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Douglas J. Watson, Donna Milam Handley and Wendy L. Hassett
Since 1934, the federal government has provided a process for municipalities to declare bankruptcy, and approximately 500 governments have done so. In recent years, an…
Since 1934, the federal government has provided a process for municipalities to declare bankruptcy, and approximately 500 governments have done so. In recent years, an average of less than one city government declares bankruptcy each year. In this article, the authors identify five factors that contribute to financial distress for cities which, if left unattended, can lead to municipal bankruptcy. This discussion is followed by an examination of the events that led to the bankruptcy of the City of Prichard, Alabama, once a prosperous suburb of Mobile. The authors conclude that this municipal bankruptcy occurred, in large part, because Prichard failed to face the factors of financial distress identified by the authors in the years prior to filing for bankruptcy.
Wendy L. Hassett and Douglas J. Watson
An annual citizen survey can be a valuable component of the municipal budgeting process for cities that elect to institutionalize the process as a way to translate citizen…
An annual citizen survey can be a valuable component of the municipal budgeting process for cities that elect to institutionalize the process as a way to translate citizen feedback into budgetary priorities. This article explores uses of citizen surveys in identifying latent needs of the community that may not be detected through public hearings or other citizen participation methods. The authors suggest that properly developed and conducted citizen surveys can provide decision-makers with research data that will lead to more responsive public spending and debt financing decisions. The article concludes with a case study of Auburn, Alabama, a city that has successfully used citizen surveys in its budgeting system for the past seventeen years.
Leigh Anne Liu, Wendi L. Adair, Dean Tjosvold and Elena Poliakova
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and organizational levels. The authors integrate previous studies from multiple disciplines to articulate the contextual importance of intercultural dynamics. The authors also suggest three overarching themes to expand the field of research on intercultural dynamics.
The authors use an integrative literature review to articulate the importance of intercultural dynamics, provide an introduction to the new contributions in this special issue, and propose new directions for future research.
Intercultural dynamics research has the potential to expand in three overarching areas: constructive controversy, collaborative communication, and global competency and identity at multiple levels.
Intercultural dynamics is still a nascent field emerging from cross-cultural and strategic management. The authors hope the review lays the groundwork for more studies on intercultural dynamics at the interpersonal, team, organizational, and mixed levels of analysis in both theory building and empirical works.
Understanding intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation can help individuals and managers in multinationals and born global organizations navigate cultural complexity and foster cooperation.
The authors hope the ideas on intercultural dynamics can facilitate collaboration and reduce conflict in intercultural encounters at the individual, organization, and societal levels.
This paper offers an overview on the state of the field and lays groundwork for more systematic inquiries on intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation.