Previous research provides evidence of a negative effect of body mass on women's economic outcomes. We extend this research by using a much older sample of individuals…
Previous research provides evidence of a negative effect of body mass on women's economic outcomes. We extend this research by using a much older sample of individuals from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and by using a body mass measure that is lagged by 15 years instead of the traditional 7 years. One of the main contributions of this paper is a replication of previous research findings given our differing samples and measures. We compare OLS estimates with sibling fixed effects estimates and find that obesity is associated with an 18% reduction in women's wages, a 25% reduction in women's family income, and a 16% reduction in women's probability of marriage. These effects are robust – they persist much longer than previously understood and they persist across the life course, affecting older women as well as younger women.
THE importance of control surface mass balancing does not need to be emphasized, and it is well known that the faster aeroplanes fly, the greater is the care and attention…
THE importance of control surface mass balancing does not need to be emphasized, and it is well known that the faster aeroplanes fly, the greater is the care and attention which the designer must give to this question.
Describes a novel system that simultaneously measures both force and acceleration, and hence deduces mass. The system has been in use on ships and at fish‐sorting plants in Japan for about 8 years. However, applications are far wider than the fishing industry and the system can be used for “weighing” moving objects. Strictly speaking, the systems deduce mass rather than weight, but for simplicity we talk about “weighing” when we really mean mass determination in order to determine weight due to gravity under static conditions.
The structure‐borne sound generated by power equipment can be isolated effectively through vibration absorber under hull base structures. The practical vibration isolation…
The structure‐borne sound generated by power equipment can be isolated effectively through vibration absorber under hull base structures. The practical vibration isolation performance is limited due to the weight, size and cost. The dramatic attenuating wave propagation characteristic of hull base without adding weight is essential to the vessel acoustic stealth.
The characteristics of vibration wave propagated from typical shape base link structures have been investigated according to impedance mismatch and wave conversion in non‐homogeneous structure. The hull base is simplified to three degrees of freedom damped system through the mechanical impedance method. The influence of blocking mass weight, as well as location properties to the base vibration isolation performance have been discussed. Furthermore, the structure‐borne sound design of a typical hull base is carried out.
The impedance mismatch of the hull base is further increased by the comprehensive use of high transmission loss base link structures, blocking mass as well as damping layer. The effectiveness of structure‐borne sound design is verified through numerical calculation together with underwater model test. The test data show that the noise has been reduced larger than 3 dB.
The paper describes what is believed to be the first application of the high transmission loss base in hull structures based on the literature survey. The method of structure‐borne sound design of a typical hull base can be applied in different types of vessels.
The purpose of this study was to provide the first report of weight and dieting behaviour of college students in Cyprus. A cross‐sectional survey was administered to a…
The purpose of this study was to provide the first report of weight and dieting behaviour of college students in Cyprus. A cross‐sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 451 students studying at the largest private college in Cyprus. The survey was used to determine the prevalence of inappropriate dieting practices that included use of diet pills, fasting, induced vomiting and laxative use to get rid of food eaten. Body mass index and accuracy of self‐perceived weight were also determined. A high rate of underweight among females and a low rate of obesity for all students were found. Students reported unhealthy dieting behaviours including use of diet pills, fasting, induced vomiting and laxative use. The results show that there are serious weight issues for students in Cyprus and indicate that disordered dieting behaviours exist in the Mediterranean.
This paper evaluates the Nutrition Intervention Project (NIP) implemented statewide in the State of Virginia to determine the effectiveness of nutritional intervention in…
This paper evaluates the Nutrition Intervention Project (NIP) implemented statewide in the State of Virginia to determine the effectiveness of nutritional intervention in decreasing pre‐term births and low birth weight (LBW) babies to at‐risk pregnant women in urban and rural areas. Sample size was 1,284. Majority of the respondents were white, primiparae, between 20‐29 years of age, and underweight (BMI < 19.8). Twenty‐one per cent of the of the births were pre‐term, and 13.3 per cent were in the LBW category. Regression analysis indicated that number of visits to the nutritionist was positively associated with birth weight and gestational age of the baby. Nutrition intervention (NI) decreased the smoking behaviour and improved the intake of iron supplements, both of which improved the weight gain and pregnancy outcomes. Effects analysis indicated that the causal effect operated both via intervening variables as well as directly between nutritional intervention and pregnancy outcomes. The path from NI to birth outcomes via weight gain was the strongest. Respondents in urban areas had a higher risk of pre‐term births than rural areas.
An analytical rheological‐dynamical visco‐elastic solution of one‐dimensional longitudinal continuous vibration of bars has been developed and used to evaluate the…
An analytical rheological‐dynamical visco‐elastic solution of one‐dimensional longitudinal continuous vibration of bars has been developed and used to evaluate the validity of the classical analytical elastic solutions. As it is well known, the resonance occurs only in the continuous or singledegree‐of‐freedom ideal elastic system when the excitation frequency ωP is equal to the one of the natural frequency of the bar. However, owing to the visco‐elastic nature of materials and frequency dependence of the damping factor it is useful to consider separately the situations arising when the is positive (system is stable) and when it is negative. Negative damping factor means that the complementary solution of the response would not die away (system is unstable because of the factor e). Rheologic behavior of the bar can be characterized by one parameter, i.e. dynamic time of retardation TK D=1/ω, like in a single‐degree‐of‐freedom spring mass system. RDA model has the same phase angle as a simple single‐degree‐of‐freedom spring mass system with damping in the steady state vibration and from that the damping factor is obtained. This paper provides description of the dynamic magnification factor and the transmissibility of several metallic materials using RDA similitude and could be concluded that an ideally effective antivibration mount material should satisfy at least two requirements: first, it should posses a relatively large damping factor; and second, it should possess a damping factor that either remains constant or decreases only slowly with frequency.
THIS paper seeks to draw from current research work on flutter and related problems results of general design significance ; and, avoiding mathematics, endeavours to set…
THIS paper seeks to draw from current research work on flutter and related problems results of general design significance ; and, avoiding mathematics, endeavours to set these results out in relation to past and present problems.
Over‐the‐counter (OTC) weight management products are popular with the public. Manufacturers frequently claim beneficial effects of these products, however current…
Over‐the‐counter (OTC) weight management products are popular with the public. Manufacturers frequently claim beneficial effects of these products, however current legislation does not compel them to support these claims with research. This paper identifies the key ingredients of OTC weight management products and evaluates evidence for their safety and efficacy.
Using Medline, published evidence on key ingredients and formulations was gathered. Contact was also made with manufacturers to ascertain whether unpublished data were available. All studies were assessed for quality. The efficacy and safety of the ingredients and formulations were then reviewed.
The results showed little evidence for most weight loss claims, with the exception of a formulation containing Yerba maté, Guarana and Damiana. In addition, studies on pyruvate, conjugated linoleic acid, and Citrus aurantium demonstrated positive effects on weight loss, suggesting that they may be useful in future formulations. Safety implications were noted for ephedrine.
Better labelling and supporting literature should be introduced by reputable manufacturers and retailers to help the public assess the efficacy of weight loss aids.
Given the popularity of self‐treatment, there is a need for more manufacturers to submit their products to impartial clinical trials. OTC weight management products could be useful in addressing obesity, but most still need scientific evidence to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.
This review reviews the available evidence on ingredients of OTC weight management products, providing a unique guide to what works, and what doesn't.