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Article

Werner Vogels

This paper reviews the real‐time enterprise from a technology point of view, with a strong focus on the challenges of building globally scalable technology. We analyze the…

Abstract

This paper reviews the real‐time enterprise from a technology point of view, with a strong focus on the challenges of building globally scalable technology. We analyze the different aspects of the real‐time enterprise and the link between the real‐time functionality and event driven systems. We then review the major bottlenecks in achieving scalability and robustness for event‐driven systems when they need to support global enterprise systems. At a conceptual level the real‐time enterprise is extremely promising but neither research nor product groups have the technologies to operate at a global scale in a manner that will allow the real‐time enterprise to become a reality, unless a number of significant hurdles are removed. This paper examines the impact of the concept of the real‐time enterprise on research agenda of academia as well as product groups, and lays out an agenda for achieving scalability and reliability goals.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article

Robert Fox

This column aims to examine the issue of modular library technology infrastructure, and how it can help libraries to offer more flexible services to patrons.

Abstract

Purpose

This column aims to examine the issue of modular library technology infrastructure, and how it can help libraries to offer more flexible services to patrons.

Design/methodology/approach

This column is exploratory, and looks at the pros and cons of various technology approaches to digital library services.

Findings

In order to remain flexible with regard to the evolving needs of patrons, libraries should seriously consider a technology model which would allow the digital library to offer more responsive services to patrons. It is suggested that a deeper look at service‐oriented architecture (SOA) design principles as opposed to the standard model of large monolithic systems be examined and adopted.

Originality/value

This column offers alternatives in the area of digital library services, and focuses primarily on the possibilities rendered by service‐oriented architectures and robust web services.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

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Book part

Brian D. Fitch, Anthony H. Normore and David R. Werner

During its 230 year prison history, the United States has advocated various – and sometimes conflicting – purposes for incarceration. Each justification has rested on the…

Abstract

During its 230 year prison history, the United States has advocated various – and sometimes conflicting – purposes for incarceration. Each justification has rested on the tenets of some prevailing theory of human behavior (Akers & Sellers, 2008; Jones, 2008), which attempts to answer two recurring themes: why do some people commit crimes while others do not, and how should the criminal justice system, including the correctional system, respond to such behavior (Siegel, 2003; Winfree & Abadisky, 2010; Vito, Maahs, & Holmes, 2011). This chapter offers an overview of the general tenets of what is considered morally imperative when determining “right” from “wrong”; the four key criminological perspectives of crime, as well as the ontological assumptions, either explicit or implicit, within each hypothesis. Next, the authors discuss how these assumptions dictate society's response to crime and, more specifically, the type of punishment, rehabilitative efforts, or educational opportunities offered to those who violate society's laws (Bohn & Vogel, 2011). The chapter concludes with a discussion of the types of educational programs and therapies that have demonstrated the most promise at reducing crime and recidivism, as well as suggestions for improving current correctional practices.

Details

Leadership in Education, Corrections and Law Enforcement: A Commitment to Ethics, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-185-5

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Article

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part

Jennifer S. Reinke and Catherine A. Solheim

Using Andersen’s (1968) behavioral model of health services use as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examined how receipt of family-centered care relates to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Using Andersen’s (1968) behavioral model of health services use as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examined how receipt of family-centered care relates to the perceived family challenges for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Design

Data from the 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were analyzed for 812 parents of children with ASD.

Findings

Multiple regression analyses provided substantive statistical evidence that a child’s race, the adequacy of a family’s insurance, and the stability of child’s health care needs significantly contributed to predicting his or her receipt of family-centered care. Further results suggested a relationship between receipt of family-centered care and the perception of challenge for these families; families receiving family-centered care perceive fewer challenges and feel less unmet need for child health services.

Value

Family-centered professionals provide critical voices in the development of policies and programs geared toward improving the health outcomes of children with ASD and their families.

Details

Family Relationships and Familial Responses to Health Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-015-5

Keywords

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Book part

David Truswell

An overview of the impact of dementia that focuses on underdeveloped countries across the globe, and migrant and minority ethnic communities within the developed world…

Abstract

An overview of the impact of dementia that focuses on underdeveloped countries across the globe, and migrant and minority ethnic communities within the developed world. Increased longevity increases the risk of dementia and brings new challenges in terms of cultural perspectives and cultural obligations in the care of elders. The chapter examines these challenges in detail and their consequences in planning for support and care.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Book part

Afshin Mehrpouya and Rita Samiolo

Through the example of a “regulatory ranking” – an index produced with the aim to regulate the pharmaceutical market by pushing companies in the direction of providing…

Abstract

Through the example of a “regulatory ranking” – an index produced with the aim to regulate the pharmaceutical market by pushing companies in the direction of providing greater access to medicine in developing countries – this chapter focuses on indexing and ranking as infrastructural processes which inscribe global problem spaces as unfolding actionable territories for market intervention. It foregrounds the “Indexal thinking” which structures and informs regulatory rankings – their aspiration to align the interests of different stakeholders and to entice competition among the ranked companies. The authors detail the infrastructural work through which such ambitions are enacted, detailing processes of infrastructural layering/collage and patchwork through which analysts naturalize/denaturalize various contested categories in the ranking’s territory. They reflect on the consequences of such attempts at reconfiguring global topologies for the problems these governance initiatives seek to address.

Details

Thinking Infrastructures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-558-0

Keywords

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Article

M. Emilia Bianco, Margaret Lombe and Mara Bolis

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of women’s entrepreneurship to bring about greater gender equality. Understanding women’s entrepreneurship as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of women’s entrepreneurship to bring about greater gender equality. Understanding women’s entrepreneurship as a gendered process (Bird and Brush, 2002), the study presents the challenges encountered by women entrepreneurs as a result of gender ideologies. It documents structural barriers, discriminatory interactions and oppressive gender scripts and their effects on the women and their businesses. Acknowledging women’s possibilities for agency and resistance, the study analyzes how women entrepreneurs conform, contest or negotiate gender scripts and constraints, and looks at the consequences of these actions.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from elements of social interactionism and the doing and undoing gender theories, the authors use a feminist theoretic framework to guide analysis of qualitative data from two focus groups conducted with 19 women entrepreneurs in Colombia.

Findings

Gender ideologies were manifested in the forms of interrelated structural barriers that restricted women entrepreneurs’ access to resources. Social interactions represented spaces in which gender ideologies were reinforced, but also spaces women used to produce changes through resistance and accommodation strategies. Entrepreneurship was associated with positive changes toward greater gender equality, although negative consequences were reported.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the limited sample, more studies across countries may be needed for the consolidation of a generalizable theoretical framework.

Originality/value

This study presents a feminist theoretic framework in dialogue with the lived experiences of women entrepreneurs. It observes the processes of change toward gender equality embedded in business development.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article

Tyler Prochnow, Megan S. Patterson, Logan Hartnell and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

Increases in video game use have led to mental health concerns, citing greater risk for depressive symptoms (DS) and reduced “in-real-life” (IRL) social involvement…

Abstract

Purpose

Increases in video game use have led to mental health concerns, citing greater risk for depressive symptoms (DS) and reduced “in-real-life” (IRL) social involvement. However, recent studies have uncovered potential social benefits for online gaming. Many games provide avenues to extend real life relationships and make new online friendships. The purpose of this pilot study is to use social network analysis to determine associations between connections and DS in a gaming community.

Design/methodology/approach

As a pilot study, members of an online gaming site were asked to report demographic characteristics, DS, IRL social support, online social support and IRL people and members of the online community with whom they spoke to about important life matters. Multi-level modeling was used to parse variance described by demographic characteristics, IRL measures and online measures. Linear network autocorrelation modeling (LNAM) was used to determine relationships between network connections and DS.

Findings

Members (n = 37; µ = 24.76 years old, SD = 6.55; 100% male; 89.2% white) on average felt DS’ “not at all” to “several days” over the past two weeks. Multi-level modeling including online network measures explained 50% of variance (R2 = 0.50, F (9,27) = 2.98, p = 0.01); online connections were associated with DS (ß = 0.46). LNAM indicated DS were associated with IRL support (ß = −2.66), IRL connections (ß = 1.81), online support (ß = 2.40) and network effects (ß = 0.06), which indicates that a gamer’s DS were similar to those of their online connections.

Originality/value

Members with more DS may be seeking help via online channels. This may be important for future research to consider alternative forms of help-seeking behavior.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Book part

Chris Thornhill

This chapter proposes a sociological reconstruction of the emergence of citizenship as a source of legitimacy for political institutions, and it focuses on examining the…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a sociological reconstruction of the emergence of citizenship as a source of legitimacy for political institutions, and it focuses on examining the historical processes that first gave rise to this concept. It explains how citizenship has its origins in the transformation of feudal law, a process that culminated in patterns of military organization that characterized the rise of the early modern state in Europe. On this basis, it describes how the growth of constitutional democracy was integrally marked by the militarization of society and explains that military pressures have remained palpable in constitutional constructions of citizenship. In particular, it argues that, through the early growth of democracy, national citizenship practices were closely linked to global conflicts, and they tended to replicate such conflicts in national contexts. It concludes by showing how more recent processes of constitutional norm formation, based largely in international human rights law, have acted to soften the military dimensions of citizenship.

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