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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

Kabba E. Colley

This chapter focuses on a study, which investigates the question: How do teacher education policies match teacher education practices in Anglophone West Africa? Teacher…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on a study, which investigates the question: How do teacher education policies match teacher education practices in Anglophone West Africa? Teacher education policy in this chapter refers to action statements in verbal or written form made by national education authorities/agencies about teacher education, while teacher education practice refers to the work that teachers do. Using the method of research synthesis, multi-layered, purposeful sampling of various data sources, Boolean and non-Boolean search strategies, qualitative and quantitative analytical procedures, the study identified over a hundred documents. Out of these, 77 documents met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The distribution of research outcomes by Anglophone West African countries were as follows: 18.2% were on Gambia, 27.3% were on Ghana, 10.4% were on Liberia, 24.7% were on Nigeria, and 19.5% were on Sierra Leone. From this research synthesis, it is evident that there is a gap between teacher education policy and practice in Anglophone West Africa. Most teacher education policies are “add-on,” meaning that they were formulated as part of a larger national policy framework on basic, secondary and tertiary education. In addition, the research synthesis found that Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone are very similar in terms of their pre-service teacher training models, but differ in their in-service and professional development systems, while Liberia has a slightly different in-service model with varying durations. The limitations and implications of the findings for further comparative and international education research are discussed in the chapter.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Ståle Ulriksen

During the past two decades, both West Africa and Central Africa have suffered a large number of intertwined wars. In both regions, these ‘webs of war’ have included…

Abstract

During the past two decades, both West Africa and Central Africa have suffered a large number of intertwined wars. In both regions, these ‘webs of war’ have included interstate conflicts and rivalry, as well as wars over the control of many of the involved states. Existing perspectives tend to reduce these intertwined wars to a series of parallel civil wars within each of the various states. They see states as operating at the regional level, whereas the armed opposition to those states operates only at the national level. This chapter argues that many armed, non-state groups in West Africa and Central Africa should be seen as regional actors, and thus that conventional two-level analysis does not catch the complexity of conflict in those regions. Although major violence continues in Central Africa, it has largely been contained in West Africa. This needs to be seen in relation to the level of institutionalization of security and military cooperation in the two regions. In both regions, regional organizations carried out military operations that were highly controversial among their member-states. In West Africa, a series of interventions strengthened both regional cooperation and cooperation with external partners, whereas in Central Africa this was not the case. In West Africa, peace support operations have increasingly been carried out within a regional perspective. Not so in Central Africa. The chapter concludes with an examination of efforts to build a capacity for peace support operations within the African Union, based on subregional organizations but with strong involvement by external actors.

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Troubled Regions and Failing States: The Clustering and Contagion of Armed Conflicts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-102-3

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The Globalization of Foreign Investment in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-357-1

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Abiodun S. Bankole and Adeolu O. Adewuyi

Given the inconclusive evidence in the literature on the impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows, as well as dearth of…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the inconclusive evidence in the literature on the impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows, as well as dearth of literature on this subject matter as regards West Africa and the European Union (EU), the purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which BITs and preferential trade and investment agreements (PTIAs) triggered foreign investment flows particularly between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) countries and the EU.

Design/methodology/approach

Trend analysis was used to trace the link between FDI and BITs, while panel regression models were used to investigate the impact of BITs on FDI during 1980‐2010.

Findings

Econometric results indicate that, as in most previous studies, BITs have strong positive impact on FDI in West Africa, with this impact significant at a higher level (1 per cent) for FDI flow than stock (5 per cent). The impact of BITs on FDI is significant even with the state of internal factors (such as capital account liberalisation, trade openness, high inflation rate and poor governance) in West African countries. The findings suggest that in the absence of BITs, West African countries would have suffered adversely from poor FDI inflows given their poor macroeconomic stability and governance. On the contrary, the PTIAs did not have significant impact on both FDI flows and stock. The results also show that FDI inflow to West Africa is both market and resources seeking.

Research limitations/implications

Sensitivity analysis may not have been sufficient. For instance, not tested was the impact of the signalling effect of BIT, as well as other vertical FDI such as those from the USA.

Practical implications

The implication of the findings is that West Africa countries need to design policies and programmes that will enable them to maximise the technological spill‐over from FDI in order not to be perpetual suppliers of primary products and purchasers of manufactured goods. Further, they have to maintain macroeconomic stability and good governance. They need to understand the type of provisions in the BITs that constituent states signed and compare with the provisions of the PTIAs, with a view to discerning what is responsible for the superior response of FDI to BITs.

Originality/value

Given the absence of literature on the impact of BITs on FDI flows between West Africa and EU, it becomes imperative to investigate this issue with a view to motivating the investment component of the EPA, as investment is one of the Singapore issues that were removed from WTO's Doha Round.

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Kalu Onwukwe Emenike

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate selected West African currencies/US dollar exchange rates for the evidence of volatility spillover. Specifically, the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate selected West African currencies/US dollar exchange rates for the evidence of volatility spillover. Specifically, the paper examines West African CFA franc, Gambian dalasi and Nigerian naira exchange rates in relation to the USD, for any evidence of shock and volatility spillover.

Design/methodology/approach

The author employs multivariate GARCH (1,1)–BEKK model which enables the evaluation of the interaction within the volatility of two or more series because of its capability to detect volatility spillover among time series observations, as well as the persistence of volatility within each series.

Findings

The major findings of this study are as follows: there is evidence of volatility clustering in West African CFA franc, Gambian dalasi and Nigerian naira exchange rates in relation to the USD. There is evidence of bi-directional shock and volatility spillover between the Nigerian naira and West African CFA franc/USD exchange rates, and uni-directional shock spillover from the Gambian dalasi to the West African CFA franc/USD exchange rates. There is, however, no evidence of exchange rate shock and volatility spillover between Nigerian naira and Gambian dalasi.

Originality/value

Although considerable literature exists on the volatility of exchange rate in West Africa and comparative analysis of exchange rates volatility in few countries of West Africa, there is absence of empirical studies on exchange rate volatility spillover among countries in the region. Since containing exchange rate volatility is one of the major objectives of monetary policy, understanding the nature and direction of exchange rate volatility spillover would propel formulation exchange rate policies that would minimise exchange rate uncertainty and entrench sustainable development. In addition, the nature of exchange rate volatility spillover between West African countries would provide basis for international traders and foreign portfolio investors to develop effective strategies for hedging against exchange rate shocks that are propagated across countries by designing appropriate risk management techniques.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Fisayo Fagbemi and Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun

The main goal of the study is to explore the long run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in West Africa. Essentially, a study of this nature is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the study is to explore the long run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in West Africa. Essentially, a study of this nature is to proffer major inroads into addressing low investment levels plaguing the region and securing critical fiscal policy measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the long-run relationship between public debt and domestic investment in 13 West African countries between 1986 and 2018 with the use of Panel Dynamic Least Squares (DOLS) and Panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS), and causality test based on Toda and Yamamoto.

Findings

Public debt (% of GDP) and external debt stocks have an insignificant effect on domestic investment in the long run, suggesting the negligible effect of public debt on the level of investments in the region. Further evidence shows that domestic investment Granger causes public debt indicators, implying that there is unidirectional causality. This suggests that any investment-generation policy could engender a rise in public borrowing, although such public loans might not be effective when there is pervasive mismanagement of public funds, as public debts need to be well managed for ensuring improved investment.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that maintaining a strong and effective debt-investment nexus requires fiscal consolidation efforts across countries, as such could lead to enhanced institutional capacity and sustainable investment-generation policy.

Originality/value

Since panel regression techniques used by the previous studies (Fixed and Random effects) could be susceptible to possible statistical errors due to endogeneity issue and might not be well suited for explaining long-run effect or capturing the part of investment sustainability, their conclusions could be misleading and remain untenable in West Africa' s context. Hence, the study adopts techniques (DOLS and FMOLS) which could account for endogeneity issue and provide better elucidations for long-term effects.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Obinna S. Muogboh and Francis Ojadi

With the world gradually evolving into a global economy, Africa is playing an increasing role both as a major supplier of commodities and a huge consumer market for…

Abstract

With the world gradually evolving into a global economy, Africa is playing an increasing role both as a major supplier of commodities and a huge consumer market for products from other parts of the world. Hence, it has become necessary for organisations to understand logistics and supply chain management (SCM) practices in Africa. For organisations that operate in Africa or have business dealings in Africa, it has become a strategic competitive priority to understand the current state of logistics in Africa and identify the challenges and opportunities inherent in the system. Finally, it is essential to learn how to overcome the challenges and maximise the opportunities. This chapter provides a historical and contextual basis for some of the logistics and SCM practices in sub-Saharan Africa. It reviews the current state of logistics management in Africa and identifies the challenges and opportunities that confront anyone interested in doing business in Africa. We reviewed the indigenous management practices that pervade the logistics discipline and highlighted cultural, unique and anecdotal evidence of practices and characteristics peculiar to the African countries. In addition, a comparative analysis of the logistic performance of countries in the region was provided to help readers situate the discussion. We concluded the discussion with some practical suggestions on how to get the best out of the African logistics system.

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Indigenous Management Practices in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-849-7

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Modelling the Riskiness in Country Risk Ratings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-837-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Ediomo-Ubong Nelson and Isidore Obot

The purpose of this paper is to discuss priorities for effective responses to illicit drugs in West Africa in a changing international policy environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss priorities for effective responses to illicit drugs in West Africa in a changing international policy environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes published research, technical papers and reports on drug use and policy responses in West Africa and opines on priorities for drug policy in the region within the post-United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) 2016 policy environment.

Findings

Drug use and related harms continue to increase in West African countries despite efforts to reduce drug trafficking and use through legal prohibition. The UNGASS 2016 outcome document enables flexibility in policy interpretation and implementation, which provides an opportunity for governments to prioritize national needs in drug policy. West African countries should prioritize and support research and data collection, prevention, treatment and harm reduction and sustainable livelihoods.

Originality/value

The paper emphasizes the need for West African countries to seize the opportunity created by the ineffectiveness and weakening of the prohibition regime as well as new treaty flexibility following UNGASS 2016 to reform drug policies to prioritize regional and national needs.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado and Ndidiamaka Sandra Mkpado

Lucrative employment in agriculture is fundamental to poverty alleviation in Africa. The paper examined employment along gender, impact of materials and proportion of…

Abstract

Purpose

Lucrative employment in agriculture is fundamental to poverty alleviation in Africa. The paper examined employment along gender, impact of materials and proportion of female employment in African agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

Time series econometrics was employed in the framework of production function analysis involving 36 years of data.

Findings

Results show that world labour in agriculture decreased from 49.77 to 40.04% but increased from 12.43 to 16.94% in Africa. World female employment in agriculture ranged from 40.56 to 42.81% and from 40.40 to 43.02% in developing economies, but decreased from 40.39 to 36.08% in developed economies. Total agricultural labour in Africa was negatively and significantly related to agricultural gross production index number (APIN).

Research limitations/implications

Interaction of cattle stock and females employed in agriculture was positive and significant at pooled African values. Interaction of irrigation facilities and female labour was positive and significant in West Africa. Interaction of cattle stock and total labour in Southern Africa had negative relationship with APIN. Interaction of total labour and irrigation had negative relationship with APIN in Africa. Insufficient agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation infrastructure for the populace exist. It recommends increased investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock.

Practical implications

African governments need to use good political will to effect the needed transformation in agriculture. It is possible for agriculture to offer lucrative employment to both males and females in less developed world as in developed economies.

Originality/value

The paper noted very limited agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation facilities for the populace engaged in agriculture. It recommends investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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