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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 1 November 1978

G.H. Hutchinson

The trend towards a greater use of water as the solvent in flexographic and gravure printing inks has been influenced by a number of factors — the growing attention to…

Abstract

The trend towards a greater use of water as the solvent in flexographic and gravure printing inks has been influenced by a number of factors — the growing attention to environmental pollution problems, health and safety aspects, elimination of residual print odour in food packaging printing and conservation of organic solvents.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 7 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

G.H. Hutchinson

Some ten years ago, industry world‐wide entered a period of economic shortages and rising prices of petroleum, a situation making it essential for economy to be exercised…

Abstract

Some ten years ago, industry world‐wide entered a period of economic shortages and rising prices of petroleum, a situation making it essential for economy to be exercised in the use of organic solvents. This led to an upsurge of interest in water‐based products for use in printing and packaging. Interest was further stimulated by the increasing pressures from health and safety legislation and growing concern about environmental pollution problems. There were possibilities to develop alternative water‐based products to many solvent based inks, varnishes, lacquers and adhesives and quite a number of commercial successes were achieved and sustained. The following recession of the mid 1970's and depressed economic climate of recent years has done little to advance progress in water‐based inks. There were subsequently no major problems in availability of organic solvents and from this aspect no urgent needs to evaluate alternative water‐based products, unless real economic or technical advantages could be demonstrated.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1953

Recent technical developments in the field of hydrodynamic sustentation, resulting from the unique techniques associated with the free‐body testing of self‐propelled…

Abstract

Recent technical developments in the field of hydrodynamic sustentation, resulting from the unique techniques associated with the free‐body testing of self‐propelled dynamically similar models, has resulted in a great resurgence of interest in the use of water‐based aircraft in the National Defence. This paper describes some of the more important aspects of this research and discusses possible trends in military water‐based aircraft development. In addition to the military applications of the new high‐speed hydrodynamic developments, consideration is given to the development of transonic water‐based transport designs. Since the days of the famous flying‐boat clippers, over‐ocean transport has all but succumbed to the faster landplane. It is shown that an all‐jet water‐based transport, incorporating unusual safety and performance, is now a practical and logical development.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Xiong Xiang, Yu Fan, Wei Liu and Aiwu Fan

The purpose of this paper is to compare the thermal resistances between optimized gallium- and water-based heat sinks to show which one is superior.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the thermal resistances between optimized gallium- and water-based heat sinks to show which one is superior.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking the thermal resistances of heat sinks as the goal function, an optimization process is programmed based on the genetic algorithm. The optimal channel/fin widths and the corresponding thermal resistances of gallium- and water-based heat sinks are obtained and compared with/without a laminar flow constraint. The analytic model and CFD method are applied in different situations to ensure sufficient accuracy.

Findings

The results show that in the laminar regime, the thermal resistance of optimized gallium-based heat sink is lower than the water-based counterpart in most cases, but the latter becomes better if it is long enough or the channel is sufficient high. Without the laminar constraint, the thermal resistance of the optimized gallium-based heat sink can be decreased by 33-45 per cent compared with the water-based counterparts. It is interesting to find that when the heat sink is long or the channel height is short, the optimal geometry of gallium-based heat sink is a mini gap.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that the cooling performance of gallium-based heat sink can be significantly improved by optimization without the laminar flow constraint.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, G. El-Meligi, M.G. Hassaan, A. Kazlauciunas and Long Lin

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of copolymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Various nano-emulsions of copolymers were prepared using styrene (St), butyl acrylate (BuAc), acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AAm) monomers by means of a conventional seeded emulsion polymerisation technique, using K2S2O8 as the initiator. The characterisation of the prepared emulsions was performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A selection of copolymers was formulated with pigments and additional ingredients, as water-based flexographic inks. The inks were characterised for their viscosity, pH, degree of dispersion, water resistance and colour density.

Findings

It was found that the low viscosity of the prepared copolymers may reduce the film thickness of the flexographic inks and may also increase the spreading of the ink on the surface. As a result, stable modified polyacrylate-based latex with improved physico-mechanical properties were obtained. The prepared latexes were showed improving and enhancing in water resistance; gloss values, and the print density that ranged from 2.06 to 2.51 and the maximum gloss values (39 and 48) were also obtained. Also, these binders provide excellent adhesion properties for both the pigment particles and the base paper.

Practical implications

This study focuses on the preparation of new water-based copolymer nanoparticles and their use as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Social implications

The ink formulations developed could find use in industrial-scale printing.

Originality/value

Eco-friendly environment ink formulations for printing on paper substrates are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

C.S. Martin

In recent years numerous pieces of environmental legislation have been introduced or will be introduced both in the UK and throughout Europe. The greatest environmental…

Abstract

In recent years numerous pieces of environmental legislation have been introduced or will be introduced both in the UK and throughout Europe. The greatest environmental issue at the moment is the limitation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Water‐based coatings have been available for many years; their main application initially was for broad wall paints. More recently, water‐based coatings have come on the market for trim coatings. Although their performance for interior use is sufficient, but inferior to their solvent‐based alternatives, how do water‐based coatings for exterior wood perform? An alternative to water‐based technology is high solids. In a recent life cycle analysis (Ministry of the Environment in France) high solids alkyds have been shown to have low environmental impacts. In the study used for setting the criteria and thresholds for the European eco‐label for decorative paints and varnishes, a high solids alkyd developed by Cray Valley Ltd was put into the category having the lowest environmental impact together with water‐based paints. For the future of exterior coatings for wood, is the route to environmentally friendly coatings water‐based or solvent‐based technology?

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

H. Abd El-Wahab, G.A. Meligi, M.G. Hassaan and L. Lin

The purpose of this study is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of ter-polymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to prepare, characterise and evaluate nano-emulsions of ter-polymers of various compositions as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Various nano-emulsions of ter-polymers were prepared based on Vinyl acetate, Vinyl Versatate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid and acrylamide monomers by means of a conventional seeded emulsion polymerisation technique, using K2S2O8 as the initiator. The characterisation of the prepared emulsions was performed using Fourier transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analysis, gel permeation chromatography and transmission electron microscopy. A selection of co-polymers and ter-polymers were formulated with pigments and additional ingredients, as water-based flexographic inks. The inks were characterised for their rheological properties, pH, degree of dispersion, water-resistance and colour density.

Findings

It was found that the low viscosity of the prepared polymers may reduce the film thickness of the flexographic inks and may also increase the spreading of the ink on the surface. As a result, stable modified poly acrylate-based latex with improved physico-mechanical properties was obtained. The prepared latexes showed improved properties such as enhanced thermal stability and better water resistance. The effect of the emulsifier type on the properties of the resulting emulsion latexes and their corresponding films were investigated. Also, as the hydrophobic monomer increases, so does the colour density and increasing the binder ratio enhances the gloss values. The improving in gloss values were obtained and provide excellent adhesion properties for both the pigment particles and the base paper.

Research limitations/implications

The study focusses on the preparation of new water-based ter-polymer nano-particles and their use as eco-friendly binders for flexographic ink industry. Ink formulations based on other different type emulsion polymers could also be studied to assess the applicability of the ink formulation system found for other binders.

Practical implications

The ink formulations developed could find use in industrial-scale printing.

Originality/value

Eco-friendly environment and low-cost ink formulations for printing on paper substrates are novel.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Ing A.H. Hamer

In Graz, Austria, the European Rotogravure Association (ERA) held a conference where several companies presented new developments in the printing industry including the…

614

Abstract

In Graz, Austria, the European Rotogravure Association (ERA) held a conference where several companies presented new developments in the printing industry including the latest developments in the field of water‐based ink systems. This paper discusses water‐based inks for gravure printing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

162

Abstract

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Junchao Li, Ran Yan, Yanan Yang and Feng Xie

The purpose of this study was to prepare water-based binders, which aimed to avoid printhead blockage and to improve dimensional accuracy of inkjet 3D printing (3DP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to prepare water-based binders, which aimed to avoid printhead blockage and to improve dimensional accuracy of inkjet 3D printing (3DP) technology, and a feasible algorithm of full-color printing was realized.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-developed color 3D printer was made by using a piezoelectric printhead of Epson Dx-5. Several water-based binders and corresponding gypsum composite powders were prepared, and the optimum binder-powder assembly was then determined through elementary adhesive testing and roller paving testing. Full-color printing was implemented based on halftoning algorithms that used different threshold matrices for different ink channels, and the performances of various algorithms were evaluated in terms of both subjective and objective indices.

Findings

The optimum binder-powder assembly can solve the jamming problem of printhead and realize agreeable dimensional accuracy with the relative error less than 2.5% owing to the satisfying boundary diffusion control ability. And the determined halftone algorithm was verified to be agreeable for 3D color printing.

Originality/value

The prepared approach of water-based binders and gypsum composite powders can be applied to similar 3DP systems even if different materials are introduced. And the used halftone algorithms provide feasible guidelines to the implementation of 3D full-color printing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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