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Describes Tenneco as dealing primarily in manufacturing but withmajor interests in energy. Addresses issues of executive developmentincluding quality and availability of…
Describes Tenneco as dealing primarily in manufacturing but with major interests in energy. Addresses issues of executive development including quality and availability of management, appointment strategies for key management and their system for succession planning. Discusses the Executive Resource Planning Program and the use of the Executive Incentive Compensation Program to reward those who are meeting the strategic development objectives. Concludes that their program helps them to grow potential CEOs within the organisation.
There is a growing need for management education and management development. Business organisations need a supply of well‐educated and behaviourally competent managers…
There is a growing need for management education and management development. Business organisations need a supply of well‐educated and behaviourally competent managers. Business schools and business organisations are not fulfilling this need at present. Both must increase the effectiveness of current business school faculty, curricula and operations. Businesses need to become more involved in helping business schools become more effective and efficient. This requires an exchange which is mutually beneficial and based on mutual respect. Business organisations must demand high quality services from education. Current areas of strength and weakness in management education are identified from a business perspective. Appropriate roles and action steps for these schools and organisations are proposed to strengthen their effectiveness.
Uses a case‐study approach. Asserts that for successful implementation multi‐source feedback must be viewed from an integrated perspective and that 360‐degree feedback must be seen as more than a data collection and feedback system. Suggests that the measured characteristics and behaviours must be related to the organization’s strategic objectives and culture and that the feedback process must be supported by tools which facilitate the analysis and interpretation of the data and developmental planning.
William R. Freudenburg conceived “the double diversion” as the simultaneous process of diverting environmental resources or rights shared by all to a small group of social…
William R. Freudenburg conceived “the double diversion” as the simultaneous process of diverting environmental resources or rights shared by all to a small group of social actors, which was made possible by a second diversion – the acceptance of the taken-for-granted assumption that environmental harms benefit the common good. In doing so, Freudenburg was among the first to note the importance of looking at not only the distribution of environmental harms but also environmental privileges. In this chapter, we extend the conceptualization of the double diversion to include an instance where rather than framing environmental harm as being a public good, environmental action is framed as benefiting the public writ large, while larger issues of environmental injustice are ignored. In particular, we look at the disproportionate distribution of the urban tree canopy in Worcester, Massachusetts, and the framing of the mitigation of the environmental threat of the Asian Longhorned Beetle as a problem for the commons. Through an analysis of media, we demonstrate that organizations and social actors who have tried to address the effects of this particular ecological threat have nonetheless ignored previous disproportionalities in the environment–society relationship.
In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter…
In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well‐connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally‐owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large‐space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second‐generation gas lamp ‐ Welsbach mantle lamp ‐ was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).
The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns…
The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns across an urbanizing regional landscape would produce a temperature distribution that was spatially heterogeneous and correlated with the social characteristics of urban neighborhoods. Using biophysical and social data scaled to conform to US census geography, we found that affluent whites were more likely to live in vegetated and less climatically stressed neighborhoods than low-income Latinos in Phoenix, Arizona. Affluent neighborhoods had cooler summer temperatures that reduced exposure to outdoor heat-related health risks, especially during a heat wave period. In addition to being warmer, poorer neighborhoods lacked critical resources in their physical and social environments to help them cope with extreme heat. Increased average temperatures due to climate change are expected to exacerbate the impacts of urban heat islands.
A fairly consistent finding in research on trust in physicians is that racial and ethnic minorities cite lower levels than whites. This research typically samples only…
A fairly consistent finding in research on trust in physicians is that racial and ethnic minorities cite lower levels than whites. This research typically samples only health care users, which limits our understanding of what underlies distrust. It remains unclear whether the distrust is generalized, which is distrust that is unrelated to using health care regularly or recently.
Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, multivariable logistic regressions assessed whether racial and ethnic differences in distrust (1) are equivalent among health care users and non-users; (2) regardless of respondents’ health and socio-economic status; and (3) manifest in other health information sources.
Racial and ethnic minorities are less likely than whites to trust physicians as health information sources. These racial and ethnic differences are equivalent among health care users and non-users, regardless of respondents’ health and socio-economic status. The racial and ethnic patterns do not manifest when predicting trust in other health information sources (Internet, family or friends, government health agencies, charitable organizations).
Data are derived from a cross-sectional survey, which makes it difficult to account comprehensively for self-selection into being a health care user. Despite the limitations, this research suggests that racial and ethnic minorities possess a generalized distrust in physicians, necessitating interventions that move beyond improving health care experiences.
Many researchers have surmised that a generalized distrust in physicians exists among racial and ethnic minorities. This chapter is the first to explicitly examine the existence of such distrust.
The purpose of this research was to assess public perceptions of the police in Mexico.
Surveys were administered to more than 300 law school students in Tampico, Tamaulipas.
Analyses of the data show that the majority of respondents view the municipal, state, and federal police forces negatively. The analyses also indicate that the federal police are viewed less negatively than the state police and the state police are viewed less negatively than the municipal police. Finally, the analyses show that there is a difference in diffuse and specific support for the police agencies, but there was not a consistent pattern of diffuse support being greater than specific support.
Because the sample was composed of law school students, the results cannot be generalized to the Mexican populace. And the unusual findings pertaining to diffuse and specific support for the police indicate a need for additional research on this phenomenon.
The findings suggest that the recent police reforms in Mexico have failed to instill public confidence in the police and that the Mexican government needs to increase police reform efforts. In addition, because of the large influx of immigration from Mexico into the USA, police agencies in the USA will need to increase efforts to work with Hispanic communities in order to gain the confidence of the Mexican immigrants.
To date, this is the most comprehensive empirical examination of perceptions of the police forces in Mexico.
Institutional logics and collective identities are closely intertwined: logics shape the emergence and evolution of identities, which in turn play a crucial role in…
Institutional logics and collective identities are closely intertwined: logics shape the emergence and evolution of identities, which in turn play a crucial role in mediating the influence of the logics themselves. Though there exists a significant body of research on the intersection of the two phenomena, relatively little attention has been given to changes in the strength, content, and permanence of particular logic–identity associations. In this paper we explore empirically the question of whether and how a logic and identity may become severed, through an inductive case study of the development of the hospitalist identity in health care in the United States. Based on this study, we propose a set of mechanisms through which the distancing of a logic and an identity may occur. We also discuss potential counterfactual outcomes, in order to build theory regarding the longitudinal relationship between logics and identities.
This paper develops a framework for understanding history as a source of competitive advantage. Prior research suggests that some firms enjoy preferential access to…
This paper develops a framework for understanding history as a source of competitive advantage. Prior research suggests that some firms enjoy preferential access to resources as a result of their past. Historians, by contrast, understand past events as more than an objective account of reality. History also has an interpretive function. History is a social and rhetorical construction that can be shaped and manipulated to motivate, persuade, and frame action, both within and outside an organization. Viewed as a malleable construct, the capacity to manage history can, itself, be a rare and inimitable resource.