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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2020

Uchechi G. Eziefula, Hyginus E. Opara and Bennett I. Eziefula

This paper aims to investigate the 28-day compressive strength of concrete produced with aggregates from different sources.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the 28-day compressive strength of concrete produced with aggregates from different sources.

Design/methodology/approach

Coarse aggregates were crushed granite and natural local stones mined from Umunneochi, Lokpa and Uturu, Isuakwato, respectively, in Abia State, Nigeria. Fine aggregate (river sand) and another coarse aggregate (river stone) were dredged from Otammiri River in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The nominal mix ratios were 1:1:2, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6, whereas the respective water–cement ratios were 0.45, 0.5, 0.55 and 0.6.

Findings

The compressive strength of granite concrete, river stone concrete and local stone concrete ranged 17.79-38.13, 15.37-34.57 and 14.17-31.96 N/mm2, respectively. Compressive strength was found to increase with decreasing water–cement ratio and increasing cement content.

Practical implications

Granite concrete should be used in reinforced-concrete construction, especially when a cube compressive strength of 30 N/mm2 or higher is required.

Originality/value

Granite concrete exceeded the target compressive strength for all the concrete specimens, whereas river stone concrete and local stone concrete failed to achieve the target strength for some mix proportions and water–cement ratios.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Luigi Mollo

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of cement/sand ratio on behaviour of cement mortar.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of cement/sand ratio on behaviour of cement mortar.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review was used to confirm that the cement/sand ratio have influence on the mortar strength and that its influence is not very studied. The literature points out also that the constitutive model of mortar is very important in the structural design of masonry but it has not been investigated much.

Findings

The results of study allow to forecast the mortar strength by the cement/sand ratio when the water/cement ratio is fixed (0.50). Besides, the obtained experimental results allow defining a constitutive model for sand mortar.

Research limitations/implications

Other experiments would be proper to extend the research field.

Practical implications

The findings are of particular importance to mix design of cement mortar and to structural design of masonry. In fact, for mortar in the practices, there are no constitutive equations to use in the structural calculation, and so, normally the engineers use the constitutive equations of concrete (very rough). The idea is to find constitutive equations that, using simple and economic tests, allow to engineers to model more correctly the realty.

Originality/value

There are few studies which try to investigate the relationship between the behaviour of cement mortar and cement/sand ratio, as well as to study constitutive model of cement mortar. This paper contributes to bridging that gap.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Wang Jiawei and Sun Quansheng

In order to reduce the impact of bridge construction on traffic under the bridge, the construction of bridges for some important traffic nodes usually adopts the swivel…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to reduce the impact of bridge construction on traffic under the bridge, the construction of bridges for some important traffic nodes usually adopts the swivel construction method. The spherical hinge is a rotating mechanism located between the bottom of the pier and the bridge cap, and is subjected to tremendous vertical pressure. According to the mechanical characteristics of the spherical hinges, this paper applies the ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) material to the spherical hinge. The spherical hinge is subjected to a compression test to test its mechanical behavior. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the mechanical behavior of the UHPC spherical hinge, multiple sets of 100 mm UHPC spherical hinge specimens were prefabricated. Through the universal testing machine to measure the compressive strength of specimens, draw the force-displacement curve to analyze the failure mechanism and establish the stress calculation formula of the spherical hinge at each point along the radial direction.

Findings

Through the test, the compressive strength of UHPC spherical hinge is obtained, and the influencing factors of UHPC spherical hinge strength are found: reducing water–cement ratio, increasing steel fiber content and length and changing steel fiber arrangement direction can effectively improve the compression strength of UHPC spherical hinge.

Originality/value

For the first time, UHPC materials were applied to the spherical hinge structure, the UHPC spherical hinge diameter is 1/3 of the diameter of the reinforced concrete spherical hinge, which is equivalent to the diameter of the steel spherical hinge. By applying the UHPC spherical hinge, the manufacturing cost is reduced, the process is simple, and the construction difficulty is reduced.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Hao Tian, Yingwu Zhou, Lili Sui and Feng Xing

Sulfate-induced degradation is one of the most important factors influencing the durability of concrete. The paper aims to clarify the transport-deterioration process of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Sulfate-induced degradation is one of the most important factors influencing the durability of concrete. The paper aims to clarify the transport-deterioration process of sulfates in concrete and thus to explain the mechanism and the deterioration of concrete by sulfates.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an experimental study into the evolution of the transport-deterioration process of sulfate ions in concrete in a pure soaking environment.

Findings

The microscopic morphology of individual concrete layers at different depths and the change law of the sulfate ion concentration at the corresponding depths were investigated for different exposure times. Furthermore, the relationship between the changes in microstructure and the transport characteristics of the sulfate ions was studied.

Originality/value

A method to calculate the cracking level sulfate ion concentration was proposed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2017

Khalid Al-Gahtani, Ibrahim Alsulaihi, Mohamed Ali and Mohamed Marzouk

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the sustainability benefits of using demolition and industrial wastes as a replacement for aggregates and cement in traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the sustainability benefits of using demolition and industrial wastes as a replacement for aggregates and cement in traditional concrete mixes.

Design/methodology/approach

Crushed concrete from demolition sites served as a replacement for fine and coarse aggregate in some of the mixes at various ratios. In addition, ground granulated blast furnace slag, metakaolin, silica fume, and fly ash each served as a cement replacement for cement content in the mixes tested in this research at various rates. Compression strength tests, permeability, and thermal expansion tests were performed on various mixes to compare their performance to that of traditional mixes with natural aggregate, and with no cement replacement.

Findings

The compressive strength results indicated the suitability of using such demolition wastes as replacements in producing green concrete (GC) without hindering its mechanical characteristics significantly. In addition, the results indicated an enhancement in the mechanical characteristics of GC when replacing cement with pozzolanic industrial wastes and byproducts.

Originality/value

The research assesses the utilization of sustainable GC using recycled waste aggregate and byproducts.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Sarfo Mensah, Collins Ameyaw, Blondel Akun Abaitey and Hayford Obeng Yeboah

Over dependence on river/sea sand as building material has impacted the environment negatively. However, laterite, which is an environment-friendly indigenous building…

Abstract

Purpose

Over dependence on river/sea sand as building material has impacted the environment negatively. However, laterite, which is an environment-friendly indigenous building material in sub-Saharan Africa, has been less exploited as a suitable alternative. This paper aims to ascertain the optimum cement–laterite mix proportion at which laterite can be stabilized for production of walling units.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental method, laterite was collected from three borrow pit sites. Sieve analysis was performed to determine the particle size distribution. Also, the degree of workability of the cement–laterite mix was ascertained using slump test. Compressive strengths were determined at cement stabilization percentages of 3%, 7% and 10% on 12 cubes of100 mm cast and cured for 14 and 28 days, respectively.

Findings

The results showed that the lateritic soil investigated, achieves its optimum strength in 28 days of curing, at a stabilization level of 10%. An average compressive strength of 2.41 N/mm2, which is 20.5% greater than the target strength, was achieved.

Practical implications

To meet the desired compressive strength of alternative walling units while achieving environmental sustainability and efficiency in production, cement stabilization of lateritic soils should become a recommended practice by built environment professionals in sub-Saharan Africa.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first research works that attempts to determine the optimum level at which the abundant sub-Saharan laterite can be chemically stabilized for the production of non-load bearing walling units. This research promotes an environment-friendly alternative building material to sea sand, river sand and off-shore sand.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Peerzada Mudasir and Javed Ahmed Naqash

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to study the role and formation of hydration products particularly crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 in MWCNT-reinforced concrete at 28 days. Concrete is the largest manufactured building material in world in which cement, sand aggregates and water cement ratio plays governing role. Water–Cement ratio decides it strength, usage, serviceability and durability. As strength of concrete depends on formation of crystalline hydrates; therefore, water–cement ratio can alter formation of hydrates also. Unfortunately, concrete is the most brittle material and to overcome brittleness of conventional concrete is tailored with some fibers. Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tubes are the most tensile and strongest materials discovered. Addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes changes basic properties of conventional concrete. Therefore, it is important to evaluate formation of crystalline hydrates in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete by micro structure analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Till now, multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete has not been analyzed at micro structure level. To accomplish the objective, four concrete mixes with 0.45, 0.48, 0.50 and 0.55 water–cement ratio having 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes incorporated by weight of cement, respectively. For hardening property analysis, compressive strength was obtained by crushing cubes; flexural strength was obtained by three-point loading; and split tensile strength was obtained by splitting cylindrical specimens. For analyzing role and formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 hydrates, X-ray diffraction test was conducted on 75-µ dust of each mix. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed on fractured samples of crushed cubes of multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete samples to check aggloremation.

Findings

It was observed multiwalled carbon nano tubes successfully enhanced compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength by 8.89, 5.33 and 28.90%, respectively, in comparison to reference concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement. When its content was increased from 0.5 to 1% by weight of cement compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength diminished by 2.04, 0.32 and 1.18%, respectively, at 0.45 water–cement ratio. With the increment of water–cement ratio, overall strength decreased in all mixes, but in multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mixes, strength was more than reference mixes. In reference, concrete at 0.45 water–cement ratio crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals are of nano metre size, but in carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete mix having 0.45 water–cement ratio and 0.5% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, its size is much smaller than reference mix, thereby enhancing mechanical strength. In reference, concrete at 0.55 water–cement ratio size of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals is large, but with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes, their size reduced, thereby enhancing mechanical strength of carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete having 0.55 water–cement ratio and 0.5 and 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, respectively. Also at 1% multiwalled carbon nano tubes by weight of cement, agglomeration and reduction in formation of crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals were observed. Multiwalled carbon nano tubes effectively refine pores and restrict propagation of micro cracks and act as nucleation sites for Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate phase. Geometry of crystalline axis of fracture for portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals is altered with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes. Crystalline portlandite Ca(OH)2 crystals and bridging effect of multiwalled carbon nano tubes is governing factor for enhancing strength of multiwalled carbon nano tube reinforced concrete.

Practical implications

Multiwalled carbon nano tube–reinforced concrete can be used to make strain sensing concrete.

Originality/value

Change in geometry and size of axis of fracture of crystalline portladite Ca(OH)2 crystals with incorporation of multiwalled carbon nano tubes.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Samuel Olufemi Folagbade and Moray David Newlands

This paper aims to assess the suitability of cement combination containing CEM I, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin for durability design against carbonation-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the suitability of cement combination containing CEM I, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion in concrete.

Design/methodology/approach

Cube compressive strengths at 28 days and accelerated carbonation depths at 28 days and at various exposure ages were determined at the water/cement ratios of 0.35, 0.50 and 0.65. To assess their suitability for carbonation-induced corrosion, the material costs and embodied carbon dioxide (eCO2) contents of the concretes at equivalent performance were compared.

Findings

Cement combination concretes achieved equal carbonation resistance with CEM I at higher compressive strengths, lower water/cement ratios and higher cement contents. The comparison of the concretes, at equivalent performance, based on the carbonation-induced corrosion exposure classes XC3 and XC4 (Table A.4 of BS 8500-1), shows that ternary and more binary cement concretes have lower costs and eCO2 contents than those recommended in Table A.6 of BS 8500-1.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis is limited to a working life of 50 years. Further research is needed to verify the suitability of the cement combinations for a working life of 100 years and for the other aspects of durability design covered in BS 8500.

Practical implications

Cement combination concretes have lower eCO2 content. Hence, when they are cheaper than CEM I concrete at equivalent performance, they would make concrete construction more economic and environmentally compatible.

Originality/value

This research suggests the inclusion of metakaolin and ternary cement combination concretes in BS 8500 for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

R. Romagnoli, R.O. Batic, V.F. Vetere, J.D. Sota, I.T. Lucchini and R.O. Carbonari

Hardened cement paste is a heterogeneous system resulting from the grouping of particles, films, microcrystals and other solid structural elements bounded in a porous…

Abstract

Hardened cement paste is a heterogeneous system resulting from the grouping of particles, films, microcrystals and other solid structural elements bounded in a porous mass. The cement paste microstructure must be understood firstly due to its influence on concrete properties. The behaviour of concrete greatly depends on the conformation of localised special structures rather than on general structures found in the mass cement paste. The objective of this paper was to study the cement paste microstructure, as a function of the water–cement ratio, in order to interpret the variations of the steel–mortar bond strength and the developing of the corrosion process in steel–mortar specimens kept in tap water and 3 percent sodium chloride solutions for 1 year. A description of the steel–mortar interface was also provided.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1992

Adel El‐Kurdey and Ashraf Y. Hosny

The corrosion of reinforcing steel is considered the most critical problem for the durability of reinforced concrete structures. This study shows the experimental results…

Abstract

The corrosion of reinforcing steel is considered the most critical problem for the durability of reinforced concrete structures. This study shows the experimental results of the corrosion of steel bars in mortar, using an accelerated test. The results indicate that increasing water/cement ratios accelerate the corrosion of reinforcing steel. In addition, increasing curing times decrease steel corrosion rates. The results also show that the cover to bar diameter ratio plays a significant role in determining the corrosion intensity. For the same cover thickness, the corrosion intensity increases as the steel bar diameter increases.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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