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Cross-boundary cooperation with shared goals and values involving the poor has been argued as an indispensable means for inclusive business (IB) success. Cooperation may…
Cross-boundary cooperation with shared goals and values involving the poor has been argued as an indispensable means for inclusive business (IB) success. Cooperation may become dynamic, especially when exploratory and creative attempts with effective cooperative learning among partners can be realized. Even so, not many companies have reported successful in building the cooperation. One case, providing clean, affordable drinking water to the poor in Tanzanian rural villages, suggests that a delegated and grassroots-based approach in cooperation with a highly trustworthy local partner can successfully promote cooperative learning and transfer know-how in both operations and management. This approach also stimulates local and self-initiated activities for expanding water facilities and generating local businesses in an area where employment is scarce. Deviation from mainstream-institution-based operations and management is one example of institutional interconnections that enable the rural poor to self-manage projects and stimulate self-initiated business activities, consequently contributing to rural development and sustainable development goals.
This chapter analyses conditions under which residents of a small Russian town accept the concepts “pollution” and “ecological risk.” The town in question is Sokol in the…
This chapter analyses conditions under which residents of a small Russian town accept the concepts “pollution” and “ecological risk.” The town in question is Sokol in the Vologda oblast of the Russian Federation, where there are two pulp and paper mills and other forest industries. Sokol is a typical small town with a population of about 40,000. The pulp and paper mills are locally run. The issues surrounding Sokol's pulp and paper mills generally present a typical Russian picture (Kuliasova & Kuliasov, 2002a, 2002b) with one major exception. Industrialization in Sokol goes back more than a century and thus reflects the broader history of the 20th century.
This paper aims to evaluate of the microalgae potential for commercial application, in particular to conduct experimental study of biogenic compounds removal from sewage…
This paper aims to evaluate of the microalgae potential for commercial application, in particular to conduct experimental study of biogenic compounds removal from sewage waters by microalgae, and to calculate economical benefits from biofertizers and biofuel production.
Experimental study in the concentration change of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the cultivation of Chlorella Vulgaris microalgae in various types of sewage water was carried out.
The efficiency wastewater treatment by microalgae was confirmed. The economic benefit from the biomass utilization as biofuel production was calculated.
Implementation of wastewater treatment technology with biomass recycling for biofuel and biofertilizers production will minimize the impact on the environment.
As a results of experimental studies, the ability of microalgae to reduce biogenic elements in wastewater was confirmed. Microalgae can be used both for wastewater treatment to biogenic elements removal, such as phosphorous and nitrogen compounds, and biofuel, biofertilizers production. Prospects of the commercial use of microalgae are obvious. They are specially adapted to an environment dominated by viscous forces.
The case features WaterHealth International India (WHIN) – a subsidiary of WaterHealth International (WHI) Inc. WHIN was launched in 2006 with the vision to “be the leader…
The case features WaterHealth International India (WHIN) – a subsidiary of WaterHealth International (WHI) Inc. WHIN was launched in 2006 with the vision to “be the leader in providing scalable, safe, and affordable water solutions to underserved populations through an innovative business model.” The company incorporated a Build-Operate-Transfer model with decentralized production and distribution. Following a successful pilot project, WHIN installed its WaterHealth Centers in 175 sites throughout rural India by 2009, and attracted a $15 million investment from the International Finance Corporation to further expand its operations in India. Mr Vikas Shah, the Chief Operating Officer of the company, is faced with the issue of assessing scalability and sustainability of the company's business model. He needs to examine and evaluate the company's value proposition, resources and capabilities, and decide how to generate economic value while maintaining a focus on its social vision. The latter entails an ability to create shared value for stakeholders as an important contributor toward the company's sustainability. Additionally, Mr Shah is evaluating alternative public-private partnerships in terms of their suitability for the Indian context and viability to drive profitability.
The case uses primary and secondary data, i.e. interviews with company representatives, company reports, presentations, and consulting papers.
Relevant courses and levels
The case is written for graduate (and advanced undergraduate) students that enroll in classes with a focus on emerging markets, sustainability, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Examples are courses in Entrepreneurship and Innovation (especially those that include one or more sessions on the social dimensions) as well as those in Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development.
The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must always be of such a nature that, while they give a certain degree and a certain kind of protection to the public, they can never be expected to supply a sufficiently real and effective insurance against adulteration and against the palming off of inferior goods, nor an adequate and satisfactory protection to the producer and vendor of superior articles. In this country, at any rate, legislation on the adulteration question has always been, and probably will always be of a somewhat weak and patchy character, with the defects inevitably resulting from more or less futile attempts to conciliate a variety of conflicting interests. The Bill as it stands, for instance, fails to deal in any way satisfactorily with the subject of preservatives, and, if passed in its present form, will give the force of law to the standards of Somerset House—standards which must of necessity be low and the general acceptance of which must tend to reduce the quality of foods and drugs to the same dead‐level of extreme inferiority. The ludicrous laissez faire report of the Beer Materials Committee—whose authors see no reason to interfere with the unrestricted sale of the products of the “ free mash tun,” or, more properly speaking, of the free adulteration tun—affords a further instance of what is to be expected at present and for many years to come as the result of governmental travail and official meditations. Public feeling is developing in reference to these matters. There is a growing demand for some system of effective insurance, official or non‐official, based on common‐sense and common honesty ; and it is on account of the plain necessity that the quibbles and futilities attaching to repressive legislation shall by some means be brushed aside that we have come to believe in the power and the value of the system of Control, and that we advocate its general acceptance. The attitude and the policy of the INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ADULTERATION, of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and of the BRITISH ANALYTICAL CONTROL, are in all respects identical with regard to adulteration questions; and in answer to the observations and suggestions which have been put forward since the introduction of the Control System in England, it may be well once more to state that nothing will meet with the approbation or support of the Control which is not pure, genuine, and good in the strictest sense of these terms. Those applicants and critics whom it may concern may with advantage take notice of the fact that under no circumstances will approval be given to such articles as substitute beers, separated milks, coppered vegetables, dyed sugars, foods treated with chemical preservatives, or, in fact, to any food or drug which cannot be regarded as in every respect free from any adulterant, and free from any suspicion of sophistication or inferiority. The supply of such articles as those referred to, which is left more or less unfettered by the cumbrous machinery of the law, as well as the sale of those adulterated goods with which the law can more easily deal, can only be adequately held in check by the application of a strong system of Control to justify approbation, providing, as this does, the only effective form of insurance which up to the present has been devised.
Urbanization is a mode of social progress in history. However, it repeats headway and fallback. In the lifetime of a person, he/she may watch only a certain phase of…
Urbanization is a mode of social progress in history. However, it repeats headway and fallback. In the lifetime of a person, he/she may watch only a certain phase of recovery from fallback as if it were a phase of progress. Such a social activity as evocation of sense of togetherness may seem to be so primitive that it might be practicable even in past communities. It is true of water quality issue of river and sea around us. Do you find the more innovative way that has never been seen? Otherwise, do you chant simply a slogan like “Clean the river more!”? Although water quality transition is merely a physical phenomenon, the community nearby may either worsen or improve the quality. The interaction between the quality transition and the action of community continues in a dynamic process. Community should progress, if possible, by managing the process appropriately. This chapter first illustrates a case of social remediation process for water quality issue of Horikawa river in Nagoya City, Japan. Then it considers the issues, concerns, activities, and moreover the relation of them over the water community. It finally refers to more strategic direction through simple mathematical formulation of social remediation process.
This paper aims to introduce two methods for immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a glass plate by means of silicon resin as a medium. Then, to ensure the effectiveness…
This paper aims to introduce two methods for immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a glass plate by means of silicon resin as a medium. Then, to ensure the effectiveness of these stabilisation methods, the photocatalytic degradation and mineralisation of the dye C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21), as a model organic pollutant, were compared using these immobilised systems and the suspended one utilizing UV and sunlight irradiations individually.
TiO2 nanoparticles were supported onto a glass support by silicon resin as an adhesion agent by spraying of TiO2 nanoparticles on the resin surface, which covered the glass plate or brushing the mixture of TiO2 and the resin onto the glass. The characteristics of the applied nano-TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer
Emmett–Teller. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralisation of C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) by two immobilised systems were compared with suspended system in a batch mode under UV and sunlight irradiations after 2 h of treatment.
The results showed that these immobilised modes had efficiencies, including 82-87 per cent degradation of RB21 and 52-58 per cent decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) for the operational time of 120 min, comparable to that of the suspended mode (91 per cent degradation of RB21 and, consequently, COD is decreased by 65 per cent). Comparison between photocatalytic efficiencies of two immobilised systems revealed that coating by spraying method performed better than brushing one due to more available surface area of TiO2. Finally, the results obtained from the mentioned supported systems under sunlight indicated the efficiencies about 87 to 89 per cent in comparison of the suspension system regardless of the reaction time enhancement up to 15 h compared to the UV irradiation.
In this research, the fixation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a substrate such as normal glass by an easy, inexpensive, durable, repairable and repeatable technique for wastewater treatment was introduced. Due to the simplicity and cheapness of these stabilisation methods and as these stabilisation methods are applicable on other substrates such as concrete, ceramics, etc., you can use these methods in major scales for purification of contaminated water, for example for stabilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on wall pool utilized for water purification can be used.
Two introduced immobilisation methods in this study are novel. The photocatalytic efficiency of these immobilised systems in degradation of water contaminants was investigated by using these systems in degradation and mineralisation of the dye C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21), as a model organic pollutant compared with same TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension system under UV light. Furthermore, this paper investigated replacing of inexpensive sources of UV light instead of UV lamps, and then the same photocatalytic reactions were carried out under sunlight as a UV source and degradation efficiencies by two UV sources were compared.
The study addresses the crucial issue of sustainable development goals (SDGs) and institutional voids in the peri-urban geographies of India. The peri-urban geographies…
The study addresses the crucial issue of sustainable development goals (SDGs) and institutional voids in the peri-urban geographies of India. The peri-urban geographies, though within a cosmopolitical city, lack basic amenities like drinking water, sanitation and waste management. We study social entrepreneurial strategies to address these issues and thereby illustrate strategies that could be used to address sustainable development goals.
The article uses a multiple case study method to understand how social enterprises can provide scalable solutions addressing SDG related issues in India.
The research found three strategies that can help provide scalable solutions: First, the extensive use of the latest digital technologies to decrease cost and increase reach; second, extensive partnerships across the board; and finally, a focus on social innovations and business models that are accessible, affordable, available and known to the end-users.
The research contributes to institutional voids literature, SDGs literature and scaling of social enterprise literature. The research confirms that institutional voids are entrepreneurial opportunities. The research empirically shows how social enterprises are addressing SDGs at BoP. Finally, the core findings of the article contribute to the scaling of social enterprise literature.