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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Rahul M. Shinde and Raymond R. Mahoney

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of whey and whey components on the production of dialyzable non‐heme iron – an in vitro indicator of bioavailable forms of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of whey and whey components on the production of dialyzable non‐heme iron – an in vitro indicator of bioavailable forms of the mineral.

Design/methodology/approach

Whey, processed whey and whey components were mixed with ferric iron and digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin/bile using a dialysis bag containing bicarbonate for pH adjustment. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron were measured and compared to values from protein and non‐protein controls.

Findings

Whey produced much more dialyzable iron than egg albumin but less than deproteinized whey. Most of the iron was ferric. Whey protein concentrate was as effective as egg abumin but whey protein isolate, α‐lactalbumin and β‐lactoglobulin slightly reduced dialyzable iron formation. Milk salts produced more dialyzable iron than whey and about as much as deproteinized whey. The major component of whey producing dialyzable iron was citrate, which competes for iron chelation with the whey protein.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that whey generates a large amount of dialyzable iron from ferric iron sources and that the iron is primarily due to chelation with citrate rather than to digestion of whey proteins. However, the effect of citrate is reduced by whey proteins.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2007

Omar A. Alhaj, Ara D. Kanekanian and Adrian C. Peters

The main aim of this study is to investigate the whey protein profiles of different commercially available fermented milk drinks that might have been influenced by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study is to investigate the whey protein profiles of different commercially available fermented milk drinks that might have been influenced by the growth of probiotics bacteria that have been added according to the claims made by the manufacturer.

Design/methodology/approach

The growth and the subsequent effect of probiotics on whey proteins were investigated through the peptide profiles of the hydrolysed whey protein. The profiles of whey proteins in skimmed milk and the four other probiotic fermented milk drinks were obtained by using the FPLC technique. Changes in whey proteins profiles in fermented milks were evaluated by comparing them with those of unfermented skimmed milk (control). The four samples were those of Yakult, Actimel, Muller and Tesco probiotic cranberry drinks.

Findings

This work has shown that all samples demonstrated a degree of protein hydrolysis. The high level of hydrolysis in “Yakult” and “Actimel” drink samples might have been due to the nature of the process, the length of time of fermentation or the high level of proteolytic activities of the micro‐organisms used. When compared with casein, it seems that whey proteins are more resistant to hydrolysis. The results also indicated that only traces of α‐lactalbumin were left in the whey sample from “Yakult” drink. There were noticeable reductions in the other three samples. Orotic acid, on the other hand, showed a decrease in their concentration in all whey protein samples when compared with the skimmed milk sample, except for the “Actimel” sample, which showed a noticeable increase.

Originality/value

This work has shown that there were distinct differences between the control sample (skimmed milk) and the four commercially available probiotic milk‐based fermented health drinks when a direct comparison was carried out between these samples.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Zongyan Zhao, Zhenhua Gao, Wenbo Wang and Mingruo Guo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the components of wheyprotein based aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) adhesives on the bond strength.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the components of wheyprotein based aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) adhesives on the bond strength.

Design/methodology/approach

The bond test (according to the JIS K6806‐2003 standard), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise the wheyprotein based API adhesives with various formulations and processing technologies.

Findings

The good bond strength of the optimised wheyprotein based API adhesive was attributed to the formation of strong chemical bonds in the bondline and to the additions of polyisocyanate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nano‐CaCO3 powder that improved adhesive cohesive strength by either chemical crosslinks or mechanical interlocking. The blending procedures of whey protein, PVA, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and p‐p‐MDI had great impacts on the performances of the wheyprotein based API adhesives.

Research limitations/implications

SEM micrographs showed that the effects of blending processes on the bond strength, pot life and colour might be attributed to the particle size of hydrophobic p‐MDI droplet and p‐MDI distribution in the protein‐PVA matrix.

Practical implications

The study lays the foundations of the formulation design and the processing technology for preparing wheyprotein based API adhesives.

Originality/value

The effects of the components of wheyprotein based API adhesives and the effects of blending processes on the bond strength were investigated by means bond strength evaluation, FTIR and SEM analyses; whey protein is utilised successfully to prepare novel API adhesives for structural uses.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Zhenhua Gao, Guoping Yu, Yihong Bao and Mingruo Guo

The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally safe aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) wood adhesive for structural uses with whey protein isolate (WPI) that is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an environmentally safe aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) wood adhesive for structural uses with whey protein isolate (WPI) that is a by‐product of cheese making.

Design/methodology/approach

The API formulations with whey proteins denatured at different heating temperatures and times, WPI/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) denaturing processes, PVA contents and nano‐CaCO3 (as filler) contents were investigated and optimised according to the JIS K6806‐2003 standard.

Findings

A wheyprotein based API adhesive was developed which had 28 h boiling‐dry‐boiling wet compression shear strength 6.81 MPa and dry compression shear strength 13.38 MPa beyond the required values (5.88 and 9.81 MPa, respectively) for structural use of commercial standards. The study also indicated that the thermal denaturation of 40 per cent WPI solution at 60‐63°C could unfold the globular structure of whey protein to some extent and therefore improve the bond strength and bond durability of wheyprotein based API adhesive; the additions of PVA and nano‐CaCO3 as filler had a significant effect on the bond strength and bond durability of wheyprotein based API adhesive.

Research limitations/implications

The thermally denatured WPI solutions (40 wt%) incline towards being decayed by moulds if not properly formulated.

Practical implications

Owing to the good bond strength and durability and environmental safety, the optimised wheyprotein based API adhesives have greater potential for commercial applications, especially for the structural wood bonds.

Originality/value

A novel API wood adhesive for structural use was developed using whey proteins that are often regarded as a waste due to their relatively small molecules and compact globular structures.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2018

Anil Panghal, Rakesh Patidar, Sundeep Jaglan, Navnidhi Chhikara, Sunil K. Khatkar, Yogesh Gat and Neelesh Sindhu

The purpose of this paper is to review the advanced technologies and approaches for utilization of waste generated in dairy industry. Whey is highly contaminated, with a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the advanced technologies and approaches for utilization of waste generated in dairy industry. Whey is highly contaminated, with a high organic load around 100,000 mg O2/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), and is not used for further processing. The waste generated in different food industries can be utilized in different value addition product with the help of advanced technology.

Design/methodology/approach

Major well-known bibliometric information sources are the Web of Science, Scopus, Mendeley and Google Scholar. Several keywords like nutrition value of whey, whey utilization, whey valorization, whey technologies, whey beverages, fruit-based whey beverage, carbonated beverage, probiotic or alcoholic beverages, herbal beverage, fermented beverage and current scenarios were chosen to obtain a large range of papers to be analyzed. A final inventory of 126 scientific sources was made after sorting and classifying them according to different criteria based on topic, academic field country of origin and year of publication.

Findings

The comprehensive review of different literature, data sources and research papers seeks to find and discuss various sustainable solutions to this huge waste generated from milk industry. The sustainable use of whey for production and conversion in different types of products can uplift the bio-based economy of industries and thereof national/international economy. The recent upsurge in consumer interest for health-promoting products has opened up new vistas for whey beverages and other whey products research and development.

Originality/value

The paper draws out different sustainable characteristics and technology of whey products available in market, as well as potential products to be launched in the market. Interestingly, over the past few years, dairy industries have applied various technologies to process cheese whey and are in search of new products which can be prepared from the by-product. This review discusses on the recent research development of whey valorization with particular reference to technologies used in the addition to their commercial availability and a way forward.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

Susan Hayes

Although whey has a high nutritional value, it was regarded as a waste product until new technology enabled its valuable constituents to be recovered and processed into a…

Abstract

Although whey has a high nutritional value, it was regarded as a waste product until new technology enabled its valuable constituents to be recovered and processed into a wide range of products with a great many uses. Susan Hayes BSc, food technologist at the National Dairy Council, describes these developments in processing technology

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Milena Casagranda, Priscila Berti Zanella, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira and Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira Macedo

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The search was conducted on MEDLINE® (via PUBMED®), Cochrane and Embase databases, using the terms “whey proteins,” “caseins,” “milk proteins,” “protein biosynthesis,” “human” and its related entry terms. The selected outcome was fractional synthetic rate (FSR) before (0) and 3 h after consumption of milk proteins, compared to supplementation with other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Findings

The results were expressed as mean difference (MD) of absolute values between treatments with confidence interval (CI) of 95 per cent. Of the 1,913 identified studies, 4 were included, with a total of 74 participants. Milk proteins generated a greater FSR (MD 0.03 per cent/h, CI 95 per cent 0.02-0.04; p <0.00001), compared to control group. Acute consumption of milk proteins promotes higher increase in FSR than other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Originality/value

This paper is a systematic review of the effects of milk proteins supplementation, which is considered an important subject because of its large consumption among athletes and physical exercise practitioners.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Abstract

Purpose

Although the pathogenesis of stroke is not yet completely elucidated, factors such as oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play an important role in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of whey protein plus lipoic acid on the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the prognosis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.

Design/methodology/approach

A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted among 42 patients with the first episode of AIS at the Imam Reza Hospital of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The blind research staff randomly assigned patients to two groups of receiving usual hospital gavage (control group) and 1,200 mg of lipoic acid plus 20 g of whey protein in addition to usual hospital gavage (intervention group) for midday meal. Levels of albumin, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and clinical outcomes including severity of neurologic damage according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and functional state based on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were evaluated initially and three weeks later.

Findings

There were no significant differences in demographic and baseline characteristics between the two groups (p > 0.05). After three weeks, hs-CRP (p <* 0.01), IL-6 (p = 0.02) and TNF-α (p = 0.01) levels significantly reduced in the intervention group, but no significant changes were observed in cases of albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in this group (p > 0.05). Instead, only IL-6 decreased significantly in the control group (p <* 0.01). In addition, comparing changes of assessed variables between two groups showed no significant improvement in the whey protein plus lipoic acid supplementation group vs the control group (p > 0.05). While there was significant betterment in clinical prognosis parameters within groups, no significant changes were found between groups.

Originality/value

The investigation implied that whey protein plus lipoic acid supplementation has no significant effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers compared to the control group of AIS patients. More studies in this field are needed to approve the result.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

M. Mazaheri Assadi, F. Abdolmaleki and R.R. Mokarrame

Milk whey is a by‐product of the cheese‐making industry which presents about 85‐95 per cent of the milk volume. Whey fermentation by the isolated kefir starter culture…

Abstract

Purpose

Milk whey is a by‐product of the cheese‐making industry which presents about 85‐95 per cent of the milk volume. Whey fermentation by the isolated kefir starter culture could be a sensible solution for the use of this by‐product from the dairy industry. For the first time, in Iran the microbial flora of kefir grain was isolated and identified (Motaghi et al.). This paper aims to examine the various ratios of starter culture of kefir grain for production of fermented beverage using whey as the substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

Various ratios of lactic bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria were tested. The incubation time (24 h) temperature (25C), substrate (pasteurized whey), and inoculation rate (3‐5 per cent) and mixing rate (90 rpm) were the same for the all products. The products were analyzed for protein, fat, sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, acidity, density, dry material, ash, and riboflavin content.

Findings

The quality (smell and flavor) of the product was assessed. Samples produced with 3 per cent (v/v) lactic acid, acetic acid bacterial mixed cultures and 2 per cent (v/v) yeast culture were considered as best with respect to quality and organoleptic quality.

Originality/value

The ability of kefir starter cultures to ferment whey to formulate and mix cultures consisting of certain species of kefir grain micro‐organisms in‐order to develop a procedure where lactic acid fermentation is followed by yeast fermentation. The potential of local kefir starter culture in production of healthy beverage from whey is a new finding since this particular beverage has the taste of artificial butter milk and it is naturally carbonated.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Amar Aouzelleg

This article aims to consider the use of high pressure processing in order to gain functional advantages through proteins structure control. High pressure processing has…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to consider the use of high pressure processing in order to gain functional advantages through proteins structure control. High pressure processing has been used to produce high-quality food with extended shelf life and could also be used to modify foods functionality.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of high pressure on protein structure and functionality is looked at and comparisons are made with heat effect in places. β-lactoglobulin and whey proteins are mainly taken as examples.

Findings

A controlled partial protein unfolding through mild high pressure processing could lead to a range of intermediate molecular structures. These are distinct from the native and completely unfolded structure and have been referred to as molten globules. The partly unfolded molecular states, hence, are postulated to have increased functionality and could be interesting for the food industry.

Originality/value

The opportunity and challenges represented by these theoretical elements are discussed. In particular, the effect of protein concentration and aggregation is emphasised.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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