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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Gangxiang Xu, Bin Guo, Wen Li and Xiaoting Wang

The purpose of this paper is to use the theoretical perspective of structural inertia as a unique lens to study foreign sequential entry mode choices of multinational firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the theoretical perspective of structural inertia as a unique lens to study foreign sequential entry mode choices of multinational firms.

Design/methodology/approach

It adopts quantitative analysis of a sample of 121 Chinese publicly listed firms with 564 foreign entry incidents in the 2001-2012 period to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical results show that multinational firms have a tendency to adopt the same mode in the subsequent entry as the number of prior entry mode choice of a given type (joint venture (JV) in this study) increases. The results support the theoretical prediction that organizations repeat their past activities due to structural inertia. Moreover, such an inertia effect in foreign sequential entry mode choices becomes stronger for older multinational firms, larger multinational firms and state-owned multinational firms.

Research limitations/implications

Consistent with existing research, this study focuses on the entry mode choice between JV and wholly owned subsidiaries. However, it is better to examine the relationship identified in the study for different types of entry mode choices to assess result generalizability.

Practical implications

It reminds managers of multinational firms that they should be cautious to the influence of structural inertia that can be a barrier to strategic flexibility when they make entry mode choices.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study resides in introducing structural inertia perspective to help understand the determinants of foreign sequential entry mode choices of multinational firms.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Che-Jung Chang, Chien-Chih Chen, Wen-Li Dai and Guiping Li

The purpose of this paper is to develop a small data set forecasting method to improve the effectiveness when making managerial decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a small data set forecasting method to improve the effectiveness when making managerial decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

In the grey modeling process, appropriate background values are one of the key factors in determining forecasting accuracy. In this paper, grey compensation terms are developed to make more appropriate background values to further improve the forecasting accuracy of grey models.

Findings

In the experiment, three real cases were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of grey predictions. The results further indicate that background values determined by the proposed compensation terms can improve the accuracy of grey model in the three cases.

Originality/value

Previous studies determine appropriate background values within the limitation of traditional grey modeling process, while this study makes new background values without the limitation. The experimental results would encourage researchers to develop more accuracy grey models without the limitation when determining background values.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Wen Li, Bin Guo and Gangxiang Xu

Based on the linkage-leverage-learning (LLL) framework developed by Mathews (2006), the purpose of this paper is to examine how linking, leveraging and learning…

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Abstract

Purpose

Based on the linkage-leverage-learning (LLL) framework developed by Mathews (2006), the purpose of this paper is to examine how linking, leveraging and learning capabilities influence the choice of foreign-entry mode, and the way such influences are contingent on context factors in the emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Contrary to a prior literature applying the LLL framework, which mainly used case studies, this paper adopts a quantitative approach and is based on a sample of 321 Chinese listed companies to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that multinational firms from emerging markets (EMFs) with stronger LLL capabilities are more likely to choose the wholly owned mode in foreign entries. In addition, the relationship between linking capability and wholly owned entry mode choice is weaker at higher levels of cultural distance between home and host country. At the same time, the relationship between learning capability and wholly owned entry mode choice is weaker at higher levels of cultural distance between home and host country, and of institutional distance between prior entries and the focal entry.

Research limitations/implications

An entry mode strategy for firms without ownership advantages and the identification of boundary conditions for applying different LLL capabilities are recommended. The generalizability of the findings from a single-country setting still needs further validation with other emerging economies.

Originality/value

This paper treats internationalization of firms from emerging countries with a different perspective. The underlying idea in this study is that internationalization is not only a process for EMFs to utilize externally accessible assets abroad, but also a process of simultaneously combining internationalization with experiential learning and capability utilization in overseas markets. In addition, the authors also contribute to the literature by providing strong empirical evidence for validating the LLL model and extending the existing entry mode studies.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Shu-sien Liao, Da-chian Hu, Yu-Chun Chung and Li-Wen Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX), job satisfaction (JS), life satisfaction (LS), and psychological capital…

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2531

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX), job satisfaction (JS), life satisfaction (LS), and psychological capital (PC) for employee relation management.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 319 valid questionnaires were received from employees of financial and electronics manufacturing industries in Taiwan, and they were then analyzed using a structuring equation model with SPSS 12.0 and LISREL 8.8.

Findings

Good LMX increases psychological capital. Psychological capital enhances both JS and LS, and psychological capital serves as a full mediator for both JS and LS. A moderating effect of industrial characteristics is found between LMX and LS and between psychological capital and LS.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that managers need to focus on leadership style in order to develop employees’ life and JS through building psychological capital.

Originality/value

This study not only obtained further support for predictions derived from the LMX theory but was also a more extensive analysis of the meaningful relationships between job and LS with a mediating effect of psychological capital on employee relation management.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Ding-jian Huang, Li-gang Yao, Wen-jian Li and Jun Zhang

The purpose of this research is to achieve a novel magnetic nutation drive for an industry robotic wrist reducer.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to achieve a novel magnetic nutation drive for an industry robotic wrist reducer.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel magnetic nutation drive is proposed, and the structure and principle of the designed magnetic nutation drive are described in this study. Three-dimensional finite element analysis is used to compute the magnetic and torque of the magnetic nutation drive. Furthermore, a prototype of this novel magnetic nutation drive device is developed with 3D printing technology and tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed structure and principle.

Findings

The simulation and experimental results indicated that the proposed magnetic nutation drive device could meet the desired specifications, and that this novel magnetic nutation drive device successfully realized the non-contact transmission ratio of 105:1 required for a robotic wrist reducer.

Practical implications

This novel magnetic nutation drive is low-cost and easy to make and use, and which provides the non-contact transmission ratio of 105:1 required for a robotic wrist reducer.

Originality/value

For the first time, this research applies the permanent magnet drive technology to nutation drive and puts forward a new non-contact nutation drive mode. The novel drive mode can solve some problems of the traditional mechanical contact nutation drive, such as vibration, friction loss, mechanical fatigue and necessity of lubrication. The proposed non-contact nutation drive device can achieve a high reduction ratio with compact structure and can be suitable for industry application.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Wen Li Chan and Michael James Mustafa

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of studies published in the Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies (JEEE) between 2014 and 2019. The review…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of studies published in the Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies (JEEE) between 2014 and 2019. The review also provides suggestions for future research in JEEE.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrative literature of 90 empirical and conceptual articles published in JEEE between 2014 and 2019. The selected articles were analyzed using content analysis.

Findings

Analysis of the 90 published articles shows that JEEE has covered a number of relevant topics related to entrepreneurship and innovation in emerging economies. In particular, scholars have adopted a variety of methods to describe such activities in emerging economies. The review also highlights the lack of comparative studies in JEEE and studies, which significantly take into account or focus on the emerging economy context.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that future scholars wishing to submit to JEEE should consider taking a more detailed account of the emerging context.

Originality/value

Since its first publication in 2014, this study represents the first review of articles found in JEEE. Specifically, the study provides a platform for future scholars wishing to submit to JEEE to take stock of the studies in the journal, thus giving them a better understanding of the field. The study also provides directions regarding areas of possible future research, which might be of interest to scholars wishing to submit to JEEE.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Wen Li, Zhongbin Bao, Lijun Chen and Dongshun Deng

At present, the conventional method of preparing cationic fluorinated acrylic latex is to emulsify copolymerised monomers with cationic surfactants. However, there has…

Abstract

Purpose

At present, the conventional method of preparing cationic fluorinated acrylic latex is to emulsify copolymerised monomers with cationic surfactants. However, there has been a wide concern about using Gemini surfactants to prepare cationic polymer latex to improve its properties. The purpose of this paper was to focus on the synthesis of novel self-crosslinked cationic fluorinated acrylic latex (SCFAL), during which the copolymerised monomers were initiated with a water soluble azo initiator and emulsified with mixed surfactants of Gemini emulsifier and alkyl polyglycoside (APG).

Design/methodology/approach

The novel SCFAL was prepared successfully by the semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerisation of butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) and hydroxy propyl methacrylate (HPMA) in aqueous medium.

Findings

The conversion is the maximum and the coagulation percentage the minimum when the amounts of emulsifier and initiator are 8 and 0.6 per cent, respectively. The average particle size of the latex is significantly reduced with the increase of the amount of emulsifiers used. However, the average particle size of the latex is increased with the increase of the amount of HPMA. The particle size of the latex is of a unimodal distribution, which means that the particle size was reasonably uniform. Contact angle is increased with the increase of the amount of the HFMA.

Practical implications

The novel SCFAL can be widely used as significant components in the field of coatings, leather, textile, paper, adhesives and so on.

Originality/value

SCFAL, which was emulsified with novel mixed surfactants of Gemini surfactant and APG, has been prepared successfully. Influences of amount of initiator, emulsifier, HPMA and HFMA on emulsion polymerisation and/or properties of novel latex are investigated in detail.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Jing-Kui Zhang, Miao Cui, Ben-Wen Li and Ya-Song Sun

The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined method for three-dimensional incompressible flow and heat transfer by the spectral collocation method (SCM) and the…

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116

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined method for three-dimensional incompressible flow and heat transfer by the spectral collocation method (SCM) and the artificial compressibility method (ACM), and further to study the performance of the combined method SCM-ACM for three-dimensional incompressible flow and heat transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

The partial differentials in space are discretized by the SCM with Chebyshev polynomial and Chebyshev–Gauss–Lobbatto collocation points. The unsteady artificial compressibility equations are solved to obtain the steady results by the ACM. Three-dimensional exact solutions with trigonometric function form and exponential function form are constructed to test the accuracy of the combined method.

Findings

The SCM-ACM is developed successfully for three-dimensional incompressible flow and heat transfer with high accuracy that the minimum value of variance can reach. The accuracy increases exponentially along with time marching steps. The accuracy is also improved exponentially with the increasing of nodes before stable accuracy is achieved, while it keeps stably with the increasing of the time step. The central processing unit time increases exponentially with the increasing of nodes and decreasing of the time step.

Research limitations/implications

It is difficult for the implementation of the implicit scheme by the developed SCM-ACM. The SCM-ACM can be used for solving unsteady impressible fluid flow and heat transfer.

Practical implications

The SCM-ACM is applied for two classic cases of lid-driven cavity flow and natural convection in cubic cavities. The present results show good agreement with the published results with much fewer nodes.

Originality/value

The combined method SCM-ACM is developed, firstly, for solving three-dimensional incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer by the SCM and ACM. The performance of SCM-ACM is investigated. This combined method provides a new choice for solving three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer with high accuracy.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Jin Tang, Weijiang Li, Jiayi Fang, Zhonghao Zhang, Shiqiang Du, Yanjuan Wu and Jiahong Wen

Quantitative and spatial-explicit flood risk information is of great importance for strengthening climate change adaptation and flood resilience. Shanghai is a coastal…

Abstract

Purpose

Quantitative and spatial-explicit flood risk information is of great importance for strengthening climate change adaptation and flood resilience. Shanghai is a coastal megacity at large estuary delta with rising flood risks. This study aims to quantify the overall economic-societal risks of storm flooding and their spatial patterns in Shanghai.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multiple storm flood scenarios at different return periods, as well as fine-scale data sets including gridded GDP, gridded population and vector land-use, a probabilistic risk model incorporating geographic information system is used to assess the economic-societal risks of flooding and their spatial distributions.

Findings

Our results show that, from 1/200 to 1/5,000-year floods, the exposed assets will increase from USD 85.4bn to USD 657.6bn, and the direct economic losses will increase from USD 3.06bn to USD 52bn. The expected annual damage (EAD) of assets is around USD 84.36m. Hotpots of EAD are mainly distributed in the city center, the depressions along the upper Huangpu River in the southwest, the north coast of Hangzhou Bay, and the confluence of the Huangpu River and Yangtze River in the northeast. From 1/200 to 1/5,000-year floods, the exposed population will rise from 280 thousand to 2,420 thousand, and the estimated casualties will rise from 299 to 1,045. The expected annual casualties (EAC) are around 2.28. Hotspots of casualties are generally consistent with those of EAD.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies that focus on a single flood scenario or a particular type of flood exposure/risk in Shanghai, the findings contribute to an understanding of overall flood risks and their spatial patterns, which have significant implications for cost-benefit analysis of flood resilience strategies.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Guilherme Tortorella, Guillermo Moliner Farjas and Wen Li

The main objective of the research is to propose a method to assess the reliability of hospitals' internal logistics distribution.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the research is to propose a method to assess the reliability of hospitals' internal logistics distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured methodology was defined in five stages: (1) data collection and current state mapping; (2) future state design; (3) identification of the uncertainties and sources of variation; (4) reliability analysis of the proposed future state and (5) identification and prioritization of improvements.

Findings

Results show shortcomings of the future state design and propose solutions to obtain a state that is more realistic and possible to perform. Subsequently, the feasibility of these improvements was analysed in order to be implemented in a real context, searching and identifying different uncertainty sources occurring inside the system.

Originality/value

Studies that have addressed hospital's internal logistics are scarce. Such gap highlights the need for this research developments that address the reliability enhancement in hospitals internal logistics.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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