la culture.
The impact of tourism on local economies has long been a concern of individual communities and of governmental agencies interested in promoting this source of local…
The impact of tourism on local economies has long been a concern of individual communities and of governmental agencies interested in promoting this source of local income. The magnitudes are often large and, with fluctuations, continue to increase. The development of recreational opportunities and tourist facilities is often viewed as a means of redressing disparities in regional incomes and employment, and as a major factor in national balance of payments. Indeed, some nations seem to practice a new mercantile policy of maximizing receipts from foreign tourists and minimizing the expenditures of its own nationals abroad (Barucci, 1976).
Capital increasingly takes the form of intangible assets, especially trademarked corporate brands. Further, contemporary capitalism increasingly accumulates through…
Capital increasingly takes the form of intangible assets, especially trademarked corporate brands. Further, contemporary capitalism increasingly accumulates through commodification of iconic cultural images and legendary narratives constituting a “second enclosure movement” (Boyle, 2008). This paper develops a critical theory of brands, branding, and brand management within economies of spectacle.
A case study of the consumer culture surrounding large displacement motorcycling is used to critique the central premise of consumer culture theory (marketing professionals create brands that become valuable icons) and develop an alternative view using concepts from critical theory, especially spectacle (Debord, 1967) and culture industry (Adorno, 1991).
After initial enclosure, legends were managed by Crossmarketing Licensing Networks (CMLN), coalitions of corporate and state actors, each possessing a piece of the legendary pie. The Sturgis CMLN was organized into two political divisions, rally profiteers and civic leaders, with overlapping but differentiated interests and approaches to the management of the Sturgis legend. The CMLN intervened in the cultural commons to overcome legendary degradations (banality, incoherence, undesirability) surrounding the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.
Brands are capitalized culture created by enclosures, a form of primitive accumulation. Under current conditions of immaterial production, CMLN’s engage in ongoing cultural production to maintain the capitalized value of their brands. Brands are not only hunted in the wilds of culture, but also increasingly domesticated and fattened when herded through legendary commons.
DURING arithmetic I filled an exercise book similar to the school's property one with one of the redskin stories which with my beloved verse were to bring me fame and immortality; thus—“With bursting lungs Harold strove to throw off the glistening swarthy arms that embraced him like the folds of a boa constrictor; but the redskin's strength was irresistible.” Lost in my Edward S. Ellisian forests, I did not see the Head's movements until he pounced, appropriated my masterpiece, took it to his desk, and read it while I waited for the familiar arm‐reach towards the too convenient cane, accompanied by his utterance of my name. But he read on, turned back the leaves, considered, and then called me. “No,” was all he said, “I don't think irresistible is the right word there.” I am unable to recall anything else except that there was no reference to arithmetic and no cane; but I loved him all his life after.
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product…
The paper provides an overview of research published in the innovation and operations management (IOM) literature on 15 methods for cost management in new product development, and it provides a comparison to an earlier review of the management accounting (MA) literature (Wouters & Morales, 2014).
This structured literature search covers papers published in 23 journals in IOM in the period 1990–2014.
The search yielded a sample of 208 unique papers with 275 results (one paper could refer to multiple cost management methods). The top 3 methods are modular design, component commonality, and product platforms, with 115 results (42%) together. In the MA literature, these three methods accounted for 29%, but target costing was the most researched cost management method by far (26%). Simulation is the most frequently used research method in the IOM literature, whereas this was averagely used in the MA literature; qualitative studies were the most frequently used research method in the MA literature, whereas this was averagely used in the IOM literature. We found a lot of papers presenting practical approaches or decision models as a further development of a particular cost management method, which is a clear difference from the MA literature.
This review focused on the same cost management methods, and future research could also consider other cost management methods which are likely to be more important in the IOM literature compared to the MA literature. Future research could also investigate innovative cost management practices in more detail through longitudinal case studies.
This review of research on methods for cost management published outside the MA literature provides an overview for MA researchers. It highlights key differences between both literatures in their research of the same cost management methods.
South Africa is one of the most unequal societies in the world with women substantially less likely to be economically active than men. This chapter draws from the theory…
South Africa is one of the most unequal societies in the world with women substantially less likely to be economically active than men. This chapter draws from the theory of planned behavior to examine the enablers and barriers to entrepreneurship in South Africa. Specifically, we examine how attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms in the South African collectivist culture, and behavioral controls of resources influence women’s intentions to start a business. Based on interviews with two successful women entrepreneurs in South Africa, we highlight the key role that government, self-efficacy, and technology-based platforms can have in establishing women’s entrepreneurial intentions.