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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Yu-Hsuan Lin

Purpose – Recent research on the gender culture and femininity of adolescent girls found that girls construct their gender identity in various ways that are intertwined…

Abstract

Purpose – Recent research on the gender culture and femininity of adolescent girls found that girls construct their gender identity in various ways that are intertwined with race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. However, these existing studies focused on either general schoolgirls (see Ali, S. (2003). To be a girl: Culture and class in schools. Gender and Education, 15(3), 269–283; Bettie (2003); Weiler, J. D. (2000). Codes and contradictions: Race, gender identity and schooling. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press; Renold, E. (2005). Girls, boys and junior sexualities: Exploring children's gender and sexual relations in the primary school. London: Routledge) or delinquent girls in a gang (see Miller, J. (1998). Gender and victimization risk among young women in gangs. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35, 429–453; Miller (2001); Joe-Laidler & Hunt (2001); Schalet, A., Hunt, G., & Joe-Laidler, K. (2003). Respectability and autonomy: The articulation and meaning of sexuality among the girls in the gang. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 32, 108–143; Messerschmidt (1995); Messerschmidt, J. W. (1997). Crime as structured action: Gender, race, class, and crime in the making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage), and only a few studies paid attention to girls who showed overt oppositional behaviors at school.

Methods – The research uses qualitative methods and explores the gender identity of two adolescent girls in a junior high school in Taiwan, who are regarded as problem or “bad” girls by the school faculty.

Results – The two girls both manifested “ladette” culture (Jackson, 2006). On the one hand, they showed masculine behaviors such as fighting, troublemaking, disobeying school regulations, and using drugs and alcohol. On the other hand, they deliberately emphasized their femininity and sexual maturity in the way they dressed, talked, and behaved.

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Yujie Chen, Zhifei Mao and Jack Linchuan Qiu

Abstract

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Super-Sticky Wechat and Chinese Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-091-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Akiva M. Liberman, Suzanne R. Best, Thomas J. Metzler, Jeffrey A. Fagan, Daniel S. Weiss and Charles R. Marmar

The relationship between routine work stress and psychological distress was investigated among 733 police officers in three US cities, during 1998‐1999. The Work…

Abstract

The relationship between routine work stress and psychological distress was investigated among 733 police officers in three US cities, during 1998‐1999. The Work Environment Inventory (WEI) was developed to assess exposure to routine work stressors, while excluding duty‐related traumatic stressors (critical incidents). The WEI and its general properties are presented. The relationship between routine work stress exposure and psychological distress is then explored. Exposure to routine work stressors predicted general psychological distress (r = 0.46), as well as post‐traumatic stress symptoms following officers’ most traumatic career incident (rs = 0.26 to 0.39). Multivariate analyses found that these effects were independent of, and larger than, the effects of cumulative critical incident exposure. (Time since the most traumatic event, social support, and social desirability effects were also controlled statistically.) Routine occupational stress exposure appears to be a significant risk factor for psychological distress among police officers, and a surprisingly strong predictor of post‐traumatic stress symptoms.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Mingwei Lin, Yanqiu Chen and Riqing Chen

The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive analysis of 354 publications about Pythagorean fuzzy sets (PFSs) from 2013 to 2020 in order to comprehensively…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive analysis of 354 publications about Pythagorean fuzzy sets (PFSs) from 2013 to 2020 in order to comprehensively understand their historical progress and current situation, as well as future development trend.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this paper describes the fundamental information of these publications on PFSs, including their data information, annual trend and prediction and basic features. Second, the most productive and influential authors, countries/regions, institutions and the most cited documents are presented in the form of evaluation indicators. Third, with the help of VOSviewer software, the visualization analysis is conducted to show the development status of PFSs publications at the level of authors, countries/regions, institutions and keywords. Finally, the burst detection of keywords, timezone review and timeline review are exported from CiteSpace software to analyze the hotspots and development trend on PFSs.

Findings

The annual PFSs publications present a quickly increasing trend. The most productive author is Wei Guiwu (China). Wei Guiwu and Wei Cun have the strongest cooperative relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of this study is to provide a comprehensive perspective for the scholars who take a fancy to PFSs, and it is valuable for scholars to grasp the hotspots in this field in time.

Originality/value

It is the first paper that uses the bibliometric analysis to comprehensively analyze the publications on PFSs. It can help the scholars in the field of PFSs to quickly understand the development status and trend of PFSs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Zhe Sun

The purpose of this paper is to unpack the black box of post-merger and acquisition (M&A) integration of reverse M&A by Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to unpack the black box of post-merger and acquisition (M&A) integration of reverse M&A by Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts multiple cases of Chinese reverse M&A. Data are collected using the approaches of in-depth interviews, storytelling and narratives.

Findings

This research identifies various antecedents underlying Chinese post-M&A integration, such as asymmetries in resources, capabilities, vision and status between Chinese MNEs and acquired firms. The post-M&A integration process of Chinese reverse M&A consists of a top-down effortless integration initiated by Chinese MNEs with both benefits and problems, and a bottom-up reverse integration conducted by acquired firms.

Originality/value

By linking the pre-M&A phase and the post-M&A phase, this research builds a new model of post-M&A integration of Chinese reverse M&A from an indigenous Wu Wei paradigm. The new model counterpoises extant literature, shifting from the task and efficiency-focussed view to the people and harmony-focussed view.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Zhi Li, Jiuchang Wei, Dora Vasileva Marinova and Jingjing Tian

This paper aims to explore the explanations of “information effect” and “agency effect” of corporate diversification with cross-industry knowledge under a crisis situation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the explanations of “information effect” and “agency effect” of corporate diversification with cross-industry knowledge under a crisis situation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an event study of 203 public companies’ crises in China between 2008 and 2018, the authors verify the information and agency effects of corporate diversification under a crisis situation by, respectively, examining the effects of interactions of corporate unrelated diversification with corporate transparency and knowledge deficiency attribution on the stock market’s responses to the crises.

Findings

It is found that corporate unrelated diversification serves as a buffer in protecting firm value while attribution of knowledge deficiency can be a burden. The buffering effect is stronger when the corporate transparency is higher but weaker when the crisis is attributed to be caused by corporate tacit knowledge deficiency.

Practical implications

Unrelated diversified firms should strengthen information communication with stakeholders so as to break down the stakeholders’ cross-industry knowledge barriers, and thus protect their own value at the crisis’ onset. Also, they can further buffer the loss by reducing stakeholders’ perceptions of the corporate tacit knowledge deficiency revealed in the crisis.

Originality/value

This study is the first to illustrate that the information and agency effects of corporate diversification strategy can be partially explained under a crisis situation, which provides meaningful insights about how firms can conduct knowledge management in their daily operations to deal better with corporate crises.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Wei Wei, Lu Zhang and Nan Hua

Error management has begun to receive growing attention from both academic scholars and industry practitioners in marketing. However, the impacts of error management on…

Abstract

Purpose

Error management has begun to receive growing attention from both academic scholars and industry practitioners in marketing. However, the impacts of error management on consumers remain understudied. Taking data breach as an increasingly recognized error in the modern service industry, this paper aims to explore the impact of hotels’ error management on consumer attitudes and downstream behavioral intentions. This research also investigates whether such impacts can be moderated by data breach locality. Furthermore, this research examines the underlying mechanism through which a firm’s error management influences consumers’ attitudes and behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 280 people were recruited to participate in a scenario-based experimental study and complete an online survey.

Findings

Results revealed that the impacts of a focal firm’s error management on consumer attitude, word-of-mouth, and revisit intention were only significant when the data breach occurred at the focal firm (versus the rival firm), which was mediated by consumer trust. However, this mediating effect of consumer trust was not found when the focal firm reacted to a data breach that occurred at a rival firm.

Originality/value

This research represents one of the first studies to introduce the concept of consumer trust to understand the impact of error management on consumers following a data breach. By further including data breach locality as a potential moderator, this research provides suggestions on how firms should strategize their marketing efforts for more effective results.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Philip Gharghori, Howard Chan and Robert Faff

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics…

Abstract

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics that firms have in common rather than any risk‐based explanation. The primary aim of the current paper is to provide out‐of‐sample tests of the characteristics versus risk factor argument. The main focus of our tests is to examine the intercept terms in Fama‐French regressions, wherein test portfolios are formed by a three‐way sorting procedure on book‐to‐market, size and factor loadings. Our main test focuses on ‘characteristic‐balanced’ portfolio returns of high minus low factor loading portfolios, for different size and book‐to‐market groups. The Fama‐French model predicts that these regression intercepts should be zero while the characteristics model predicts that they should be negative. Generally, despite the short sample period employed, our findings support a risk‐factor interpretation as opposed to a characteristics interpretation. This is particularly so for the HML loading‐based test portfolios. More specifically, we find that: the majority of test portfolios tend to reveal higher returns for higher loadings (while controlling for book‐to‐market and size characteristics); the majority of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are statistically insignificant; for the characteristic‐balanced portfolios, very few of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are significant.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Shamika Almeida, Mario Fernando, Albert Munoz and Susan Cartwright

The purpose of this paper is to identify key personal and organisational resources that influence the engagement, well-being and job satisfaction of healthcare…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify key personal and organisational resources that influence the engagement, well-being and job satisfaction of healthcare professionals working in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the job demands–resources model, this study investigates how employee resources and organisation resources influence engagement, well-being and job satisfaction of health professionals in Australian hospitals. The authors collected survey data from a sample of healthcare professionals (n=217) working in three hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

Findings

The results confirm the importance of the emotional health of employees on their well-being. The results concur with existing research that employees with higher levels of emotional health have more positive emotional and social interactions, and thus exhibit higher levels of well-being at work. The study also uncovers certain aspects of emotional health that can influence a range of employee outcomes.

Practical implications

The findings link human resource management practices to unique motivators of healthcare professionals which, in turn, are likely to improve engagement, well-being and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

The study highlights specific resources that support greater levels of well-being, engagement and job satisfaction in Australian hospitals.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

Keywords

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