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Article

Ming-Yue Xiong, Liang Zhang, Peng He and Wei-Min Long

The transistor circuit based on Moore's Law is approaching the performance limit. The three-dimensional integrated circuit (3-D IC) is an important way to implement More…

Abstract

Purpose

The transistor circuit based on Moore's Law is approaching the performance limit. The three-dimensional integrated circuit (3-D IC) is an important way to implement More than Moore. The main problems in the development of 3-D IC are Joule heating and stress. The stresses and strains generated in 3-D ICs will affect the performance of electronic products, leading to various reliability issues. The intermetallic compound (IMC) joint materials and structures are the main factors affecting 3-D IC stress. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the design of the 3-D IC.

Design/methodology/approach

To optimize the design of 3-D IC, the numerical model of 3-D IC was established. The Taguchi experiment was designed to simulate the influence of IMC joint material, solder joint array and package size on 3-D IC stress.

Findings

The simulation results show that the solder joint array and IMC joint materials have great influence on the equivalent stress. Compared with the original design, the von Mises stress of the optimal design was reduced by 69.96 per cent, the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was increased by 10.46 dB and the fatigue life of the Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu solder joint was increased from 415 to 533 cycles, indicating that the reliability of the 3-D IC has been significantly improved.

Originality/value

It is necessary to study the material properties of the bonded structure since 3-D IC is a new packaging structure. Currently, there is no relevant research on the optimization design of solder joint array in 3-D IC. Therefore, the IMC joint material, the solder joint array, the chip thickness and the substrate thickness are selected as the control factors to analyze the influence of various factors on the 3-D IC stress and design. The orthogonal experiment is used to optimize the structure of the 3-D IC.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article

Yir-Hueih Luh and Min-Fang Wei

The Old Farmer Pension Program (OFPP) represents Taiwan’s long-standing efforts aiming at improving farm household income and well-being; however, how effective the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Old Farmer Pension Program (OFPP) represents Taiwan’s long-standing efforts aiming at improving farm household income and well-being; however, how effective the pension program is in terms of achieving the policy agenda has remained unclear. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data drawn from the Survey of Family Income and Expenditure during 1999–2013, two identification strategies are used to examine the effect of OFPP. First the authors apply the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to address the concern if the program reaches the socially/economically disadvantaged farm households. The second identification strategy involves using the static and dynamic decomposition approaches to identify the major factors contributing to farm household income inequality and the redistribution role of the OFPP.

Findings

Results from the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition indicate that about 60 percent of the income gap can be eliminated if the pension recipients’ socio-economic characteristics are the same as the non-recipient group, suggesting it is the disadvantaged group that receives the old farmer pension. Moreover, the results suggest the significant contributions of household investments in health and human capital as well as diversification toward nonfarm activities, to income inequality among Taiwan’s farm households. Results from the dynamic decomposition suggest that the first-wave adjustment of the OFPP enlarges farm household income inequality, the following two waves of adjustment, however, plays an equalizing role.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by providing a methodological refinement promoting the view that it calls for the use of the dynamic (change) decomposition framework to investigate the inequality-enlarging or inequality-equalizing role each income determinant plays.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article

Qun‐Jie Xu, Zong‐Yue Wan, Guo‐Ding Zhou, Ren‐He Yin and Wei‐Min Cao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the self‐assembled monolayers (SAMs) of phytic acid on cupronickel B30 surface of anticorrosion and inhibiting mechanisms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the self‐assembled monolayers (SAMs) of phytic acid on cupronickel B30 surface of anticorrosion and inhibiting mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

Electrochemical and photocurrent response methods were performed to determine the effect of phytic acid SAMs on cupronickel B30.

Findings

The results indicated that phytic acid was liable to interact with B30 as a result of formation of complexes on B30 surface for anti‐rust and anti‐corrosion. The SAMs changed the structure of the electrochemical double layer and made the value of double layer capacitance decrease significantly. The B30 electrode showed p‐type photoresponse, which came from Cu2O layer on its surface. The photoresponse decreased greatly due to the SAMs of phytic acid as the corrosion resisting property was enhanced. This finding was in good agreement with the results obtained from EIS and polarization curves. Adsorption of phytic acid was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption mechanism was typical of chemisorption.

Originality/value

The SAMs of phytic acid on cupronickel B30 was gained for the first time. The photo‐electrochemical method was an in situ method, which was effective for characterizing optical and electronic properties of passive films.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 56 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Jalleh Sharafizad, Janice Redmond and Robyn Morris

There is strong and growing evidence of the importance of leadership and management factors influence on employee engagement and discretionary effort. However, the problem…

Abstract

Purpose

There is strong and growing evidence of the importance of leadership and management factors influence on employee engagement and discretionary effort. However, the problem is that there has been limited recent effort to review where research gaps exit and provide a direction to guide future research. The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated perspective on the influence of leadership and management factors on employee engagement and discretionary effort.

Design/methodology/approach

The review of the literature includes empirical research and case studies related to employee engagement and discretionary effort from various databases such as Business Premier, Cambridge University Press, JSTOR, Springer, Emerald, Wiley, ProQuest and ISI Web of Science. Supporting material was also accessed from reference books regarding similar concepts and theories.

Findings

The review provides a current view of the key topics, identifies three key research gaps, suggests a refined, up-to-date definition of both employee engagement and discretionary effort, and proposes a conceptual framework to inform future research. In doing so, it offers new directions for progressing studies on these critical workplace practices and behaviours particularly the inclusion of national culture as a moderating variable when investigating or implementing employee engagement and discretionary effort strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are based on existing literature and require empirical testing. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

Originality/value

Undertaking a review of the literature is an important part of any research and this review aims to organise, describe and appraise the current literature with a view to gaining a critical perspective for the benefit of researchers.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

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