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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Khai Tan Huynh, Tho Thanh Quan and Thang Hoai Bui

Service-oriented architecture is an emerging software architecture, in which web service (WS) plays a crucial role. In this architecture, the task of WS composition and…

Abstract

Purpose

Service-oriented architecture is an emerging software architecture, in which web service (WS) plays a crucial role. In this architecture, the task of WS composition and verification is required when handling complex requirement of services from users. When the number of WS becomes very huge in practice, the complexity of the composition and verification is also correspondingly high. In this paper, the authors aim to propose a logic-based clustering approach to solve this problem by separating the original repository of WS into clusters. Moreover, they also propose a so-called quality-controlled clustering approach to ensure the quality of generated clusters in a reasonable execution time.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach represents WSs as logical formulas on which the authors conduct the clustering task. They also combine two most popular clustering approaches of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) and k-means to ensure the quality of generated clusters.

Findings

This logic-based clustering approach really helps to increase the performance of the WS composition and verification significantly. Furthermore, the logic-based approach helps us to maintain the soundness and completeness of the composition solution. Eventually, the quality-controlled strategy can ensure the quality of generated clusters in low complexity time.

Research limitations/implications

The work discussed in this paper is just implemented as a research tool known as WSCOVER. More work is needed to make it a practical and usable system for real life applications.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors propose a logic-based paradigm to represent and cluster WSs. Moreover, they also propose an approach of quality-controlled clustering which combines and takes advantages of two most popular clustering approaches of HAC and k-means.

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Efthimia Mavridou, Konstantinos M. Giannoutakis, Dionysios Kehagias, Dimitrios Tzovaras and George Hassapis

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web

Abstract

Purpose

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web era. However, to efficiently deal with the growing presence of Web services, more automated mechanisms are required. This paper aims to introduce an automatic Web service categorization mechanism, by exploiting various techniques that aim to increase the overall prediction accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes the use of Error Correcting Output Codes on top of a Logistic Model Trees-based classifier, in conjunction with a data pre-processing technique that reduces the original feature-space dimension without affecting data integrity. The proposed technique is generalized so as to adhere to all Web services with a description file. A semantic matchmaking scheme is also proposed for enabling the semantic annotation of the input and output parameters of each operation.

Findings

The proposed Web service categorization framework was tested with the OWLS-TC v4.0, as well as a synthetic data set with a systematic evaluation procedure that enables comparison with well-known approaches. After conducting exhaustive evaluation experiments, categorization efficiency in terms of accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure was measured. The presented Web service categorization framework outperformed the other benchmark techniques, which comprise different variations of it and also third-party implementations.

Originality/value

The proposed three-level categorization approach is a significant contribution to the Web service community, as it allows the automatic semantic categorization of all functional elements of Web services that are equipped with a service description file.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Federica Paganelli, Terence Ambra and David Parlanti

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel quality of service (QoS)‐aware service composition approach, called SEQOIA, capable of defining at run‐time a service

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel quality of service (QoS)‐aware service composition approach, called SEQOIA, capable of defining at run‐time a service composition plan meeting both functional and non‐functional constraints and optimizing the overall quality of service.

Design/methodology/approach

SEQOIA is a semantic‐driven QoS‐aware dynamic composition approach leveraging on an integer linear programming technique (ILP). It exploits the expressiveness of an ontology‐based service profile model handling structural and semantic properties of service descriptions. It represents the service composition problem as a set of functional and non‐functional constraints and an objective function.

Findings

The authors developed a proof of concept implementing SEQOIA, as well as an alternative composition solution based on state‐of‐the‐art AI planning and ILP techniques. Results of testing activities show that SEQOIA performs better than the alternative solution over a limited set of candidate services. This behaviour was expected, as SEQOIA guarantees to find the service composition providing the optimal QoS value, while the alternative approach does not provide this guarantee, as it handles separately the specification of the functional service composition flow and the QoS‐based service selection step.

Originality/value

SEQOIA leverages on semantic annotations in order to make service composition feasible by coping with syntactic and structural differences typically existing across different, even similar, service implementations. To ease the adoption of SEQOIA in real enterprise scenarios, the authors chose to leverage on an XML‐based message model of services interfaces (including but not strictly requiring the use of WSDL).

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Joanne Evans, Barbara Reed and Sue McKemmish

The ability to establish sustainable frameworks for creating and managing recordkeeping metadata is one of the key challenges for recordkeeping in digital and networked

Abstract

Purpose

The ability to establish sustainable frameworks for creating and managing recordkeeping metadata is one of the key challenges for recordkeeping in digital and networked environments. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the Clever Recordkeeping Metadata Project, an Australian research project which sought to investigate how the movement of recordkeeping metadata between systems could be automated.

Design/methodology/approach

The project adopted an action research approach to the research, utilising a systems development method within this framework to iteratively build a prototype demonstrating how recordkeeping metadata could be created once in particular application environments, then used many times to meet a range of business and recordkeeping purposes.

Findings

Recordkeeping metadata interoperability, like recordkeeping metadata itself, is complex and dynamic. The research identifies the need for standards and tools to reflect and have the capacity to handle this complexity.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into the complex nature of recordkeeping metadata and the kind of infrastructure that needs to be developed to support its automated capture and re‐use in integrated systems environments.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Milton Secundino de Souza-Júnior, Nelson Souto Rosa and Fernando Antônio Aires Lins

This paper aims to present Long4Cloud (long-running workflows execution environment for cloud), a distributed and adaptive LRW execution environment delivered “as a service

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present Long4Cloud (long-running workflows execution environment for cloud), a distributed and adaptive LRW execution environment delivered “as a service” solution.

Design/methodology/approach

LRWs last for hours, days or even months and their duration open the possibility of changes in business rules, service interruptions or even alterations of formal regulations of the business before the workflow completion. These events can lead to problems such as loss of intermediary results or exhaustion of computational resources used to manage the workflow execution. Existing solutions face those problems by merely allowing the replacement (at runtime) of services associated with activities of the LRW.

Findings

LONG4Cloud extends the previous works in two main aspects, namely, the inclusion of dynamic reconfiguration capabilities and the adoption of an “as a service” delivery mode. The reconfiguration mechanism uses quiescence principles, data and state management and provides multiple adaptive strategies. Long4Cloud also adopts a scenario-based analysis to decide the adaptation to be performed. Events such as changes in business rules or service failures trigger reconfigurations supported by the environment. These features have been put together in a solution delivered “as a service” that takes advantage of cloud elasticity and allows to better allocate cloud resources to fit into the demands of LRWs.

Originality/value

The original contribution of Long4Cloud is to incorporate adaptive capabilities into the LRW execution environment as an effective way to handle the specificities of this kind of workflow. Experiments using current data of a Brazilian health insurance company were carried out to evaluate Long4Cloud and show performance gains in the execution of LRWs submitted to the proposed environment.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Antonio Ruiz‐Martínez, Óscar Cánovas and Antonio F. Gómez‐Skarmeta

This paper aims to present a viable approach for designing and implementing a generic per‐fee‐link framework. It also aims to design this framework to be used with any…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a viable approach for designing and implementing a generic per‐fee‐link framework. It also aims to design this framework to be used with any payment protocol and test it with two existing ones.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a per‐fee‐link framework based on several generic components. These components have been developed and tested in order to prove the viability of the proposed framework.

Findings

The results show that is possible to establish a per‐fee‐link framework. Four core components are defined: first, the different modules needed for browsers and web servers, second, an extended payment protocol (EPP), which negotiates the payment protocol to use and encapsulates its related messages, third, an API for e‐wallets, which is independent of the payment protocol, to incorporate the protocols to use with EPP and finally, the definition of a per‐fee‐link that associates payment information to a link.

Practical implications

The framework presented shows a uniform way of using payment protocols that can increase the trust of end users. Furthermore, it has been developed and tested.

Originality/value

The contribution describes the components needed for supporting the framework. Its feasibility has been checked through an implementation and it facilitates the payment for content on the web. Thus, content providers can obtain an alternative revenue source to advertisement or subscription. Furthermore, developers, vendors and customers can see that the incorporation of payment protocols to the system is facilitated. Finally, the users obtain a uniform way to make payments that increases the perception of trust.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Stefan Dietze, Salvador Sanchez‐Alonso, Hannes Ebner, Hong Qing Yu, Daniela Giordano, Ivana Marenzi and Bernardo Pereira Nunes

Research in the area of technology‐enhanced learning (TEL) throughout the last decade has largely focused on sharing and reusing educational resources and data. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Research in the area of technology‐enhanced learning (TEL) throughout the last decade has largely focused on sharing and reusing educational resources and data. This effort has led to a fragmented landscape of competing metadata schemas, or interface mechanisms. More recently, semantic technologies were taken into account to improve interoperability. The linked data approach has emerged as the de facto standard for sharing data on the web. To this end, it is obvious that the application of linked data principles offers a large potential to solve interoperability issues in the field of TEL. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, approaches are surveyed that are aimed towards a vision of linked education, i.e. education which exploits educational web data. It particularly considers the exploitation of the wealth of already existing TEL data on the web by allowing its exposure as linked data and by taking into account automated enrichment and interlinking techniques to provide rich and well‐interlinked data for the educational domain.

Findings

So far web‐scale integration of educational resources is not facilitated, mainly due to the lack of take‐up of shared principles, datasets and schemas. However, linked data principles increasingly are recognized by the TEL community. The paper provides a structured assessment and classification of existing challenges and approaches, serving as potential guideline for researchers and practitioners in the field.

Originality/value

Being one of the first comprehensive surveys on the topic of linked data for education, the paper has the potential to become a widely recognized reference publication in the area.

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Q.T. Tho, A.C.M. Fong and S.C. Hui

The semantic web gives meaning to information so that humans and computers can work together better. Ontology is used to represent knowledge on the semantic web. Web

Abstract

Purpose

The semantic web gives meaning to information so that humans and computers can work together better. Ontology is used to represent knowledge on the semantic web. Web services have been introduced to make the knowledge conveyed by the ontology on the semantic web accessible across different applications. This paper seeks to present the use of these latest advances in the context of a scholarly semantic web (or SSWeb) system, which can support advanced search functions such as expert finding and trend detection in addition to basic functions such as document and author search as well as document and author clustering search.

Design/methodology/approach

A distributed architecture of the proposed SSWeb is described, as well as semantic web services that support scholarly information retrieval on the SSWeb.

Findings

Initial experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective.

Research limitations/implications

The work reported is experimental in nature. More work is needed, but early results are encouraging and the authors wish to make their work known to the research community by publishing this paper so that further progress can be made in this area of research.

Originality/value

The work is presented in the context of scholarly document retrieval, but it could also be adapted to other types of documents, such as medical records, machine‐fault records and legal documents. This is because the basic principles are the same.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Péter Jacsó

The purpose of this paper is to examine clustering search results. Traditionally, search results from professional online information services presented the results in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine clustering search results. Traditionally, search results from professional online information services presented the results in reverse chronological order. Later, relevance ranking was introduced for ordering the display of the hits on the result list to separate the wheat from the chaff.

Design/methodology/approach

The need for better presentation of search results retrieved from millions, then billions, of highly unstructured and untagged Web pages became obvious. Clustering became a popular software tool to enhance relevance ranking by grouping items in the typically very large result list. The clusters of items with common semantic and/or other characteristics can guide the users in refining their original queries, to zoom in on smaller clusters and drill down through sub‐groups within the cluster.

Findings

Despite its proven efficiency, clustering is not available, except for Ask, in the primary Web‐wide search engines (Windows Live, Yahoo and Google).

Originality/value

Smaller, secondary Web‐wide search engines (WiseNut, Gigablast, and especially Exalead) offer good clustering options.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Ashish Kathuria, Bernard J. Jansen, Carolyn Hafernik and Amanda Spink

Web search engines are frequently used by people to locate information on the Internet. However, not all queries have an informational goal. Instead of information, some…

Abstract

Purpose

Web search engines are frequently used by people to locate information on the Internet. However, not all queries have an informational goal. Instead of information, some people may be looking for specific web sites or may wish to conduct transactions with web services. This paper aims to focus on automatically classifying the different user intents behind web queries.

Design/methodology/approach

For the research reported in this paper, 130,000 web search engine queries are categorized as informational, navigational, or transactional using a k‐means clustering approach based on a variety of query traits.

Findings

The research findings show that more than 75 percent of web queries (clustered into eight classifications) are informational in nature, with about 12 percent each for navigational and transactional. Results also show that web queries fall into eight clusters, six primarily informational, and one each of primarily transactional and navigational.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides an important contribution to web search literature because it provides information about the goals of searchers and a method for automatically classifying the intents of the user queries. Automatic classification of user intent can lead to improved web search engines by tailoring results to specific user needs.

Practical implications

The paper discusses how web search engines can use automatically classified user queries to provide more targeted and relevant results in web searching by implementing a real time classification method as presented in this research.

Originality/value

This research investigates a new application of a method for automatically classifying the intent of user queries. There has been limited research to date on automatically classifying the user intent of web queries, even though the pay‐off for web search engines can be quite beneficial.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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