The purpose of this paper is to consider and evaluate judicial independence in China, through reviewing the value in its presence, assessing its current state in China and evaluating what the future holds for it.
The paper reviews the benefits of judicial independence in its support of the rule of law. Following this, an evaluation of the current independence of the judiciary in China is presented. The reforms of the judiciary in the Fourth Plenary Session and the outlook for judicial independence in China are assessed.
The paper finds that judicial independence in China cannot be said to exist, being vulnerable to influence from a variety of sources. There is, however, progress observed, and this is expected to continue.
This paper’s consideration of judicial independence in China and its outlook are framed with discussions of the relationships between judicial independence and the rule of law, and the Chinese state and the rule of law. The paper should thus contribute to discussion of the development trajectory of China in this important facet.
“The general principles of the steam engine are easily acquired and should form a branch of education for the benefit of both sexes…. It is a branch of knowledge of deep importance to the present and rising generations … it would familiarise the more intelligent classes with objects on which we depend for the comforts and enjoyments of life. I do not mean that we should make scholars engineers but they ought to be taught the general principles of these arts in order to appreciate their value and to apply them to the useful purposes by which we are surrounded.”
This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common…
This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common ethos of alterity and (2) context the chapters of the book. AAMs have increased in recent years in response to the growing legitimation crisis of the conventional agrifood system. Some agrifood researchers argue that AAMs represent the vanguard movement of our time, a formidable counter movement to global capitalism. Other authors note a pattern of blunting of the transformative qualities of AAMs due to conventionalization and mainstreaming in the market. The literature on AAMs is organized following a Four Questions in Agrifood Studies (Constance, 2008) framework. The section for each Question ends with a case study to better illustrate the historical dynamics of an AAM. The literature review ends with a summary of the discourse applied to the research question of the book: Are AAMs the vanguard social movement of our time? The last section of this introduction provides a short description of each contributing chapter of the book, which is divided into five sections: Introduction; Theoretical and Conceptual Framings; Food Sovereignty Movements; Alternative Movements in the Global North; and Conclusions.
This report is addressed to the Health Committee of the City of Salford and the associated boroughs of Eccles and Stretford, on whose behalf the analytical examinations were made, the account of which form the basis of the report. It is stated that the number of samples of foods and drugs examined during the year 1945 is the highest for any year since the laboratory was opened in 1914. The number is 3,754. It includes 948 sunlight tests. We judge that the demands made on the time of the laboratory could not be met, as the report points out that the phosphatase tests so increased in number—292—that the sunlight tests had to be discontinued for several months in the year. The smoke versus sunshine problem is acute and unsolved in all large manufacturing centres. Manchester, for example, is said to lose half its share of winter sunshine through its smoke‐polluted air. While the purity of water supply in all large centres of population is fortunately assured, the administrative and technical difficulties of clearing the air from suspended impurities are of a different order and very great. Apart from factories and workshops, everyone who lights a fire to cook a breakfast adds, of necessity, to the volume of acrid filth surging in the air overhead. The figures given illustrate this. The soot gauge records from four stations show monthly averages of from 5·60 to 8·85 metric tons of soot per square kilometre or say from 15 to 20 odd long tons per square mile. A high proportion of this stuff consists of carbonaceous matter, other than tar, and ash. In addition to this there are gaseous sulphur compounds, acid in character.
Cambridge, Harvard, Oxford: the names of these universities instantly conjure up images of the highest attainments of higher education. Of course, great universities also…
Cambridge, Harvard, Oxford: the names of these universities instantly conjure up images of the highest attainments of higher education. Of course, great universities also operate great university presses. So any reference book with the name of Oxford, Cambridge, or Harvard in the title possesses immediate credibility and saleability. But it was not always so. Prior to the latter half of the nineteenth century the Oxford and the Cambridge University Presses were known to the public primarily as publishers of the Bible. Oxford broke into reference publishing, and along with it widespread public recognition, by means of its famous dictionaries, of which the pinnacle was the massive Oxford English Dictionary. The Cambridge University Press [hereafter referred to as CUP] took a different approach to publishing scholarly reference works by producing authoritative and encyclopedic histories. According to S.C. Roberts, a long‐time secretary to the Syndics of the CUP, “apart from the Bible, the first book that made the Press well known to the general public was the Cambridge Modern History.”
According to a report just issued by Dr. ARTHUR NEWSHOLME, the Principal Medical Officer of the Local Government Board, it appears that a majority of the staff of the Medical Department of the Board have been engaged in assisting to establish as favourable sanitary conditions as possible at the training centres for the new troops so that the risks associated with the concentration and feeding of large numbers of men under temporary conditions should be reduced to a minimum.
The information which has hitherto appeared in the daily press as to the evidence laid before the Departmental Committee which is inquiring into the use of preservatives and colouring matters can hardly have afforded pleasant reading to the apologists for the drugging of foods. It is plainly the intention of the Committee to make a thorough investigation of the whole subject, and the main conclusions which, in the result, must bo forced upon unbiassed persons by an investigation of this character will be tolerably obvious to those who have given serious attention to the subject. At a later stage of the inquiry we shall publish a full account of the evidence submitted and of the Committee's proceedings. At present we may observe that the facts which have been brought forward fully confirm the statements made from time to time upon these matters in the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and amply justify the attitude which we have adopted on the whole question. Representatives of various trade interests have given evidence which has served to show the extent to which the practices now being inquired into are followed. Strong medical evidence, as to the dangers which must attach to the promiscuous and unacknowledged drugging of the public by more or less ignorant persons, has been given; and some medical evidence of that apologetic order to which the public have of late become accustomed, and which we, at any rate, regard as particularly feeble, has also been put forward. Much more will no doubt be said, but those who have borne the heat and burden of the day in forcing these matters upon the attention of the Legislature and of the public can view with satisfaction the result already attained. Full and free investigation must produce its educational effect ; and whatever legal machinery may be devised to put some kind of check upon these most dangerous forms of adulteration, the demand of the public will be for undrugged food, and for a guarantee of sufficient authority to ensure that the demand is met.
The Langholm Library is a historic subscription library in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. The aims of the project were to record the Library′s stock, to store and conserve its important books, to make the Library more accessible and to research and publicize its history. Describes the history and present condition of the Library and discusses the project. Draws conclusions from the project, relating both to the Library itself and to performance standards set in the course of the project.