The extent of congruence between managerial values andorganisational goals is addressed from the perspective of assessingwhether there is sufficient managerial commitment…
The extent of congruence between managerial values and organisational goals is addressed from the perspective of assessing whether there is sufficient managerial commitment to allow for effective implementation of competitivefirm strategy. A group of production managers is compared with a group of quality control managers, using a hierarchical model reflecting decision‐process goal constraints. Study results reveal that the goal hierarchies of production managers differ significantly from quality control managers. Given the role demands of each manager group, the congruence levels between managerial values and organisational goals are sufficient to satisfy organisational accountability. Several implications for strategic planning are presented.
One of the compelling current concerns being addressed by business firms in the United States is the attraction and assimilation of black candidates into employment by the…
One of the compelling current concerns being addressed by business firms in the United States is the attraction and assimilation of black candidates into employment by the firms and the subsequent progression of these candidates through the managerial ranks of the organisation. While most observers would agree that many black people have benefitted from the enactment and enforcement of national equal employment opportunity legislation, the question of the extent to which black business professionals have advanced to upper management positions continues to be subject to much public debate.
Evolving production technologies are altering the cost structureson which many supporting inventory ordering systems are based; forexample, fixed costs compared with…
Evolving production technologies are altering the cost structures on which many supporting inventory ordering systems are based; for example, fixed costs compared with variable costs are increasing significantly. Unfortunately, many inventory ordering formulations consider only the variable portions of inventory ordering costs and inventory holding costs. To address this deficiency, departs from traditional categorizations and offers an inventory classification schema based on the functional roles served by the inventory items. Functional roles of inventory include transition, buffer, investment, maintenance, supplies and dead stock. Extending the schema, assesses the implications each functional role has for inventory cost containment, emphasizing the impact of evolving production technologies on inventory ordering policies and their relevance to functional roles.
There is considerable evidence that long periods of success in organisations can lead to ossification of strategy and strategic inertia. Burgelman (2002) shows how co-evolutionary lock-in occurs through the creation of a strategy vector. He demonstrates that the internal selection environment can become configured to create sources of inertia that dampen the autonomous strategy process, driving out unrelated exploration and creating a dominance of the induced, top-down strategy process. While this study shows how lock-in occurs, it does not address how a company breaks out of co-evolutionary lock-in. This is the focus of this paper. We argue that to understand how an organisation breaks out of a strategy vector a more complete conceptualisation of the structural context, and in particular the under specified cultural mechanisms, is required. It also requires an understanding of the linkages between the structural context and the new core capabilities required for breakout. Thus we first expand on what is known about strategy vectors and review research from the strategy process tradition that explores the linkages between strategy, culture and strategic change, to build a more comprehensive picture of the structural context. Our model demonstrates the extent of interconnectedness between the ‘hard’ (e.g., control systems and organisation structure) and ‘soft’ (e.g. beliefs, symbols and stories) components, and that development of new required capabilities is dependent on a holistic shift in all these aspects of the structural context, including, therefore, change in the organisation's culture. We then illustrate the link between lock-in, capability development and culture change through the case of the famous Formula One team, Ferrari. We finish with a discussion of the implications of our findings for strategic change.
The earliest clear account of the illness was given by William Gull, an English physician, in 1874. He originally termed the disorder ‘apepsia hysterica’ but later changed this to ‘anorexia nervosa’. The patient is usually a post‐pubertal girl aged 16–18 years.
The literature on change is characterized by an opposite, dichotomist view on the subject. Many authors describe only one or some of these characteristics and attribute a…
The literature on change is characterized by an opposite, dichotomist view on the subject. Many authors describe only one or some of these characteristics and attribute a normative value to it. When discussing one of these attributes they will make a deviating classification in the way in which change arises. Although types and attributes of change are largely studied in the change literature, there is no general agreement on the attributes that can best describe the different types of change. The purpose of this chapter is to try to consolidate the vast literature on the types and attributes of change in order to find a more homogeneous set of attributes.
From an extensive literature research on change articles and books from 1970 onward, eight dimensions of change attributes were found that are able to describe the characteristics of a change in a dynamic way.
In order to overcome the dichotomist view, organizational change is approached not as a process changing a system but as a system by itself. Although the borders between the change system and the system to be changed are not always easy to perceive, this view seems to create a richer picture on change. A systems approach allows to define the attributes of change in a holistic way that captures the always paradoxical state change is in.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the growth of the early ski market and the marketing strategies that the Union Pacific Railroad took in promoting Sun Valley ski…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the growth of the early ski market and the marketing strategies that the Union Pacific Railroad took in promoting Sun Valley ski resort, one of the most popular early destination ski resorts in the USA.
The paper uses primary and secondary source material, including ski periodicals, national magazines and the manuscript collection of W. Averell Harriman, the Chairman of the Union Pacific Railroad during the creation of Sun Valley.
This paper finds that Sun Valley pioneered the western ski vacation by conducting careful market research into not only the snow and weather conditions of western mountains, but also into the habits and economic potential of skiers and winter tourists.
Scholarly work on skiing has primarily looked at the sport from the social and cultural perspective of skiers. Work on entrepreneurial objectives of ski resort designers has largely focused on the period after the Second World War. This is among the first works to analyze entrepreneurial activities and marketing strategies in the ski industry before the Second World War. As a result, the paper challenges the idea that big business only began to shape the ski industry during the Cold War. Instead, this paper shows that large corporations like the Union Pacific Railroad were influential in growing the ski market by building resorts that illustrated the importance of market segmentation to the success of ski areas. In this way, the paper challenges the popular idea that Sun Valley was merely a media sensation and shows that it was a carefully designed business that exhibited a nuanced approach to changes in the ski market.
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