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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Wen Zheng, Senarath Dharmasena, Oral Capps Jr and Ramkumar Janakiraman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting consumer demand for and the effects on tax on sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Using nationally representative data from 62,092 households and tobit econometric procedure, conditional and unconditional factors affecting the demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water were estimated.

Findings

The own-price elasticity of demand for sparkling and non-sparkling bottled water is −0.664 and −0.229, respectively. Coffee, fruit drinks, whole milk and tea are substitutes for non-sparking bottled water. Non-sparking bottled water, coffee, fruit drinks and whole milk are substitutes for sparking bottled water. Household income, race, region and presence of children significantly affect the demand for bottled water. A 10 percent increase in price due to a tax on bottled water decreased plastic use by 50 grams per household per year. This is equivalent to saving 9.5m pounds of plastic annually.

Research limitations/implications

Data used in this analysis only captured at-home consumption of bottled water by US households. While tax on bottled water may reduce the consumption of bottled water, it may increase the consumption of competitive beverages such as carbonated soft drinks or fruit drinks. Although the use of plastic with regards to water bottles may go down as a result of the tax, the plastic consumption could go up with regards to consumers’ increased purchase of other beverages. This might contribute net increase plastic bottle consumption, undermining the effects of a bottled water tax.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to look at demand and tax aspects with regards to disaggregated bottled water products.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Xianping Wei and Wen Jie Zheng

This paper aims to expand the application area of Inconel 718 alloy in marine environment, the sensitivity of pitting corrosion should be analyzed and discussed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expand the application area of Inconel 718 alloy in marine environment, the sensitivity of pitting corrosion should be analyzed and discussed, especially the effect of block carbides.

Design/methodology/approach

Effect of carbides on the sensitivity of pitting corrosion for Inconel 718 alloy was carried out at 30°C in 3.5% NaCl solution using dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarization techniques. In addition, the initiation of pitting corrosion was investigated by immersion test in 0.05 M HCl + 6% FeCl3 solution.

Findings

As a result, the precipitation of carbides, as the initiation of pitting corrosion, increased pitting corrosion susceptibility, especially the block carbides could lead to deep-spalling. Within that process, temperature and potential acted as the main controlling factors, and the effect of the latter was more distinct.

Originality/value

The initiation of pitting corrosion was revealed by the immersion test. The mechanism of pitting corrosion was analyzed and discussed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Oleg E. Afanasiev and Alexandra V. Afanasieva

This article discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the demand and preferences of tourists in Russia. Tourists are the important part of the tourism industry, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the demand and preferences of tourists in Russia. Tourists are the important part of the tourism industry, the most affected by COVID-19, because they are not only limited in moving and free choice of vacation destinations but also experience the economic consequences of the pandemic. However, the industry has already adapted to the current realities of the pandemic period, and tourists largely accept closed borders, mandatory vaccination requirements and PCR tests as an integral part of a modern tourist trip.

Design/Methodology/Approach

In Russia, the tourism industry has received a significant development boost despite the expected crisis consequences. The efforts of the authorities to stimulate domestic tourism and the lack of alternatives for vacations contributed to the fact that in 2020–2021 the domestic tourist flow increased by several times.

Findings

Article is aimed at studying the changes in tourist motivation and preferences of Russian tourists made by ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, will Russians still want to travel across their country after the pandemic is over? And what is currently influencing their choice of vacation forms and destinations? The survey revealed changes in the tourists' choice of vacation destinations, preferences in forms of activity and duration of travel, decrease of interest in package tours and rise of individual trips as well as the stable degree of satisfaction with vacations in Russia.

Originality-Value

To answer this question, we examined the results of public opinion survey, carried out by All-Russian Centre for the Public Opinion Study and Association of Russian Tour operators. To confirm these results, we conducted own tourist opinion survey and analysed reviews on popular travel platforms in Russia. Today the tourism industry is in uncertainty and it is impossible to predict its development and tourist motivation in long-term perspective. This makes the study promising for continuation in the long term.

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2023

Wangoo Lee, Jan Dul and Zsofia Toth

Necessary conditions represent the factors that cannot be compensated but must be present to aim the desired outcome; if a necessary condition is absent, the outcome will…

Abstract

Necessary conditions represent the factors that cannot be compensated but must be present to aim the desired outcome; if a necessary condition is absent, the outcome will not exist. This logic of necessity causality differs from the conventional logic that has been evaluated by the methods drawing the lines “through the middle of the data” (e.g., regression and SEM). The authors argue that the empirical investigation of necessity causality has been largely ignored in hospitality and tourism literature although the notion of necessary causes for achieving certain outcomes is widespread throughout the studies. Thus, the authors introduce “necessary condition analysis” (NCA) as a suitable analytical method to identify necessary conditions in hospitality and tourism research. This chapter provides details on the underlying logic, key advantages, and an illustrative example of NCA. The chapter concludes by offering a few recommendations for future NCA applications in hospitality and tourism research.

Details

Cutting Edge Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-064-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2023

Fangli Hu, Jun Wen, Danni Zheng and Wei Wang

This paper aims to introduce an under-researched concept, travel medicine, to the hospitality field and proposes future research directions. This paper also highlights the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce an under-researched concept, travel medicine, to the hospitality field and proposes future research directions. This paper also highlights the need to acknowledge the missing link between hospitality and medical science and encourages research on the health of hotel guests, especially those with mental disorders.

Design/methodology/approach

By synthesizing relevant literature, this study proposes a conceptual framework focused on identifying and filling knowledge gaps between hospitality and medical science. Pathways for empirical research on hotel guests’ travel health are suggested accordingly.

Findings

This paper reveals that the topic of travel medicine has been neglected in hospitality, especially in relation to vulnerable hotel guests. Additionally, this study suggests that researchers should move beyond the confines of social science and conduct interdisciplinary hospitality studies. In-depth analyses of hotel guests’ health and safety are also recommended.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual piece serves as a “provocation” that is exploratory, thus laying a foundation for future interdisciplinary studies bridging hospitality and medical science. This paper offers practical significance for hospitality stakeholders (i.e. academics, practitioners, hotel guests and society) and also provides guidelines on how to create vulnerability-friendly hospitality environments.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study takes an important step toward interdisciplinary research between hospitality and medical science through the lens of travel medicine. This paper offers insight to bridge these disciplines and extend hospitality research into medical science. This paper further identifies an under-investigated topic and feasible research avenues that can offer timely solutions for hospitality academics and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2022

Alei Fan, Sheryl F. Kline, Yiran Liu and Karen Byrd

Drawing on protection motivation theory (PMT) and expectancy theory, this study aims to investigate consumers’ lodging consumption intentions during a pandemic crisis.

1143

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on protection motivation theory (PMT) and expectancy theory, this study aims to investigate consumers’ lodging consumption intentions during a pandemic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The research survey was conducted during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (August, 2020) in the USA to investigate consumers’ lodging intentions amidst the pandemic crisis. PLS-SEM and multiple regression were conducted to explore answers to proposed research questions.

Findings

The research finds that, during the pandemic crisis, consumers’ lodging consumption intentions are subject to both their internal protection motivation evaluations and the external prevention practices implemented by the lodging facilities regardless of property types and travel purposes. Notably, the research finds that consumers are willing to make efforts and pay extra for a safe stay at lodging facilities.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the literature regarding the applications of PMT and expectancy theory from a crisis management perspective, and it provides implications and guidelines to the crisis management practices in the lodging industry.

Originality/value

The current research examines the specific protection motivation appraisal factors and prevention practices significantly impacting consumers’ decisions in terms of willingness to stay at various lodging facilities (hotels and non-hotel homestay/short-term rental properties) for different purposes (business and leisure) and to pay premiums for a safe stay.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Kai‐Wen Zheng, Chih‐Hung Tsai, Rong‐Kwei Li, Ching‐Piao Chen and Shih‐Chieh Tsai

As the flourish of today’s supply chain, the traditional model of replenishment will cause accumulation of excessive inventory to the retailers and customers, or cause…

Abstract

As the flourish of today’s supply chain, the traditional model of replenishment will cause accumulation of excessive inventory to the retailers and customers, or cause shortages and inability to meet the demands. To solve this problem, Theory of Constraints (TOC) proposed the replenishment model of demand‐pull, combined with the establishment of factory‐warehouse to achieve performance improvement. In the absence of empirical research, this study applied the Bean Game developed by Dr. Goldratt to design a supply chain system for different scenarios, in order to allow players and managers better understanding and supporting the TOC replenishment method through the operations of the game.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2023

Pedro Vaz Serra and Cláudia Seabra

Tourism, as a system, develops strategies for risk prevention and mitigation. The shock generated by the COVID-19 pandemic is different when compared with previous events…

Abstract

Tourism, as a system, develops strategies for risk prevention and mitigation. The shock generated by the COVID-19 pandemic is different when compared with previous events because it is more intense and prone to structural changes. Tourists' perceptions condition their behaviour and decisions, with adverse results on travel and tourism consumption; and hygiene and health risks generate a cause-effect relationship on destination specificities.

From globalisation to risk perception and crisis management, in a framework where technology, communication and digital content represent undeniable importance, we are facing circumstances especially conducive to the redesign of the collective future, where the sustainability of tourism is a collective goal, arising from the right balance between the competitiveness of destinations and climate action.

Given the prospects for the next decade, health and hygiene are structural factors to be considered in decision-making processes. Thus, so the proposed approach contributes to the awareness, by the various stakeholders, of its importance and the need to implement methods and processes compatible with more inclusive and responsible tourism.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Abstract

Details

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

Norman Peng and Chris Hackley

This study sets out to make in‐depth comparisons between major political campaigns in the UK and Taiwan, and generate contemporary insights into the creative development…

2187

Abstract

Purpose

This study sets out to make in‐depth comparisons between major political campaigns in the UK and Taiwan, and generate contemporary insights into the creative development process, the working relationships between campaign managers and professional agencies, and the “spin doctor” phenomenon, all through the eyes of very senior professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Material gathered in “élite interviews” was subjected to interpretive analysis and synthesised with secondary data and the findings of an extensive literature review.

Findings

The putative Americanization of political marketing has not been as complete as some authors suggest, but one of its features was an important element in campaign development in both countries: the centrality of the party leader's persona in an image‐building strategy. The culture and history of the party were an important determinant of the style of the campaigns examined. It was generally agreed that political marketing and advertising have been strongly influenced by commercial branding, though important differences remain.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the richness of the data and the authority of the respondents, the small number of willing participants in the study limits the scope for generalisation.

Practical implications

The findings offer usable insights into the creative development process and the nature of client‐agency relationships, in political campaign planning.

Originality/value

The paper contributes the first expert‐insider perspective in published studies and commentaries concerning political marketing literature. It cuts across disciplines of political science, communication, management, marketing and advertising, and may contain lessons for marketing planners in other non‐commercial contexts.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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