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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Leonie Jane Cassidy and John Hamilton

Website benchmarking theory and the website analysis method (WAM) are benchmark tested across non-commercial tropical tourism websites. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Abstract

Purpose

Website benchmarking theory and the website analysis method (WAM) are benchmark tested across non-commercial tropical tourism websites. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The abridged WAM benchmarks 280 tropical tourism websites from four continental areas (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and The Americas) and presence or absence of website components objectively rank-scores. Across locations significant website benchmark score differences are determined. In all, 20 of these websites are ranked by an eight expert focus group. These experts also seek-out the existence of allocated common website components.

Findings

The abridged WAM approach is suitable for benchmarking tropical tourism websites. Website benchmarking scores at-level are determined. At the website, domain, and function levels significant continental area differences exist. Experts cross-check the study. They find it easier to rank websites with fewer components, and show split decisions when determining the existence of common website components.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s abridged version of WAM uses publicly viewable components to show significant differences across website scores, and identifies some missing components for possible future inclusion on the website, and it also supports the WAM benchmarking theory approach.

Practical implications

Website managers/owners can apply WAM (or an abridged WAM) to benchmark their websites. WAM is theoretically supported and it systematically allows comparison against the universal set of components and/or against competitor websites. A full or abridged WAM approach to website benchmarking is preferable to subjective or survey-based approaches.

Originality/value

This study successfully applies the Cassidy and Hamilton (2016) theory and approach to practical website benchmarking.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Leonie Cassidy and John Hamilton

Literature-identified website benchmarking (WB) approaches are generally time consuming, survey based, with little agreement on what and how to measure website components…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature-identified website benchmarking (WB) approaches are generally time consuming, survey based, with little agreement on what and how to measure website components. The purpose of this paper is to establish a theoretical approach to WB. A comprehensive design science research methodology (DSRM) artifact facilitates the evaluation of the website against the universal set of benchmark components. This knowledge allows managers to gauge/reposition their websites.

Design/methodology/approach

DSRM establishes a website analysis method (WAM) artifact. Across six activities (problem identification, solution objective, artifact design/development, artifact demonstration, artifact evaluation, results communication), the WAM artifact solves the DSRM-identified WB problem.

Findings

The WAM artifact uses 230 differentiated components, allowing managers to understand in-depth and at-level WB. Typological website components deliver interpretable WB scores. Website comparisons are made at domain (aesthetic, marketing, technical) and/or functional levels.

Research limitations/implications

New/emergent components (and occasionally new functions) are included (and redundant components removed) as upgrades to the DSRM WAM artifact’s three domains and 28 functions. Such modifications help keep latest benchmarking comparisons (and/or website upgrades) optimized.

Practical implications

This DSRM study employs a dichotomous present/absent component approach, allowing the WAM artifact’s measures to be software programmed, and merged at three different levels, delivering a useful WB tool for corporates.

Originality/value

DSRM identifies the benchmarking problem. Rough-cut set-theory and mutual-exclusivity of components allow the causal-summing of typological website components into an objective WAM artifact WB solution. This new, comprehensive, objective-measurement approach to WB thus offers comparative, competitive, and website behavioral implications for corporates.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Brian F. Blake, Steven Given, Kimberly A. Neuendorf and Michael Horvath

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to present a framework of five “facets,” i.e., distinct but complementary ways in which the observed appeal of a consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to present a framework of five “facets,” i.e., distinct but complementary ways in which the observed appeal of a consumer shopping site’s features can potentially be generalized across product/service domains (the authors call this framework the feature appeal generalization perspective); second, to determine if and how observed feature preferences for consumer electronics, bookstores, and sites “in general” generalize across domains; third, to test hypotheses about the impact of frequency of domain usage upon feature generalizability.

Design/methodology/approach

Via an online survey administered in a controlled laboratory setting, 313 respondents evaluated 26 website features in three domains (books, electronics, general) for a total of 24,414 preference judgments.

Findings

Two facets, individual feature values and within domain evaluative dimensions, revealed minimal generalizability, while there was moderate comparability across all domains in between domain feature correspondence. Personal preference elevation could be generalized between books and general, but not between these two and electronics. Differentiating dimensions showed that preferences were not generalizable from electronics to books and general because consumers wanted electronics features to provide “flashy sizzle” and books/general features to give “comfortable safety.” As hypothesized, patterns of generalizability coincided with frequency of domain usage.

Research limitations/implications

Practitioners should not apply published studies of feature appeal to their domain of interest unless those studies directly analyzed that domain. Scientists should incorporate all five facets in modeling what attracts consumers to commercial websites.

Originality/value

This is the first multidimensional analysis of the generalizability of site feature appeal across business-to-consumer product/service domains, and the first to propose this integrated evaluative framework with its unique facets.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Hend S. Al-Khalifa

Designing an effective university mobile website is becoming a necessity for universities. With the increasing percentage of students using smart phones to research…

Abstract

Purpose

Designing an effective university mobile website is becoming a necessity for universities. With the increasing percentage of students using smart phones to research colleges and universities, many university websites worldwide are moving towards addressing mobile needs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mobile university evaluation framework that can be used to assess how universities' websites respond to the increasing demand for the mobile web, and also to identify trends and gaps in current services provided in universities' mobile websites.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework was developed and applied to a set of 35 universities' mobile websites worldwide. The framework consists of four categories: interface, navigation, content and services offered, and technical aspects.

Findings

Evaluation findings show that most universities' mobile websites performed well in terms of mobile-friendliness and functionality; however, suggestions for future improvements are given.

Originality/value

No previous evaluation studies of this kind have been conducted. Moreover, this study provides an evaluation framework dedicated to the assessment of universities' mobile websites.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Bonnie Farber Canziani and Dianne H.B. Welsh

The study aims to offer a general review of website evaluation, with particular application to the winery tourism field. Automated website evaluation is explored as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to offer a general review of website evaluation, with particular application to the winery tourism field. Automated website evaluation is explored as a complementary tool in the evaluation of small and medium enterprise (SME) winery websites.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a mixed-method investigation including a critical review of winery website evaluation literature and analysis of winery website scores generated through a free service of a commercial automated evaluation scoring system.

Findings

No standards currently exist for winery website evaluation metrics and current evaluation processes suffer from human rater bias. An automated evaluation scoring system used in the study was able to discriminate between a sample of known best practice websites and other independently formed samples representing average wineries in the USA and in North Carolina.

Research limitations/implications

Wineries and other small business tourism firms can benefit by incorporating automated website evaluation and benchmarking into their internet strategies. Reported human rater limitations noted in manual evaluation may be minimized using automated rating technology. Automated evaluation system metrics tend to be updated more frequently and offer better alignment with trending consumer expectations for website design.

Originality/value

The current study used an automated website quality evaluation tool that serves to move winery website design efforts forward and supports the goals of reputation management for tourism businesses relying on internet marketing.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Kalyan Nagaraj, Biplab Bhattacharjee, Amulyashree Sridhar and Sharvani GS

Phishing is one of the major threats affecting businesses worldwide in current times. Organizations and customers face the hazards arising out of phishing attacks because…

Abstract

Purpose

Phishing is one of the major threats affecting businesses worldwide in current times. Organizations and customers face the hazards arising out of phishing attacks because of anonymous access to vulnerable details. Such attacks often result in substantial financial losses. Thus, there is a need for effective intrusion detection techniques to identify and possibly nullify the effects of phishing. Classifying phishing and non-phishing web content is a critical task in information security protocols, and full-proof mechanisms have yet to be implemented in practice. The purpose of the current study is to present an ensemble machine learning model for classifying phishing websites.

Design/methodology/approach

A publicly available data set comprising 10,068 instances of phishing and legitimate websites was used to build the classifier model. Feature extraction was performed by deploying a group of methods, and relevant features extracted were used for building the model. A twofold ensemble learner was developed by integrating results from random forest (RF) classifier, fed into a feedforward neural network (NN). Performance of the ensemble classifier was validated using k-fold cross-validation. The twofold ensemble learner was implemented as a user-friendly, interactive decision support system for classifying websites as phishing or legitimate ones.

Findings

Experimental simulations were performed to access and compare the performance of the ensemble classifiers. The statistical tests estimated that RF_NN model gave superior performance with an accuracy of 93.41 per cent and minimal mean squared error of 0.000026.

Research limitations/implications

The research data set used in this study is publically available and easy to analyze. Comparative analysis with other real-time data sets of recent origin must be performed to ensure generalization of the model against various security breaches. Different variants of phishing threats must be detected rather than focusing particularly toward phishing website detection.

Originality/value

The twofold ensemble model is not applied for classification of phishing websites in any previous studies as per the knowledge of authors.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Mhamed Zineddine

– The purpose of this paper is to decrease the traffic created by search engines’ crawlers and solve the deep web problem using an innovative approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to decrease the traffic created by search engines’ crawlers and solve the deep web problem using an innovative approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A new algorithm was formulated based on best existing algorithms to optimize the existing traffic caused by web crawlers, which is approximately 40 percent of all networking traffic. The crux of this approach is that web servers monitor and log changes and communicate them as an XML file to search engines. The XML file includes the information necessary to generate refreshed pages from existing ones and reference new pages that need to be crawled. Furthermore, the XML file is compressed to decrease its size to the minimum required.

Findings

The results of this study have shown that the traffic caused by search engines’ crawlers might be reduced on average by 84 percent when it comes to text content. However, binary content faces many challenges and new algorithms have to be developed to overcome these issues. The proposed approach will certainly mitigate the deep web issue. The XML files for each domain used by search engines might be used by web browsers to refresh their cache and therefore help reduce the traffic generated by normal users. This reduces users’ perceived latency and improves response time to http requests.

Research limitations/implications

The study sheds light on the deficiencies and weaknesses of the algorithms monitoring changes and generating binary files. However, a substantial decrease of traffic is achieved for text-based web content.

Practical implications

The findings of this research can be adopted by web server software and browsers’ developers and search engine companies to reduce the internet traffic caused by crawlers and cut costs.

Originality/value

The exponential growth of web content and other internet-based services such as cloud computing, and social networks has been causing contention on available bandwidth of the internet network. This research provides a much needed approach to keeping traffic in check.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2006

Heidi Winklhofer, Kathryn Houghton and Thomas Chesney

Despite the much publicised advantages of a website for SME exporters, the level of website sophistication, as well as the factors which inhibit or stimulate exporting…

Abstract

Despite the much publicised advantages of a website for SME exporters, the level of website sophistication, as well as the factors which inhibit or stimulate exporting SMEs to develop their website beyond a basic level of sophistication, are still unknown. The literature is prone to discuss website establishment and development simultaneously, splitting firms into adopters and non-adopters, yet websites may be established and then neglected, or be continually developed. This paper introduces an instrument for measuring website sophistication within an export marketing context, and proposes and empirically tests a model that depicts factors impacting on perceived advantages of a website and website sophistication levels. The results identify export diversity and environmental pressure as key determinants of perceived advantage of a website which in turn is a good predictor of website sophistication. The firm internal resources, i.e. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) knowledge and time, in conjunction with entrepreneurship orientation also determine an SME exporter's website sophistication level.

Details

International Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-369-3

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Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

Sotiroula Liasidou

Culture is an important motivation force to people within the context of tourism. It provides new opportunities for destinations to promote cultural elements and attract…

Abstract

Purpose

Culture is an important motivation force to people within the context of tourism. It provides new opportunities for destinations to promote cultural elements and attract more travellers. This study aims to investigate how the cultural heritage of Cyprus is promoted online and to identify whether the needs of travellers who focus on experiential aspects and prioritise culture can be fulfilled.

Design/methodology/approach

The research aim is fulfilled through a critical discourse analysis of selected WebPages concerning representation of the culture of Cyprus within the tourism context.

Findings

Eighteen websites were included, and the results suggest that Cyprus has Web exposure specifically promoting its cultural heritage. However, the websites have been established with different tourism scopes, with culture comprising just one part of the content. Thus, the development of specialised websites is dedicated exclusively to culture and tourism, and it seems appropriate to attract travellers interested in more educational activities with cultural and historical value. This approach would bring many benefits because this cohort of travellers is in an upper-scale tourist market.

Originality/value

This study is original in nature because it brings together the case of Cyprus, an island destination highly depended on tourism in relation to cultural tourism Web discourse. The promotion of cultural parameters will provide more opportunities for the island and escape from the 3S’s (sea, sun and sand) image to be positioned as a culturally sustainable destination.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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