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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Carrie Ruxton and Emma Derbyshire

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the latest mounting evidence reporting associations between the important role of whole grains and fibre in lowering the risk of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the latest mounting evidence reporting associations between the important role of whole grains and fibre in lowering the risk of chronic diseases and health.

Design/methodology/approach

A general systematic review was conducted to locate and summarise up-to-date published studies within the field. A Medline search identified human-controlled trials and observational studies published in the past five years.

Findings

A total of 49 studies were identified. In observational studies, higher intakes of whole grain and dietary fibre were associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, abdominal adiposity and certain cancers. This was further supported by human intervention trials, which reported benefits for appetite control, blood lipid levels, glycaemic control, digestive health and secondary cancer prevention. Mechanisms may relate to the micronutrients and phytonutrients present in high fibre foods.

Practical implications

Practical advice is needed to help people identify foods rich in whole grains, e.g. breakfast cereals. UK fibre recommendations should be aligned with European guidelines and food labelling regulations, and a whole grain dietary recommendation, e.g. similar to the US guideline of three portions a day, could be introduced. Government and industry should play a role in communicating dietary fibre guidelines and the health benefits associated with whole grain and fibre, particularly insoluble fibre.

Originality/value

This paper develops knowledge about whole grains, health and the importance of establishing whole-grain dietary recommendations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Robin M. Magalis, Maria Giovanni and Kathryn Silliman

The health benefits of whole grains are well established, yet intake remains below recommendations. Knowledge and familiarity with whole grains may increase short-term…

Abstract

Purpose

The health benefits of whole grains are well established, yet intake remains below recommendations. Knowledge and familiarity with whole grains may increase short-term intake, but sensory properties can limit consumption. These factors usually are researched separately, thus, this study aims to explore the relationships among sensory liking, knowledge, attitudes and intake.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study had 69 college students participate in four tasks: sensory liking of whole vs refined grain bread, rice, pasta and tortillas; bitter taster status; knowledge and attitudes; and intake of whole grains.

Findings

Whole wheat bread and tortillas were liked, as well as their refined grain counterparts. However, white rice and pasta were liked significantly more than the whole grain products (p < 0.05), which are less familiar to most people. Higher consumers of whole grain foods preferred those samples to the refined product for some sensory attributes (p < 0.05). Bitter taster status was not related to sensory preferences. Understanding and recognition of whole grains was low, but attitudes were generally positive. Whole grain intake was overestimated by the food frequency questionnaire because of problems with the instrument and also subjects’ lack of understanding about these foods.

Research limitations/implications

The link between preference and consumption warrants further study. The survey used to measure whole grain intake was a limitation and demonstrates the need for an accurate and efficient tool. Although knowledge about whole grains is limited, the positive attitudes expressed by participants can strategically inform outreach. If people believe that they consume more whole grains than they actually do, they may have a false sense of security. Further research with different age groups and a wider variety of foods is needed.

Practical implications

Participants overestimated their consumption of whole grain foods, indicating that consumers may think that they are meeting recommended amounts but they are actually deficient in whole grain intake; thus, improved education and promotional efforts are needed.

Originality/value

Few studies examine the inter-relationships among sensory preference, bitter taster status, knowledge, attitude and intake of whole grains.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Nicole Elizabeth Hellyer, Iain Fraser and Janet Haddock-Fraser

The purpose of this paper is to establish implicit consumer attitudes towards whole grain foods, following criticisms of explicit enquiries revealing an attitude-behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish implicit consumer attitudes towards whole grain foods, following criticisms of explicit enquiries revealing an attitude-behaviour gap. For products considered to have social desirability (e.g. ethical and “health” products) bias may be observed, as respondents may provide responses that present them in a positive light, rather than those reflecting their actual attitudes, intentions or behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employed an indirect measure, the shopping list method, analysed quantitatively in this case using factor analysis and regression, to examine the impression respondents form of whole grain consumers, using three discrete shopping lists and two discrete cover letters. Following a pilot survey to 79 people using Snowball sampling, the survey instrument was distributed to 3,000 UK households using a purchased mailing list.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that respondents considered whole grain consumers to exhibit positive attributes of respectability and self-efficacy compared to their counterparts. These findings countered the negative, product attribute-based views of respondents when queried explicitly about their attitudes to whole grain foods.

Originality/value

The research provides an original perspective on whole grain consumer attitudes, using a methodology which – whilst well-established – has been used less frequently in a quantitative manner. It provides particular value to food retailers and manufacturers looking to promote whole grain products, but also to policy makers seeking to change consumption habits towards whole grains – which have established health benefits compared to refined alternatives.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Lynette Mei Lim Goh, Agnes Xiao Yan Wong, Gary Yee Ang and Audrey Siok Ling Tan

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of delivering healthy eating messages through an interactive health corner (HC) on improving healthy dietary habits in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of delivering healthy eating messages through an interactive health corner (HC) on improving healthy dietary habits in participants.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaires were administered to participants after the education session. In total, 5,292 valid questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 93.3 per cent. In the last three months of the pilot study, a random sample of 305 from 1,493 participants was chosen and followed up six months later. Bivariate analysis was used to study the association of knowledge gained and attitude. Behavioural change was measured in terms of whether participants had reported an increase in their consumption of healthier food.

Findings

Majority (>98 per cent) of participants reported that the HC corner was useful, and had helped increase their awareness and knowledge of creating healthier meals and making healthier food choices. 95.7 per cent were willing to make changes after visiting the HC. At six months follow-up, 84 per cent of the participants reported positive changes in their dietary habits. Those who made positive changes were younger (mean age: 58.0 years) compared with those who did not (mean age 61.0 years, p=0.035).

Research limitations/implications

Incorporating cooking demonstrations as part of nutrition education is effective in inculcating healthy eating practices and changing self-reported eating habits in the short term. Further research is needed to verify actual change in eating habits and to determine if this change is sustainable in the long run.

Originality/value

Currently, no similar initiative has been implemented and studied to evaluate the effectiveness of this mode of health promotion in a primary care setting. This study will help the authors to evaluate if the intervention was effective in changing attitudes and behaviours after an education session at the HC.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Aderonke Ibidunni Olagunju, Peace Chioma Ekeogu and Oluwaseun Cege Bamisi

Wheat flour (whole grain or white wheat flour) is a major ingredient for production of baked goods and confectionery products in Nigeria. However, due to unfavourable…

Abstract

Purpose

Wheat flour (whole grain or white wheat flour) is a major ingredient for production of baked goods and confectionery products in Nigeria. However, due to unfavourable climatic and soil conditions, there is over-dependence on importation of wheat having a negative impact on the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). This has therefore spurred increasing popularity of partial or full replacement of wheat flour with other flour types for economic or nutritional reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of whole wheat flour with indigenous, underutilized crops.

Design/methodology/approach

Whole wheat flour was partially (0–40%) replaced with acha and/or pigeon pea flours in ratios of 100:0:0 (WAPK), 90:10:0 (WAPL), 80:20:0 (WAPM), 70:30:0 (WAPN), 80:10:10 (WAPO), 70:20:10 (WAPP), 70:15:15 (WAPQ) and 60:20:20 (WAPR). The study evaluated the effects of supplementation on rheological, functional properties of composite flours and nutritional composition of composite bread.

Findings

Results showed that dough development and stability time, values of most pasting properties (peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback and pasting temperature) were significantly higher in the composite flours than in WAPK. However, incorporation of acha and pigeon pea flours resulted in significant decrease in breakdown value. Composite flours produced protein-enriched breads with improved essential amino acids exceeding WHO/FAO reference for adults. Composite flours from blends of whole wheat, acha and pigeon pea flours may serve as a potential raw material suitable for production of nutritious and functional baked products.

Originality/value

The present study confirms effective supplementation of whole grain wheat flour with either acha or both acha and pigeon pea flours. Composite flours showed improved functional and pasting properties; thus, it may be suitable for production of baked products such as bread and biscuits.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

H.O. Agu, I.A. Jideani and I.Z. Yusuf

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nutrient and sensory properties of dambu, a steamed granulated dumpling product produced from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nutrient and sensory properties of dambu, a steamed granulated dumpling product produced from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and acha (Digitaria exilis), grains. It is a popular midday meal of the Fulanis of Nigeria, normally sprinkled into fermented skimmed milk or whole milk and sugar may be added to taste.

Design/methodology/approach

Dambu was prepared in the laboratory using decorticated clean cereal grains, which were pulverized into coarse particles, mixed with spices and water, and steamed for 20 min. Analysis was carried out on the products following document and established procedures.

Findings

Data obtained indicated that dambu contained an appreciable amount of protein (10.1‐10.7 per cent) and fat (2.2‐3.4 per cent). The moisture and ash contents were found to range from 35 to 38 per cent and 0.5 to 1.2 per cent, respectively; crude fibre ranged from 1.8 to 2.1 per cent; carbohydrate ranged from 45 to 49 per cent and the energy ranged from 247 to 264 kcal/100 g. The amino acid profiles of the dambu showed that the different dambu products contain both essential and non‐essential amino acids. The mineral contents were found to be high in potassium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, and magnesium. The mean scores of aroma, chewiness, and overall acceptability for the products were not significantly different (p > 0.05) but difference existed in the texture and appearance.

Research limitations/implications

The consumption of dambu from different cereal grains is encouraged; especially where a particular cereal is off season, the other grains could be used as a substitute and complementary.

Practical implications

The findings here suggested that dambu is necessary to cereal industry and baby foods (weaning foods).

Originality/value

The results of this research contribute to the knowledge of cereal meals, especially those that are indigenous to Nigeria and West Africa.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2013

My Bui, Velitchka D. Kaltcheva, Anthony Patino and Richard C. Leventhal

– This research aims to examine the effects of varying front-of-package (FOP) nutrition information type on parents' food product choices for children.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine the effects of varying front-of-package (FOP) nutrition information type on parents' food product choices for children.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3(FOP nutrition information: nutrient specific system vs food group information system vs summary indicator system) × 3(Perceived healthiness of the product: high vs moderate vs low) mixed-design experiment and content analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Findings suggest that summary indicator systems were effective in positively impacting parents' choices for healthier food options, however not as effective as food group information systems – which includes specific nutrient content claims complementing less familiar health nutrient symbols.

Originality/value

Implications for marketers, consumer welfare advocates and product brand managers are provided.

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Samson A. Oyeyinka, Aminat O. Abdulsalam, Amina M. Ahmed El-Imam, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Omotola Folake Olagunju, Fausat L. Kolawole, Abimbola K. Arise, Emmanuel O. Adedeji and Patrick B. Njobeh

Bambara groundnut is a hard-to-cook grain and this has limited its utilisation to some extent. However, the grain is a good source of phytochemicals with antioxidant…

Abstract

Purpose

Bambara groundnut is a hard-to-cook grain and this has limited its utilisation to some extent. However, the grain is a good source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. This study investigated the total phenol content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial potentials of hot-water extract of four Bambara groundnuts differentiated by their seed coats (cream, black, maroon and brown).

Design/methodology/approach

Bambara grains were heated in water at a ratio 1:20 (w/v) and the grains brought to boiling in a controlled water bath. As soon as boiling started, the temperature was reduced to 90 °C to reduce the evaporation rate. The extracts were withdrawn within 30 min, which was chosen from a preliminary study where beyond this time, the extract was drying off and the amount of solution obtained was not sufficient for the initial run. Grain colour and composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the extract were determined using standard methods.

Findings

Protein (20.57–26.31%) and carbohydrate (55.43–61.09%) were the major components of the grain. Grain type and boiling time generally affected the total phenolic content of the extract. Cream Bambara displayed substantially lower total phenolic content at all boiling times compared with the maroon, brown and black Bambara groundnuts. The total flavonoid contents and total phenolic contents of the Bambara groundnut extracts were dependent on the boiling time and type of grain. The extracts showed no activity against Candida albicans, but the maroon coat Bambara demonstrated a peak inhibition of 6.00 mm against Escherichia coli. The total phenolic, flavonoid contents and the antioxidant properties of the grains generally followed the order Maroon > Black > Brown.

Originality/value

This study has demonstrated the possibility of promoting the use of Bambara groundnut beyond the current level of usage by using simple processing method of boiling to extract phytochemicals with medicinal properties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Pradeep Kumar Dahiya, M.J.R. Nout, Martinus A. van Boekel, Neelam Khetarpaul, Raj Bala Grewal and Anita Linnemann

The purpose of this paper is to address malnourishment in developing countries by a food-based approach in which locally produced and consumed foods are improved by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address malnourishment in developing countries by a food-based approach in which locally produced and consumed foods are improved by applying food processing techniques that benefit the amount and availability of desirable nutrients.

Design/methodology/approach

To facilitate this approach, this paper reports on the composition and in vitro micronutrient accessibility of 14 traditional mung bean foods from India in relation to their preparation methods.

Findings

Proximate composition, in vitro mineral accessibility, phytic acid and polyphenol contents varied among the range of products. Products requiring either fermentation or germination, had higher in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility. Average in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility of the mung bean products were 16, 9 and 418 mg kg−1 dry weight. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 2.1 and 1.8 g kg−1 dry weight, respectively, and were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility.

Practical implications

Different mung bean products (100 g) cover 12.0-59.5, 5.2-45.6, 4.2-28.6 and 1.1-7.1 per cent of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, iron, zinc and calcium, respectively, for seven- to nine-year-old Indian children.

Originality/value

This study demonstrated the wide range of traditional mung bean foods in India and presents options to tackle malnourishment by a food-based approach.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Antoine G. Farhat, Doris Jaalouk and Serine Francis

The relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and reduced mortality or a lower incidence of major chronic diseases has been widely studied. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and reduced mortality or a lower incidence of major chronic diseases has been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence of a Lebanese adult sample to the Mediterranean diet.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional dietary survey involved a Lebanese population sample aged 19 to 70 years. A total of 615 men and women were asked to fill a diet history questionnaire (144 items), assisted by trained nutrition research assistants. Data were analyzed and compared to the Mediterranean diet recommendations, and the Mediterranean diet score, a ten-point scale based on above and below median levels of consumption, was estimated.

Findings

There was no significant difference in terms of adherence between men and women participants below the age of 30 years, while women over 30 years had a poorer score than men within this age group. The surveyed sample was found to have a 4.2 Mediterranean diet score and, thus, has a low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, legumes and nuts of this Lebanese sample met the Mediterranean diet recommendations, while whole grains, poultry and fish consumption was lower than the recommended Mediterranean diet intake, and meat consumption was found to be much higher than what was recommended.

Originality/value

Facing the fast increase in non-communicable disease incidence, and with a more spread Western-type culture, it is central to raise awareness about the role of traditional Mediterranean diet in preventing and protecting against these diseases. This study contributes to the limited literature on the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Lebanon.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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