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Civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), is exerting increasing pressure on national governments, multinational corporations, and…
Civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), is exerting increasing pressure on national governments, multinational corporations, and international institutions. In this chapter we document the evolution of participation by civil society and NGOs in Western Hemisphere economic integration, focusing particularly on the NGO role in three important trade and investment agreements: the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas process. We find that NGOs are having increasing influence on the trade and investment agreements in the Hemisphere, and are poised to take on a major role in multilateral negotiations and agreements.
When the 13 colonies in North America, the slave colony of Saint-Domingue, and the colonial territories of the Portuguese and Spanish Americas all rose against their…
When the 13 colonies in North America, the slave colony of Saint-Domingue, and the colonial territories of the Portuguese and Spanish Americas all rose against their imperial rulers, a new postcolonial order seemingly emerged in the Western Hemisphere. The reality of this situation forced political theorists and practitioners of the early 19th century to rethink the way in which they envisioned the nature and dynamics of international order. But a careful analysis of this shift reveals that it was not the radical break with prior notions of sovereignty and territoriality, often described in the literature. This was not the emergence of a new postimperial system of independent, nationally anchored states. Rather, it reflected a creative rethinking of existing notions of divided sovereignty and composite polities, rife with political experiments – from the formation of a new multi-centered empire in North America to the quasi-states and federations of Latin America. This moment of political experimentation and postcolonial order-making presented a distinctly new world repertoire of empire and state-building, parts of which were at least as violent and authoritarian as those of the old world empires it had replaced. The most radical ideas of freedom and liberty, championed by the black republic of Haiti, remained marginalized and sidelined by more conservative powers on both sides of the Atlantic.
This paper examines the determinants of the initial location choices of immigrants who enter the U.S. with different kinds of visas (“green cards”). Conditional logit…
This paper examines the determinants of the initial location choices of immigrants who enter the U.S. with different kinds of visas (“green cards”). Conditional logit models with the 48 contiguous U.S. states as the choice set are estimated using population data on immigrants from the Immigration and Naturalization Service between 1971 and 2000 matched to data on state characteristics from the Integrated Public Use Microsamples of the U.S. Census. As in previous research, it is estimated that immigrants have a higher probability of moving to states where individuals from their region of birth are a larger share of the state population, with relatives of legal permanent residents responding most to this factor. In addition, it is estimated that immigrants in all admission categories respond to labor market conditions when choosing where to live, but that these effects are the largest for male employment-based immigrants and, surprisingly, refugees. These relationships are relatively stable across models that include state fixed effects as well as those that allow the coefficients to vary across the four decades available in the data.
There is no argument among serious researchers that a mongoloid stock first colonized the New World from Asia. Nor is there controversy about the fact that these…
There is no argument among serious researchers that a mongoloid stock first colonized the New World from Asia. Nor is there controversy about the fact that these continental pioneers used the Bering Land Bridge that then connected the Asian Far East with Alaska.– Gerald F. Shields, et al.American Journal of Genetics (1992)
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the religious and philosophical ways humans view nature, and how we perceive and treat our planet, including all its living…
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the religious and philosophical ways humans view nature, and how we perceive and treat our planet, including all its living entities. Its purpose is to make a positive influence on individuals living in the Eastern and Western hemispheres, so that those who are unaware may be given an unexpected glimpse at our current human situation, which appears increasingly discouraging with regard to sensitivity towards nature.
By offering a subtle, insightful view of human nature and its connection to religion and the universe, rather than facts and statistics on pollution alone, this conceptual paper introduces theoretical and philosophical discussions from comparative literature as well as narratives from actual interviews conducted in Japan.
As human beings, we need to better define our position in this world, in order to learn to appreciate the true value of our own existence. With regard to the question of where humans lie in nature, a basic difference exists between Asian and Western views. The Asian view of nature has traditionally regarded humans and the universe as continually interacting together – human beings are an integral part of life. This differs from the basic Western notion of humans and nature comprising two separate, opposing elements.
This paper offers readers a deeper understanding of how humans feel and perceive nature, to help them realize how urgent it is for us to respect our natural resources on Earth.
In 2004, as the economy lay in stagnation, Congress searched for ways to stimulate job growth. Many members of Congress believed that high US taxes on repatriated earnings…
In 2004, as the economy lay in stagnation, Congress searched for ways to stimulate job growth. Many members of Congress believed that high US taxes on repatriated earnings discouraged US-based multinational enterprises (MNEs) from bringing cash (in the form of dividends) home and investing those monies in the USA. As a result, Congress passed, and President Bush signed into law, the 2004 American Jobs Creation Act (AJCA), which reduced tax rates to a maximum 5.25 percent on cash repatriations to the USA over the course of a single tax year, i.e. a “tax holiday”. The purpose of this paper is to explore key determinants of repatriated earnings by US multinational enterprises.
This paper uses data collected from IRS documents between 2004 and 2008 to explore the drivers of MNE repatriations, including the AJCA tax holiday, from various countries to the USA. The paper applies a Lintner equation within a gravity model framework to estimate international liquidity flows.
The results indicate that repatriations to the USA are more likely to originate in Latin America and other countries in the Western Hemisphere. Significant evidence is also found of agglomeration effects; countries with higher numbers of MNE subsidiaries were significantly more or less likely (depending on the year in question) to repatriate earnings to the USA.
While several studies in the literature have examined the effects of the AJCA on individual firm earnings, very few studies have examined the aggregate effects of MNE repatriations in the context of the AJCA. More specifically, past studies have identified how much money flows back to the USA, but have not examined the set of countries from which most of the money flows.
In recent years, the Internet has increasingly served as an important tactical tool for protest campaigns, arguably contributing to a restructuring of the repertoire of…
In recent years, the Internet has increasingly served as an important tactical tool for protest campaigns, arguably contributing to a restructuring of the repertoire of contention. This study analyzes a recent case of Internet-backed activism, focusing on the ongoing transnational mobilization against the Free Trade Area of the America's (FTAA) initiative. The Hemispheric Social Alliance, a coalition of hundreds of civil society organizations across the Western hemisphere opposed to the free market underpinnings of the FTAA, has employed Internet technologies to communicate, strategize, educate and pressure state authorities in an effort to promote an alternative social-developmental vision. This case of transnational contention has important implications that go beyond the Americas context. The organization of groups transnationally, combined with Internet communication and coordination strategies, suggests that popular political protest has begun to look considerably different from the time when state boundaries contained much political discourse and action.
The contiguous Americas offer a conceptual image of a unified and major economic marketplace. A campaign to solidify this image should be developed and implemented to…
The contiguous Americas offer a conceptual image of a unified and major economic marketplace. A campaign to solidify this image should be developed and implemented to improve political relations and the balance of power between and among the nations involved. Not campaigning for a united marketplace of the Americas risks fractionalization of economic power in smaller markets. The cultures are no more diverse than those in the other two global market areas—Asia and Europe—and the languages less so. Additionally, certain confederations and associations already exist to help structurally unify the Americas as a single marketplace.