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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Ming Xiao, Walid Madhat Munief, Fengshun Wu, Rainer Lilischkis, Tobias Oberbillig, Monika Saumer and Weisheng Xia

The purpose of this paper is to fabricate a new Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu interconnection microstructure for electromigration studies in 3D integration.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fabricate a new Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu interconnection microstructure for electromigration studies in 3D integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu interconnection microstructure is fabricated by a three-mask photolithography process with different electroplating processes. This microstructure consists of pads and conductive lines as the bottom layer, Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu pillars with the diameter of 10-40 μm as the middle layer and Cu conductive lines as the top layer. A lift-off process is adopted for the bottom layer. The Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu pillars are fabricated by photolithography with sequential electroplating processes. To fabricate the top layer, a sputtered Cu layer is introduced to prevent the middle-layer photoresist from being developed. With the final Cu electroplating processes, the Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu interconnection microstructure is successfully achieved.

Findings

The surface morphology of Cu-Sn pillars consists of densely packed clusters which are formed by an ordered arrangement of tetragonal Sn grains. The diffusion of Cu atoms into the Sn phases is observed at the Cu/Sn interface. Furthermore, the obtained Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu pillars have a flat surface with an average roughness of 13.9 nm. In addition, the introduction of Ni layer between the Sn and the top Cu layers in the Cu-Sn-Ni-Cu pillars can mitigate the diffusion of Cu atoms into Sn phases. The process is verified by checking the electrical performance using four-point probe measurements.

Originality/value

The method described in this paper which combined a three-mask photolithography process with sequential Cu, Sn, Ni and Cu electroplating processes provides a new way to fabricate the interconnection microstructure for future electromigration studies.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Man He, Bo Wang, Weisheng Xia, Shijie Chen and Jinzhuan Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to study the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of smaller microbumps for high density solder interconnects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of smaller microbumps for high density solder interconnects.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction tests to determine the Sn grain number of the resultant microbumps. The nanomechanical properties of Sn microbumps were investigated by the nanoindentation and shearing tests to understand the failure mechanism and assess the reliability of ultra-high density solder interconnects with numbered grains.

Findings

Only one Sn grain is observed in the interconnect matrix when the microbumps are miniaturized to 40 μm or less. Because of the body-centred tetragonal lattice of ß-Sn unit cell, the mechanical properties of the one-grain Sn microbumps are remarkably anisotropic, which are proved by the difference of the elastic modulus and the stiffness in the different orientations. The shearing tests show that the one-grain Sn microbump has a typical brittle sliding fracture of monocrystal at different shearing speeds.

Practical implications

The paper provides a comparable study for the performance of the bigger solder joints and also makes preliminary research on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Sn microbumps with the diameter of 40 μm.

Originality/value

The findings in this paper provide methods of microstructure study by combination of EBSD test and metallographic analysis, mechanical study by combination of nanoindentation test and shearing test, which can provide good guidelines for other smaller microbumps. The strain rate sensitivity exponent of the one-grain Sn microbumps is consistent with the Pb-free bulk solder. This implies that the one-grain Sn microbump has a comparable flow stress to Sn37Pb solder, which is beneficial for Pb-free replacement in higher density microelectronic packaging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Bo Wang, Fengshun Wu, Yiping Wu, Liping Mo and Weisheng Xia

This paper aims to investigate the microstructural evolution rules of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in high‐density solder interconnects with reduced stand‐off…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the microstructural evolution rules of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in high‐density solder interconnects with reduced stand‐off heights (SOH).

Design/methodology/approach

Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints with 100, 50, 20 and 10 μm SOH were prepared by the same reflow process and isothermally aged at 150°C. The IMC microstructural evolution was observed using scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The whole IMC layer (Cu3Sn + Cu6Sn5) grew faster in the solder joints with lower SOH because of the thinner IMC layer before aging. Also, the IMC proportion increased more rapidly in solder joints with the lower SOH. In all solder joints with different SOH, the growth rates of the Cu3Sn (ϵ) layers were similar, and slowed down with increasing aging time. The Cu6Sn5 (η) was consumed by the Cu3Sn (ϵ) growth at the beginning of the aging stage; while it turned to thickening after a period of aging. Finally, the Cu6Sn5 thickness was similar in all the solder joints. It is inferred that the thickness ratio of Cu3Sn to Cu6Sn5 would maintain a dynamic balance in the subsequent aging. Based on the diffusion flux ratio of Cu to Sn at the ϵ/η interface, a model has been established to explain the microstructural evolution of IMC layers in high‐density solder interconnects with reduced SOH. In the model, interfacial reactions are mainly supposed to occur at the ϵ/η interface.

Originality/value

The findings provide electronic packaging reliability engineers with an insight into IMC microstructural evolution in high‐density solder interconnects with reduced SOH.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Weisheng Xia, Ming Xiao, Yihao Chen, Fengshun Wu, Zhe Liu and Hongzhi Fu

– The purpose of this paper is to study the thermal warpage of a plastic ball grid array (PBGA) mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) during the reflow process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the thermal warpage of a plastic ball grid array (PBGA) mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) during the reflow process.

Design/methodology/approach

A thermal-mechanical coupling method that used finite-element method software (ANSYS 13.1) was performed. Meanwhile, a shadow moiré apparatus (TherMoiré PS200) combined with a heating platform was used for the experimental measurement of the warpage of PBGA according to the JEDEC Standard.

Findings

The authors found that the temperature profiles taken from the simulated results and experimental measurement are consistent with each other, only with a little and acceptable difference in the maximum temperatures. Furthermore, the maximum warpage measurements during the reflow process are 0.157 mm and 0.149 mm for simulation and experimental measurements, respectively, with a small 5.37 per cent difference. The experimental measurement and simulated results are well correlated. Based on the validated finite element model, two factors, namely, the thickness and dimension of PCB, are explored about their effect on the thermal warpage of PBGA mounted on PCB during the reflow process.

Practical implications

The paper provides a thorough parametrical study of the thermal warpage of PBGA mounted on PCB during the reflow process.

Originality/value

The findings in this paper illustrate methods of warpage study by combination of thermal-mechanical finite element simulation and experimental measurement, which can provide good guidelines of the PCB design in the perspective of thermal warpage during the reflow process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Yongtao Tan, Liyin Shen, Craig Langston, Weisheng Lu and Michael C.H. Yam

Thie purpose of this paper is to present the critical success factors (CSFs) for engaging in the building maintenance business in Hong Kong where maintenance is a major…

2144

Abstract

Purpose

Thie purpose of this paper is to present the critical success factors (CSFs) for engaging in the building maintenance business in Hong Kong where maintenance is a major market sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, CSFs are identified for the business of building maintenance based on data collected from a questionnaire survey and interviews.

Findings

A total of 12 CSFs are identified, such as client's satisfaction, certification of company, reliability of service, quality of service, and company reputation, and most are related to two principal factors, namely maintenance service and organization, and project management.

Originality/value

This paper provides a review of building maintenance in Hong Kong and identifies a list of success factors for the business of building maintenance. The identified CSFs and principal factors provide useful reference for maintenance contractors to have a clear understanding of the expectations of the building maintenance market in Hong Kong.

Details

Facilities, vol. 32 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Dai Q. Tran, Long Duy Nguyen and Allen Faught

Design-Build (D-B) is a project delivery method in which the owner procures both design and construction services in the same contract from a single legal entity. There is…

1860

Abstract

Purpose

Design-Build (D-B) is a project delivery method in which the owner procures both design and construction services in the same contract from a single legal entity. There is limited research on how communication among parties influences the success of D-B projects. The purpose of this paper is to examine D-B communication issues and provides effective practices on communication to improve D-B procurement processes in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology for this study includes a comprehensive review of literature, survey questionnaire, and structured interviews. A questionnaire was developed to collect data from professionals with an average of 23 years of experience related to D-B procurement. Eight structured interviews were conducted to verify and validate the survey questionnaire results.

Findings

The results showed that the communication issues vary along with each phase of the D-B process. The primary communication practices influencing the success of D-B projects are: establishing clear points of contact; providing clear and understandable information among stakeholders during the D-B process; and the timely sharing of information to all stakeholders.

Research limitations/implications

The chief limitation of this research is that the primary data were mostly opinions from experts although several empirical data were collected for cross-validation. This research did not consider the relationship of relevant contract clauses and communication issues.

Practical implications

The findings from this paper will help professionals better understand the D-B procurement process.

Originality/value

This is one of the first attempts to discuss D-B communication issues in each different phase of a D-B project.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Hui Guo and Weisheng Lu

Defining and measuring competitiveness has been a major focus in the business and competition literature over the past decades. The paper aims to use data-driven principal…

Abstract

Purpose

Defining and measuring competitiveness has been a major focus in the business and competition literature over the past decades. The paper aims to use data-driven principal component analysis (PCA) to measure firm competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A “3Ps” (performance, potential, and process) firm competitiveness indicator system is structured for indicator selection. Data-driven PCA is proposed to measure competitiveness by reducing the dimensionality of indicators and assigning weights according to the endogenous structure of a dataset. To illustrate and validate the method, a case study applying to Chinese international construction companies (CICCs) was conducted.

Findings

In the case study, 4 principal components were derived from 11 indicators through PCA. The principal components were labeled as “performance” and “capability” under the two respective super-components of “profitability” and “solvency” of a company. Weights of 11 indicators were then generated and competitiveness of CICCs was finally calculated by composite indexes.

Research limitations/implications

This study offers a systematic indicator framework for firm competitiveness. The study also provides an alternative approach to better solve the problem of firm competitiveness measurement that has long plagued researchers.

Originality/value

The data-driven PCA approach alleviates the difficulties of dimensionality and subjectivity in measuring firm competitiveness and offers an alternative choice for companies and researchers to evaluate business success in future studies.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Jalal Javadi Moghaddam, Davood Momeni and Ghasem Zarei

This research presents a design method for designing greenhouse structures based on topology optimization. Moreover, the structural design of a gothic greenhouse is…

Abstract

Purpose

This research presents a design method for designing greenhouse structures based on topology optimization. Moreover, the structural design of a gothic greenhouse is proposed in which its structural strength has been improved by using this proposed method. In this method, the design of the structure is done mathematically; therefore, in the design process, more attention can be focused on the constraint space and boundary conditions. It was also shown how the static reliability and fatigue coefficients will change as a result of the design of the greenhouse structure with this method. Another purpose of this study is to find the weakest part of the greenhouse structure against lateral winds and other general loads on the greenhouse structure.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed method, the outer surface and the allowable volume as a constraint domain were considered. The desired loads can be located on the constraint domain. The topology optimization was used to minimize the mass and structural compliance as the objective function. The obtained volume was modified for simplifying the construction. The changes in the shape of the greenhouse structure were investigated by choosing three different penalty numbers for the topology optimization algorithm. The final design of the proposed structure was performed based on the total simultaneous critical loads on the structure. The results of the proposed method were compared in the order of different volume fractions. This showed that the volume fraction approach can significantly reduce the weight of the structure while maintaining its strength and stability.

Findings

Topology optimization results showed different strut and chords composition because of the changes in maximum mass limit and volume fraction. The results showed that the fatigue was more hazardous, and it decreased the strength of structure nearly three times more than a static analysis. Further, it was noticed that how the penalty numbers can affect topology optimization results. An optimal design based on topology optimization results was presented to improve the proposed greenhouse design against destruction and demolition. Furthermore, this study shows the most sensitive part of the greenhouse against the standard loads of wind, snow, and crop.

Originality/value

The obtained designs were compared with a conventional arch greenhouse, and then the structural performances were shown based on standard loads. The results showed that in designing the proposed structure, the optimized changes increased the structure strength against the standard loads compared to a simple arch greenhouse. Moreover, the stress safety factor and fatigue safety factor because of different designs of this structure were also compared with each other.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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