The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to incorporate contextual information into collaborative filtering (CF) based on the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM…
The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to incorporate contextual information into collaborative filtering (CF) based on the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and deep belief networks (DBNs). Traditionally, neither the RBM nor its derivative model has been applied to modeling contextual information. In this work, the authors analyze the RBM and explore how to utilize a user’s occupation information to enhance recommendation accuracy.
The proposed approach is based on the RBM. The authors employ user occupation information as a context to design a context-aware RBM and stack the context-aware RBM to construct DBNs for recommendations.
The experiments on the MovieLens data sets show that the user occupation-aware RBM outperforms other CF models, and combinations of different context-aware models by mutual information can obtain better accuracy. Moreover, the context-aware DBNs model is superior to baseline methods, indicating that deep networks have more qualifications for extracting preference features.
To improve recommendation accuracy through modeling contextual information, the authors propose context-aware CF approaches based on the RBM. Additionally, the authors attempt to introduce hybrid weights based on information entropy to combine context-aware models. Furthermore, the authors stack the RBM to construct a context-aware multilayer network model. The results of the experiments not only convey that the context-aware RBM has potential in terms of contextual information but also demonstrate that the combination method, the hybrid recommendation and the multilayer neural network extension have significant benefits for the recommendation quality.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an attention alignment method for opinion mining of massive open online course (MOOC) comments. Opinion mining is essential for…
The purpose of this paper is to propose an attention alignment method for opinion mining of massive open online course (MOOC) comments. Opinion mining is essential for MOOC applications. In this study, the authors analyze some of bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT’s) attention heads and explore how to use these attention heads to extract opinions from MOOC comments.
The approach proposed is based on an attention alignment mechanism with the following three stages: first, extracting original opinions from MOOC comments with dependency parsing. Second, constructing frequent sets and using the frequent sets to prune the opinions. Third, pruning the opinions and discovering new opinions with the attention alignment mechanism.
The experiments on the MOOC comments data sets suggest that the opinion mining approach based on an attention alignment mechanism can obtain a better F1 score. Moreover, the attention alignment mechanism can discover some of the opinions filtered incorrectly by the frequent sets, which means the attention alignment mechanism can overcome the shortcomings of dependency analysis and frequent sets.
To take full advantage of pretrained language models, the authors propose an attention alignment method for opinion mining and combine this method with dependency analysis and frequent sets to improve the effectiveness. Furthermore, the authors conduct extensive experiments on different combinations of methods. The results show that the attention alignment method can effectively overcome the shortcomings of dependency analysis and frequent sets.