This chapter analyses conditions under which residents of a small Russian town accept the concepts “pollution” and “ecological risk.” The town in question is Sokol in the Vologda oblast of the Russian Federation, where there are two pulp and paper mills and other forest industries. Sokol is a typical small town with a population of about 40,000. The pulp and paper mills are locally run. The issues surrounding Sokol's pulp and paper mills generally present a typical Russian picture (Kuliasova & Kuliasov, 2002a, 2002b) with one major exception. Industrialization in Sokol goes back more than a century and thus reflects the broader history of the 20th century.
The case features WaterHealth International India (WHIN) – a subsidiary of WaterHealth International (WHI) Inc. WHIN was launched in 2006 with the vision to “be the leader…
The case features WaterHealth International India (WHIN) – a subsidiary of WaterHealth International (WHI) Inc. WHIN was launched in 2006 with the vision to “be the leader in providing scalable, safe, and affordable water solutions to underserved populations through an innovative business model.” The company incorporated a Build-Operate-Transfer model with decentralized production and distribution. Following a successful pilot project, WHIN installed its WaterHealth Centers in 175 sites throughout rural India by 2009, and attracted a $15 million investment from the International Finance Corporation to further expand its operations in India. Mr Vikas Shah, the Chief Operating Officer of the company, is faced with the issue of assessing scalability and sustainability of the company's business model. He needs to examine and evaluate the company's value proposition, resources and capabilities, and decide how to generate economic value while maintaining a focus on its social vision. The latter entails an ability to create shared value for stakeholders as an important contributor toward the company's sustainability. Additionally, Mr Shah is evaluating alternative public-private partnerships in terms of their suitability for the Indian context and viability to drive profitability.
The case uses primary and secondary data, i.e. interviews with company representatives, company reports, presentations, and consulting papers.
Relevant courses and levels
The case is written for graduate (and advanced undergraduate) students that enroll in classes with a focus on emerging markets, sustainability, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Examples are courses in Entrepreneurship and Innovation (especially those that include one or more sessions on the social dimensions) as well as those in Inclusive Growth and Sustainable Development.
The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must always be of such a nature that, while they give a certain degree and a certain kind of protection to the public, they can never be expected to supply a sufficiently real and effective insurance against adulteration and against the palming off of inferior goods, nor an adequate and satisfactory protection to the producer and vendor of superior articles. In this country, at any rate, legislation on the adulteration question has always been, and probably will always be of a somewhat weak and patchy character, with the defects inevitably resulting from more or less futile attempts to conciliate a variety of conflicting interests. The Bill as it stands, for instance, fails to deal in any way satisfactorily with the subject of preservatives, and, if passed in its present form, will give the force of law to the standards of Somerset House—standards which must of necessity be low and the general acceptance of which must tend to reduce the quality of foods and drugs to the same dead‐level of extreme inferiority. The ludicrous laissez faire report of the Beer Materials Committee—whose authors see no reason to interfere with the unrestricted sale of the products of the “ free mash tun,” or, more properly speaking, of the free adulteration tun—affords a further instance of what is to be expected at present and for many years to come as the result of governmental travail and official meditations. Public feeling is developing in reference to these matters. There is a growing demand for some system of effective insurance, official or non‐official, based on common‐sense and common honesty ; and it is on account of the plain necessity that the quibbles and futilities attaching to repressive legislation shall by some means be brushed aside that we have come to believe in the power and the value of the system of Control, and that we advocate its general acceptance. The attitude and the policy of the INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ADULTERATION, of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and of the BRITISH ANALYTICAL CONTROL, are in all respects identical with regard to adulteration questions; and in answer to the observations and suggestions which have been put forward since the introduction of the Control System in England, it may be well once more to state that nothing will meet with the approbation or support of the Control which is not pure, genuine, and good in the strictest sense of these terms. Those applicants and critics whom it may concern may with advantage take notice of the fact that under no circumstances will approval be given to such articles as substitute beers, separated milks, coppered vegetables, dyed sugars, foods treated with chemical preservatives, or, in fact, to any food or drug which cannot be regarded as in every respect free from any adulterant, and free from any suspicion of sophistication or inferiority. The supply of such articles as those referred to, which is left more or less unfettered by the cumbrous machinery of the law, as well as the sale of those adulterated goods with which the law can more easily deal, can only be adequately held in check by the application of a strong system of Control to justify approbation, providing, as this does, the only effective form of insurance which up to the present has been devised.
Urbanization is a mode of social progress in history. However, it repeats headway and fallback. In the lifetime of a person, he/she may watch only a certain phase of…
Urbanization is a mode of social progress in history. However, it repeats headway and fallback. In the lifetime of a person, he/she may watch only a certain phase of recovery from fallback as if it were a phase of progress. Such a social activity as evocation of sense of togetherness may seem to be so primitive that it might be practicable even in past communities. It is true of water quality issue of river and sea around us. Do you find the more innovative way that has never been seen? Otherwise, do you chant simply a slogan like “Clean the river more!”? Although water quality transition is merely a physical phenomenon, the community nearby may either worsen or improve the quality. The interaction between the quality transition and the action of community continues in a dynamic process. Community should progress, if possible, by managing the process appropriately. This chapter first illustrates a case of social remediation process for water quality issue of Horikawa river in Nagoya City, Japan. Then it considers the issues, concerns, activities, and moreover the relation of them over the water community. It finally refers to more strategic direction through simple mathematical formulation of social remediation process.
This paper aims to introduce two methods for immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a glass plate by means of silicon resin as a medium. Then, to ensure the effectiveness…
This paper aims to introduce two methods for immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a glass plate by means of silicon resin as a medium. Then, to ensure the effectiveness of these stabilisation methods, the photocatalytic degradation and mineralisation of the dye C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21), as a model organic pollutant, were compared using these immobilised systems and the suspended one utilizing UV and sunlight irradiations individually.
TiO2 nanoparticles were supported onto a glass support by silicon resin as an adhesion agent by spraying of TiO2 nanoparticles on the resin surface, which covered the glass plate or brushing the mixture of TiO2 and the resin onto the glass. The characteristics of the applied nano-TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer
Emmett–Teller. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralisation of C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) by two immobilised systems were compared with suspended system in a batch mode under UV and sunlight irradiations after 2 h of treatment.
The results showed that these immobilised modes had efficiencies, including 82-87 per cent degradation of RB21 and 52-58 per cent decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) for the operational time of 120 min, comparable to that of the suspended mode (91 per cent degradation of RB21 and, consequently, COD is decreased by 65 per cent). Comparison between photocatalytic efficiencies of two immobilised systems revealed that coating by spraying method performed better than brushing one due to more available surface area of TiO2. Finally, the results obtained from the mentioned supported systems under sunlight indicated the efficiencies about 87 to 89 per cent in comparison of the suspension system regardless of the reaction time enhancement up to 15 h compared to the UV irradiation.
In this research, the fixation of TiO2 nanoparticles on a substrate such as normal glass by an easy, inexpensive, durable, repairable and repeatable technique for wastewater treatment was introduced. Due to the simplicity and cheapness of these stabilisation methods and as these stabilisation methods are applicable on other substrates such as concrete, ceramics, etc., you can use these methods in major scales for purification of contaminated water, for example for stabilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on wall pool utilized for water purification can be used.
Two introduced immobilisation methods in this study are novel. The photocatalytic efficiency of these immobilised systems in degradation of water contaminants was investigated by using these systems in degradation and mineralisation of the dye C.I. Reactive Blue 21 (RB21), as a model organic pollutant compared with same TiO2 nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension system under UV light. Furthermore, this paper investigated replacing of inexpensive sources of UV light instead of UV lamps, and then the same photocatalytic reactions were carried out under sunlight as a UV source and degradation efficiencies by two UV sources were compared.
This paper uses the input‐output methodology in order to study the water pollution associated with an economic system, through an examination of the productive…
This paper uses the input‐output methodology in order to study the water pollution associated with an economic system, through an examination of the productive relationships which link the different sectors and their involvement in the water pollution that is generated. The indicators associated with the demand models are obtained on the basis of the construction of primary pollution and return matrices. In a second stage, an analysis is made of the trade‐offs between economic and environmental variables, as a way of linking the variables to be taken into account for the purposes of environmental planning. The empirical application is made for the regions of the Ebro Valley (Spain). The results show the importance of considering the responsibility of the agriculture, livestock and food sectors for the coherent treatment of the water pollution problem.
The new campus of Tianjin University was designed, built and now operates following a green and sustainable concept. The campus’ eco-friendly water environment was formed…
The new campus of Tianjin University was designed, built and now operates following a green and sustainable concept. The campus’ eco-friendly water environment was formed by establishing a water recycling system. The campus is divided into three drainage sections based on the masterplan. Each drainage section adopts different methods of collecting, utilizing and discharging water according to specific conditions, aimed at achieving both high drainage capability and the efficient utilisation of rainwater. The campus was designed so runoff pollution is reduced through the utilisation of low-impact development methods, ensuring the quality of the recharge water. Through studying the fundamentals of treatment measures and models for simulating water quality, water circulation, constructed wetlands and pollution control of rain runoff, parameters for efficient water recycling could be mathematically forecast, ensuring that stakeholders can be continuously engaged in improving and preserving the water quality of landscaped water on campus. The overall system integrates a variety of measures being implemented into one cohesive entity, which contributes to establishing the sustainable and healthy water cycling system of the green campus.
Development of high efficiency nanofibrous air filter membrane by electrospinning process, to address the air pollution (both the particulate matter and the gaseous…
Development of high efficiency nanofibrous air filter membrane by electrospinning process, to address the air pollution (both the particulate matter and the gaseous components) problem, which has become a major environmental concern.
By exploiting the advantage of active sites on soy protein isolate (SPI), the very high surface area of micro-pore rich activated carbon (AC) and the biocompatibility and biodegradable nature of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The authors have developed a SPI/AC/PVA hybrid membrane. Spun-bond nonwoven substrate was used as the support material to enhance the mechanical properties and also the filter handling properties. The properties of nanofibrous membrane including morphology, air permeability, filtration efficiency and formaldehyde absorption test were carried out as per standard test methods.
SPI-based membrane offers a great potential in air filtration/purification applications. Its potential to capture glancing pollutants at the molecular level is because of the presence of numerous functional groups on the soy protein surface, which enhances the adsorption of particulate matter and toxic gases, even bacteria and viruses to its surface.
The results are anticipated to provide a potential method to promote the development of a nanofibrous membrane, which can act as a high performance, dual function and eco-friendly air filter/purifier.