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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Cathrine Filstad and Petter Gottschalk

This article aims to address the research question: “What are the characteristics of white‐collar criminals in Norway?”.

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1697

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to address the research question: “What are the characteristics of white‐collar criminals in Norway?”.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on data from articles in Norwegian financial newspapers for one year where a total of 67 white‐collar criminals convicted to jail sentence were identified. The sample is analysed and presented in comparison with US literature especially on characteristics of white‐collar criminals, which is believed to be both general and limited.

Findings

The paper's contribution is important, as studies of white‐collar criminals so far have focused on case studies rather than statistical analysis of a larger sample. The paper finds that the typically white‐collar criminal is male, 46 years old, involved with first time crime of the amount of 30 million US dollars and convicted to three years of imprisonment. As a contradiction to previous literature on white‐collar crime, the paper also finds that they are not part of the upper‐class and highly educated. On the contrary, even though mostly being leaders, they are not highly educated, but have a position that gives them access to money. Consequently, the paper also finds that manipulation and fraud is the most common form of white‐collar crime in Norway.

Originality/value

The results are in opposition to existing literature and offer a fresh perspective on the characteristics of white‐collar criminals in Norway.

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Petter Gottschalk

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study of white‐collar crime in business organisations, to create insights into perceptions of potential offenders.

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1669

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study of white‐collar crime in business organisations, to create insights into perceptions of potential offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was developed and submitted electronically to the chief financial officers of the 500 largest business organisations in Norway.

Findings

The study identified financial misconduct by chief executive officers in the company as the crime associated with the most serious consequence for the company. However, a person in a purchasing and procurement function is assumed to be the most likely involved in and vulnerable to white‐collar crime.

Research limitations/implications

This is a survey approach that does not reflect actual crime.

Practical implications

Both control mechanisms and ethics are needed to prevent and detect white‐collar crime.

Social implications

No executive should be left alone to handle business matters that can benefit himself/herself. Rather, the four eyes principle should always be applied.

Originality/value

The paper provides statistical evidence that top‐level executives are involved in financial crime.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Thomas E. Dearden

This paper aims to update our understanding of the public’s opinion of white-collar crime and explains perceptions of white-collar crime using self-interest, political…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to update our understanding of the public’s opinion of white-collar crime and explains perceptions of white-collar crime using self-interest, political affiliation and in-group/out-group characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A state-wide phone survey of adults in North Carolina was conducted, and 421 adults responded. They provided their views of white-collar crime, the need for government intervention and whether they were more concerned about white-collar crime in the public or private sector.

Findings

In the survey, 74 per cent of the responders agreed or strongly agreed that white-collar crime is one of the leading problems in this decade, and 74 per cent of the responders suggested that it is not being adequately addressed by our legislators. Evidence suggests that individuals who are conservative, have high confidence in their economic circumstances or are demographically similar to stereotypical white-collar criminals perceive white-collar crime to be less of a problem than individuals without these characteristics.

Originality/value

This study shows that perceptions of the dangers of white-collar crime have increased since its inception. Additionally, this study extends our understanding about why certain demographics are more likely to care (and why high-ranking politicians are less likely to care) about white-collar crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Petter Gottschalk

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study of white‐collar crime to create insights into perceptions of potential offenders with a gender perspective.

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2748

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study of white‐collar crime to create insights into perceptions of potential offenders with a gender perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Media coverage of individual criminals was used as identification for crime cases, which were then found in court rulings.

Findings

The paper is based on empirical research of convicted white‐collar criminals. Out of 161 convicts presented in newspaper articles, there were 153 male and eight female criminals, i.e. 4 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

It is indeed hard to believe that Norwegian men commit 25 times more white‐collar crimes when compared to Norwegian women. Therefore, it is a question of whether the detection rate for female white‐collar criminals is lower than for male white‐collar criminals.

Practical implications

More attention might be paid to characteristics of female white‐collar crime in the future.

Originality/value

Rather than presenting some cases and anecdotal evidence, the paper presents substantial statistical evidence to conclude on gender differences in white‐collar crime.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Richard G. Brody and Kent A. Kiehl

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white‐collar criminals.

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2745

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white‐collar criminals.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white‐collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white‐collar criminals.

Findings

Findings suggest that white‐collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals.

Practical implications

The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white‐collar crime investigators. Raising the awareness of investigators dealing with white‐collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act.

Originality/value

The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white‐collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

George Gilligan

Most financial services regulators and compliance professionals are familiar with the term ‘white collar crime’, and may have encountered white collar criminals or…

Abstract

Most financial services regulators and compliance professionals are familiar with the term ‘white collar crime’, and may have encountered white collar criminals or examples of white collar crime while carrying out their regulatory responsibilities. However, the majority of regulatory or compliance professionals are unlikely to be familiar with the origins of the white collar crime label or the specialist subject area of criminology. This paper provides a short explanation of the origins of the white collar crime debate, then briefly considers some of the dilemmas that are shared by white collar criminologists and regulatory professionals, before detailing some areas in which criminological research may have relevance for financial services regulation.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Bojan Dobovšek and Boštjan Slak

The purpose of this paper is to show the interconnectivity between the economic sphere, governance and organised crime and to shed light on the role of white-collar crime

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the interconnectivity between the economic sphere, governance and organised crime and to shed light on the role of white-collar crime and show that constant redefining of the term “organised crime” has certain downfalls.

Design/methodology/approach

Methods of analysis and examination of relevant domestic and foreign primary and secondary resources and legal acts are used. The paper is theoretical in nature, as review of literature was the main method used for our argumentation.

Findings

The term and phenomena of organised crime have now long enjoyed the attention of many researchers, institutions, policymakers and others. And yet, in this quest for unification, proper definition and classification, it seems that we have somewhat strayed from that original idea of what organised crime represented in the period when this term was first coined. Unfortunately, by doing so, we failed to include the most dangerous forms of behaviour, i.e. (some, not all!) white-collar crime, which falls within the scope of organised crime.

Practical implications

Despite the fact that ideas presented in this paper belong to the old masters of criminology, they have lately been slightly forgotten. The paper is therefore useful to those who are interested in seeing how original ideas about the nature of organised crime are applicable today.

Originality/value

The paper provides an insight into the somewhat overlooked scholarship of those who deal with organised crime and white-collar crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Theresa Hilliard and Presha E. Neidermeyer

Changing workplace demographics reflect a rising number of women in the traditionally male-dominated field of business. The purpose of this study is to investigate how…

Abstract

Purpose

Changing workplace demographics reflect a rising number of women in the traditionally male-dominated field of business. The purpose of this study is to investigate how upwardly mobile women may impact the commission and type of white-collar crime, contributing to the scarce literature on gender distinctions in criminal behavior while comparing criminal trends globally. Women’s increased representation in positions of power in business provides them with increased fraud opportunities prompting the authors to ask: in their areas of opportunity, do women and men commit the same types of white-collar crime and at the same rates, and how does this phenomena vary globally?

Design/methodology/approach

Using a database from the Institute for Fraud Prevention, 5,441 fraud cases are examined from 93 nations for the annual periods from 2002 until 2011. Ordinal logistic regression methods are used to test for differences in gendered criminal behavior by fraud offense type controlling for age, position, education, compensation level and country context.

Findings

Internationally, results from the study indicate that female fraudsters are three times more likely than male fraudsters to commission crimes of asset misappropriation in the workplace. Upon further investigation, stratifying the data by geographical region, findings from the study demonstrate that female fraudsters are more likely than male fraudsters to commit asset misappropriation in the following geographical regions: Africa (three times as likely), Asia (twice as likely), Canada (three times as likely), China (five times as likely), Europe (twice as likely), the Middle East (four times as likely), Oceania (four times as likely), the United Kingdom (eight times as likely) and the United States of America (twice as likely).

Originality/value

Evidence from this study should be of importance to multinational enterprises, auditors and fraud examiners, as asset misappropriation constitutes 87 per cent of all fraud cases globally. Further, these findings prompt the need for researchers to develop this area of research.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Kristy Holtfreter

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

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2713

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of gender in white-collar crime. Directions for future research testing general and gender-specific theories are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Prior research is reviewed and critiques of general and gender-specific explanations for offending in the workplace context are advanced.

Findings

Gender-specific explanations in other offending contexts (e.g. violent crime) appear to be less applicable to the understanding of white-collar crime, a finding that lends support to general theory.

Practical implications

This paper provides an outline for future research testing criminological theory in organizational settings.

Originality/value

This paper represents a unique attempt to apply general and gender-specific theories to a variety of financial crimes in the context of organizations.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Thomas E. Dearden

This paper aims to add to the theoretical discussion of white-collar crime by introducing modern psychological decision-making literature and the potential effect on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to add to the theoretical discussion of white-collar crime by introducing modern psychological decision-making literature and the potential effect on white-collar offending.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a theoretical approach, literature on heuristics, innovation and stress, insight into why white-collar offenders decide to commit crime is posited.

Findings

The heuristics and strategies that people use to assist in decision-making process may inadvertently promote white-collar crime. For example, stress may inhibit white-collar offenders’ thinking, causing them to discount the risk of committing said offense; individuals may not challenge the success of carrying out a white-collar offense once it is considered; and generally, people will be more optimistic in considering their success of not getting caught.

Originality/value

Currently, the study of white-collar crime is discussed largely in the context of sociological factors. Current psychological theories have considerable explanatory power in understanding why white-collar offenders commit their crimes.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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